Appendix 3

Back to contents

  

  1. Darling Downs 1901—The first by-election, which followed the death of William Henry Groom, was won by his son, Littleton Ernest Groom.
  2. Tasmania 1902—This was caused by the death of Frederick Piesse. This has been the only by-election held at-large, due to the first Tasmanian members being elected from the state as a whole rather than from individual electorates.
  3. East Sydney 1903—The sitting member, Sir George Reid, resigned in protest against the proposals for the redistribution of New South Wales divisions, forcing the by-election. Reid won the resulting by-election.
  4. Wilmot 1904—Former Tasmanian Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Edward Braddon, remains the oldest person elected to the House of Representatives. He was 71 when first elected and 74 when he died, forcing this by-election.
  5. Melbourne 1904—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.
  6. Riverina 1904—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.
  7. Echuca 1907—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials. The Opposition did not contest the seat.
  8. Adelaide 1908—Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Charles Cameron Kingston.
  9. Wakefield 1909—Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Frederick Holder.
  10. Kooyong 1910—The