Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Discussion Paper: The Criminal Justice Response to Slavery and People Trafficking; Reparation; and Vulnerable Witness Protections, 2011, p. 8.

[2]        AGD, Discussion Paper: The Criminal Justice Response to Slavery and People Trafficking; Reparation; and Vulnerable Witness Protections, 2011, p. 9.

[3]        Crimes Legislation Amendment (Slavery, Slavery-like Conditions and People Trafficking) Act 2013 and Crimes Legislation Amendment (Law Enforcement Integrity, Vulnerable Witness Protection and Other Measures) Act 2013.

[4]        AGD, Human trafficking and slavery legislation, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/HumanTrafficking/Pages/Human-trafficking-legislation.aspx (accessed 6 April 2017). 

[5]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.1.

[6]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.1A.

[7]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.1A.

[8]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.6.

[9]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.7.

[10]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.7A.

[11]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.4.

[12]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.1A.

[13]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.1.

[14]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.1A.

[15]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.3A.

[16]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.9.

[17]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.2, s. 271.5. 

[18]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.5, s. 271.6, s. 271.7 (trafficking in children), s. 271.7D and s. 271.7E (organ trafficking). 

[19]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.7A to s. 271.7E.

[20]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.4 and s. 271.7.

[21]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.7F, s. 271.7G.

[22]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.8, s.271.9.

[23]      Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, 28 July 2014, UN GAOR 69th sess, Item 69(b) of the provisional agenda, UN Doc A/69/33797, p. 6.

[24]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, pp 7–8.

[25]      Department of State (USA), Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2016, p. 3.

[26]      Department of State (USA), Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2016, p. 36. That is, the standards set out in the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.

[27]      Department of State (USA), Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2016, p. 80.

[28]      Mr Benjamin Smith, Regional Programme Coordinator, Human Trafficking/Smuggling of Migrants, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 46.

Chapter 2 - Legal and policy framework

[1]        Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 4.

[2]        Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Submission 17, p. 2.

[3]        AGD, Submission 17, p. 2.

[4]        Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 4.

[5]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 19.

[6]        Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 4, p. 7. A range of other initiatives are set out in this report at pp 4–5.

[7]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 21.

[8]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 21.

[9]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 18.

[10]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 18.

[11]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, pp 19–20.

[12]      Professor Jennifer Burn, Director, Anti-Slavery Australia (ASA), University of Technology Sydney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 14.

[13]      See, for example, Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Submission 23, pp 6–7; ASA, Submission 9, p. 30. 

[14]      The Salvation Army—Freedom Partnership to End Modern Slavery (The Salvation Army), Submission 14, p. 12.

[15]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 12.

[16]      The Echo Project, Submission 28, p. 6.

[17]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Social Justice, Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania (UCA), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 40.

[18]      Law Council of Australia (LCA), Submission 21, p. 8.

[19]      LCA, Submission 21, p. 8.

[20]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 12.

[21]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 7.

[22]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 7.

[23]      Slavery Links Australia Inc (Slavery Links), Submission 15, p. 7.

[24]      Nordic Model Australian Coalition, Submission 22, p. 12. This was also the position of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Australia (CATWA): Submission 3, p. 7.

[25]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 26.

[26]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 35.

[27]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 46.

[28]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 59.

[29]      See, for example, Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p.6, where it is noted that 'Australia is primarily a destination country for human trafficking and slavery, with the majority of trafficked people identified by Australian authorities to date being women from Asia who have been exploited within the sex work industry'.

[30]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 22.

[31]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 22.

[32]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 11.

[33]      See, for example, The Salvation Army, Submission 14, pp 14–15, discussing the AFP's response to forced marriage in particular; The Echo Project, Submission 28, p. 6; Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 15.

[34]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 12.

[35]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[36]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 22.

[37]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[38]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[39]      AGD, answer to question taken on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 23 June 2017), p. 1.

[40]      AGD, answer to question taken on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 23 June 2017), p. 1.

[41]      Ms Catherine Hawkins, First Assistant Secretary, Criminal Justice Policy and Programme Division, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 3. 

[42]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 25.

[43]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 25.

[44]      Mr Alan Murnane, General Manager, Inner South Community Health Service Ltd (ISCH), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 2.

[45]      Dr Caroline Norma, Consultant, Collective Shout, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 6.

[46]      Dr Zirnsak, UCA, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 42.

[47]      Ms Christine Carolan, Executive Officer, Australian Catholic Religious Against Trafficking in Humans (ACRATH), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 20.

[48]      Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 18.

[49]      AGD, answer to question taken on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 23 June 2017), p. 1.

[50]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 6.

[51]      Ms Hawkins, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 4. 

[52]      Ms Hawkins, AGD and Commander Lesa Gale, Manager, Victim Based Crime, Australian Federal Police (AFP), Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp 8-9. 

[53]      Ms Fiona McLeod SC, President, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 4.

[54]      Commander Gale, AFP, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 5. 

[55]      Commander Gale, AFP, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 5. 

[56]      Mr Peter Richards, Acting First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp 4–5. 

[57]      Mr Richards, DIBP, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 5. 

[58]      See, for example, LCA, Submission 21, p. 7; Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 18.

[59]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 6.

[60]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 11.

[61]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, pp 30–31.

[62]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 31.

[63]      Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, pp 15–16.

[64]      Commander Gale, AFP, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 9.

[65]      Commander Gale, AFP, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 11.

[66]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 21.

[67]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 5.

[68]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 5.

[69]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 21.

[70]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2011–30 June 2012, 2016, p. 19.

[71]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 22.

[72]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 22.

[73]      Parliament of New South Wales, Legislative Council Select Committee on human trafficking in New South Wales, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/committees/listofcommittees/Pages/committee-details.aspx?pk=250#tab-termsofreference (accessed 19 June 2017).

[74]      Legislative Council Select Committee on human trafficking in New South Wales, Ms Linda Jane Howlett, Detective Superintendent, State Crime Command, Sex Crimes Squad, NSW Police, Committee Hansard, 6 March 2017, p. 10.

[75]      Legislative Council Select Committee on human trafficking in New South Wales, Detective Superintendent Howlett, NSW Police, Committee Hansard, 6 March 2017, p. 11.

[76]      Legislative Council Select Committee on human trafficking in New South Wales, Detective Superintendent Howlett, NSW Police, Committee Hansard, 6 March 2017, p. 11.

[77]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 6.

[78]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 6.

[79]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 7.

[80]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 9.

[81]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 11.

[82]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 13.

[83]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 15.

[84]      Commonwealth of Australia, Amplifying Our Impact: Australia’s International Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery, 23 March 2016, p. 16.

[85]      ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 10.

[86]      LCA, Submission 21, p. 12.

[87]      LCA, Submission 21, p. 8.

[88]      Ms Kimberly Randle, Director, Corporate and Legal, International Justice Mission Australia (IJM), Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 10.

[89]      Mr Jeremy Douglas, Regional Representative, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 46.

[90]      Ms Hawkins, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 2.

[91]      See, for example, Walk Free Foundation, Submission 29, p. 4; IJM, Submission 31, pp 24–25; and UCA, Submission 33, p. 2. 

[92]      See, for example, Most Reverend Terence John Brady, Chair, Bishops Commission for Pastoral Life, Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 40.

[93]      Foreign Affairs and Aid Sub-Committee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, Inquiry into establishing a Modern Slavery Act in Australia, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Foreign_Affairs_Defence_and_Trade/ModernSlavery (accessed 16 June 2017).

[94]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 8.

[95]      AGD, Submission 17, pp 8–9.

[96]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 10.

[97]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 10.

[98]      See, for example, Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 6; The Salvation Army, Submission 25.1, p. 8.

[99]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 23.

[100]    ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 8.

[101]    ASA, Submission 9, p. 25.

[102]    ASA, Submission 9, p. 24.

[103]    See, for example, The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 10, p. 15; The Echo Project, Submission 28, p. 5.

[104]    Dr Zirnsak, UCA, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 40.

[105]    The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 22.

[106]    Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, pp 14–15.

[107]    Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 19.

[108]    Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 19.

[109]    For example, The Salvation Army recommended that the government 'Remove the requirement to cooperate with law enforcement for victims of trafficking. As a minimum, remove the requirement for victims of child and forced marriage and for all children' – see: The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 7.

[110]    See, for example, CATWA, Submission 3, p. 3; The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 4; AHRC, Submission 23, p. 5.

[111]    ASA, Submission 27, Additional Information; LCA, Submission 32, Additional Information.

[112]    Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Trading Lives: Modern Day Human Trafficking, June 2013, Recommendation 6; Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, 28 July 2014, UN GAOR 69th sess, Item 69(b) of the provisional agenda, UN Doc A/69/33797, Recommendation 82(g).

[113]    Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 17.

[114]    Ms McLeod SC, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 3.

[115]    Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 17.

[116]    Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 15.

[117]    Ms Hawkins, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 6.

[118]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 4.

[119]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 4.

[120]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 6.

[121]    Crimes Act 1914, s. 21B.

[122]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 8.

[123]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 8 (footnotes omitted).

[124]    ASA and LCA, Report on Establishing a National Compensation Scheme for Victims of Commonwealth Crime, 2016, p. 8 (footnotes omitted).

[125]    See, for example, LCA, Submission 21, p. 6; ASA, Submission 9, p. 4; The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 4; ACRATH, Submission 26, p. 8.

[126]    Mr Robert Charles Evans, Former Chair, Slavery Links, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 26.

[127]    ASA, Submission 9, p. 5.

[128]    ASA, Submission 9, p. 5.

[129]    ASA, Submission 9, pp 6–7.

[130]    See, for example, LCA, Submission 21, p. 6; ASA, Submission 9, p. 4; The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 4; ACRATH, Submission 26, p. 8 p; Mr Evans, Slavery Links, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 27.

[131]    Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 18.

[132]    ASA, Submission 9, p. 8 (footnotes omitted).

[133]    LCA, Submission 21, p. 12.

[134]    Ms McLeod SC, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 2.

[135]    Dr Zirnsak, UCA, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 40.

[136]    Ms Hawkins, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 13.

[137]    Ms Hawkins, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 13.

[138]    Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 76.

[139]    Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 76.

Chapter 3 - Slavery and forced labour

[1]        Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. iv.

[2]        See, for example, Anti-Slavery Australia (ASA), Submission 9, p. 33; Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania (UCA), Submission 33, p. 1; Ms Fiona McLeod SC, President, Law Council of Australia (LCA), Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 6.

[3]        Department of Employment (DOE), Seasonal Worker Programme Deed of Agreement, https://docs.employment.gov.au/documents/seasonal-worker-programme-deed-agreement (accessed 7 July 2017); DOE, SWP Implementation Arrangements – effective 1 August 2015, https://docs.employment.gov.au/documents/swp-implementation-arrangements-effective-1-august-2015 (accessed 7 July 2017).

[4]        Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Seasonal change: Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, May 2016, Appendix D, p. 12.

[5]        Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Seasonal change: Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, May 2016, Appendix D, pp 12–13.

[6]        Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Seasonal change: Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, May 2016, Appendix D, p. 13.

[7]        Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment, A National Disgrace: The Exploitation of Temporary Work Visa Holders, March 2016, p. 273.

[8]        Ms McLeod SC, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 1.

[9]        Ms McLeod SC, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 6.

[10]      The Salvation Army—Freedom Partnership to End Modern Slavery (The Salvation Army), Submission 14, p. 7.

[11]      Professor Jennifer Burn, Director, Anti-Slavery Australia (ASA), University of Technology Sydney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 16.

[12]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Social Justice, UCA, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 41.

[13]      Dr Zirnsak, UCA, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 41.

[14]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 17.

[15]      Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Submission 17, p. 2.

[16]      LCA, Submission 21, p. 19.

[17]      LCA, Submission 21, p. 6.

[18]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 19.

[19]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 2.

[20]      Unions WA, Submission 13, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[21]      Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment, A National Disgrace: The Exploitation of Temporary Work Visa Holders, March 2016.

[22]      See, for example, The Salvation Army, Submission 14, pp 23–24; Ms Christine Carolan, Executive Officer, Australian Catholic Religious Against Trafficking in Humans (ACRATH), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 17.

[23]      See, for example: ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 5; Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Submission 23, p. 5; UCA, Submission 33, p. 1.

[24]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 16.

[25]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 17.

[26]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 17.

[27]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 16.

[28]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 1.

[29]      Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Seasonal change: Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, May 2016.

[30]       Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Seasonal change: Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, May 2016.

[31]      Commonwealth of Australia, Australian Government response to the Joint Standing Committee on Migration report: Seasonal change Inquiry into the Seasonal Worker Programme, February 2017, p. 10.

[32]      Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment, A National Disgrace: The Exploitation of Temporary Work Visa Holders, March 2016.

[33]      Ms McLeod SC, LCA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 2.

[34]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 11.

[35]      See, for example, ASA, Submission 9, p. 41; Slavery Links Australia Inc, Submission 15, pp 22–27; ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 8; Most Reverend Terence John Brady, Chair, Bishops Commission for Pastoral Life, Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 40.

[36]      International Justice Mission Australia (IJM), Submission 31, p. 24 (citations omitted).

[37]      IJM, Submission 31, pp 2–3.

[38]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 12.

[39]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 5.

[40]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 20.

[41]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 20.

[42]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 20.

[43]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 21.      

[44]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 22.

[45]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 22.

[46]      UCA, Submission 33, p. 22.

[47]      European Coalition for Corporate Justice, French Corporate Duty of Vigilance Law: Frequently Asked Questions, http://corporatejustice.org/documents/publications/french-corporate-duty-of-vigilance-law-faq.pdf (accessed 7 July 2017), p. 1.

[48]      AGD, Australia's response to human trafficking, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/HumanTrafficking/Pages/Australias-response-to-human-trafficking.aspx (accessed 21 June 2017).

[49]      Ms Catherine Hawkins, First Assistant Secretary, Criminal Justice Policy and Programmes Division, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 2.

Chapter 4 - Sexual servitude

[1]        Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20

[2]        Attorney-General's Department (AGD), answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 12.

[3]        Ms Jules Kim, Chief Executive Officer, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 32.

[4]        Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 34.

[5]        Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, pp 35–36.

[6]        Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 33.

[7]        Ms Jane Green, Spokesperson, Vixen Collective, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 33.

[8]        Dr Caroline Norma, Consultant, Collective Shout, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, pp 2–3.

[9]        Dr Norma, Collective Shout, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 3.

[10]      Collective Shout, Submission 1, pp 2–3.

[11]      Mr Jeremy Douglas, Regional Representative, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 45.

[12]      Mr Benjamin Smith, Regional Programme Coordinator, Human Trafficking/Smuggling of Migrants, UNODC, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 45.

[13]      Dr Meagan Tyler, Member of the Executive Committee, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women in Australia (CATWA), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p 14.

[14]      Inner South Community Health Service Ltd (ISCH), Submission 12, p. 2.

[15]      Mr Alan Murnane, General Manager, ISCH, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 2.

[16]      CATWA, Submission 3, p. 8.

[17]      Nordic Model Australian Coalition, Submission 22, p. 3.

[18]      Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[19]      Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[20]      Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 34.

[21]      Dr Norma, Collective Shout, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 2.

[22]      See, for example, The Nordic Model Australia Coalition, Submission 22, p. 1; Mr Peter Abetz MP, Submission 19, p. 10. 

[23]      Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Australia, Submission 3, p. 4.

[24]      Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 30.

[25]      Ms Kim, Scarlet Alliance, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, pp 30–31.

[26]      Ms Green, Vixen Collective, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 32.

[27]      See, for example, Sex Workers Outreach Project, Submission 2, p. 3; Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 4; Vixen Collective, Submission 20, p. 4; ISCH, Submission 12, p. 4. 

[28]      Vixen Collective, Submission 20, p. 7.

[29]      Vixen Collective, Submission 20, p. 8.

[30]      ISCH, Submission 12, p. 4, citing Policy to Protect the Human Rights of Sex Workers, 2015.

[31]      Collective Shout, Submission 24, p. 2.

[32]      Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 9.

[33]      Scarlet Alliance, Submission 5, p. 19.

[34]      ISCH, Submission 12, p. 3.

[35]      ISCH, Submission 12, p. 3–4.

[36]      International Justice Mission Australia (IJM), Submission 31, p. 1.

[37]      Ms Kimberly Randle, Director, Corporate and Legal, IJM, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 7.

[38]      Ms Randle, IJM, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 7.

[39]      IJM, Submission 31, p. 2.

[40]      IJM, Submission 31, p. 2.

[41]      IJM, Submission 31, p. 9 (citations omitted). Section 474.26 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 addresses using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age, and section 474.27 addresses using a carriage service to ‘groom’ persons under 16 years of age.

[42]      IJM, Submission 31, p. 2.

[43]      For those recommendations, see: IJM, Submission 31, p. 2.

[44]      IJM, Submission 31, p. 2.

[45]      Mr Smith, UNODC, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 47.

[46]      Mr Douglas, UNODC, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 47.

Chapter 5 - Forced marriage

[1]        The offences of forced labour, organ trafficking and harbouring a victim were also introduced, and amendments were also made to the Crimes Act 1914, the Migration Act 1958, the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

[2]        Crimes Legislation Amendment (Slavery, Slavery-like Conditions and People Trafficking) Act 2013 and Crimes Legislation Amendment (Law Enforcement Integrity, Vulnerable Witness Protection and Other Measures) Act 2013.

[3]        Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Human trafficking and slavery legislation, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/HumanTrafficking/Pages/Human-trafficking-legislation.aspx (accessed 6 April 2017). 

[4]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 270.7B. 

[5]        Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 271.4.

[6]        Professor Jennifer Burn, Director, Anti-Slavery Australia (ASA), University of Technology Sydney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 19.

[7]        Pursuant to the definition of 'aggravated offences' at s. 270.8 of the Criminal Code Act 1995.

[8]        The Salvation Army—Freedom Partnership to End Modern Slavery (The Salvation Army), Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[9]        Mr Benjamin Smith, Regional Programme Coordinator, Human Trafficking/Smuggling of Migrants, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 46.

[10]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[11]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[12]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[13]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 2.

[14]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 3.

[15]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 20.

[16]      The Salvation Army, Submission 14, p. 3.

[17]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 22.

[18]      Commonwealth of Australia, Trafficking in Persons: The Australian Government Response 1 July 2015–30 June 2016, 2016, p. 23.

[19]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, pp 19–20. The other key areas of focus are: monitoring of the 2013 legislative reforms; awareness-raising and education; exploitation in supply chains; operational protocol for minors; strengthening connectedness with States and Territories; and international and regional leadership.

[20]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery 2015–19, 2014, p. 19.

[21]      Australian Catholic Religious Against Trafficking in Humans (ACRATH), Submission 18, p. 8.

[22]      ASA, Submission 27, p. 15.

[23]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 29.

[24]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 29.

[25]      Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Submission 23, p. 10.

[26]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 10.

[27]      AHRC, Submission 23, p. 10.

[28]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 6.

[29]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 6.

[30]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 6.

[31]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 7. This was also discussed by ASA in its submission, made prior to the implementation of the existing watch lists in October 2016: ASA, Submission 9, p. 30.

[32]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 7.

[33]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 8.

[34]      AGD, answers to written questions on notice, 12 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 25.

[35]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 8.

[36]      AGD, Submission 17, p. 13.

[37]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 28.

[38]      ASA, Submission 27, p. 15.

[39]      ASA, Submission 27, p. 15.

[40]      Professor Burn, ASA, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 18.

[41]      ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 6.

[42]      Ms Christine Carolan, Executive Officer, ACRATH, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 22.

[43]      Ms Carolan, ACRATH, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017,   pp 22–24.

[44]      ACRATH, Submission 26, p. 4.

[45]      ACRATH, Submission 18, p. 8.

[46]      See, for example, ACRATH, Submission 26, pp 2–4; Ms Laura Vidal, National Projects Coordinator, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 28.

[47]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 5.

[48]      Ms Catherine Hawkins, First Assistant Secretary, Criminal Justice Policy and Programmes Division, AGD, Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 6.

[49]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 29.

[50]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 29.

[51]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 14.

[52]      The Salvation Army, Submission 25, p. 14.

[53]      Ms Vidal, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 28.

[54]      Ms Vidal, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 28.

[55]      Dr Margot Clifford, Director of CALD and Indigenous Women’s Safety, Family Safety Taskforce, Department of Social Services (DSS), Committee Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 8.

[56]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 3–4.

[57]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 4.

[58]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 4.

[59]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 5.

[60]      AGD, answers to questions on notice, 10 May 2017 (received 26 June 2017), p. 5.

[61]      Ms Carolan, ACRATH, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 18.

[62]      Ms Carolan, ACRATH, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 18.

[63]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, pp 6–7.

[64]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 7.

[65]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 8.

[66]      The Salvation Army, Supplementary submission 25.1, p. 8.

[67]      Ms Vidal, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 25.

[68]      ASA, Submission 9, p. 30.

Additional comments from the Nick Xenophon Team

[1]        International Justice Mission, Submission 31, p. 2.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 47.

[3]        Mr Benjamin Smith, Regional Programme Coordinator, Human Trafficking/Smuggling of Migrants, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2017, p. 47.

[4]        International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 8.

[5]        International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 13. 

[6]        International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 12. 

[7]        Ms Kimberly Randle, Director, Corporate and Legal, International Justice Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 11. 

[8]        Mr Alex McDonald, ‘Are telcos doing enough to help combat child sexual abuse overseas?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, broadcast 26 June 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2017/s4692124.htm (accessed 17 July 2017).  

[9]        International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 14.

[10]      International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 15. 

[11]      International Justice Mission Australia, Submission 31, p. 17. 

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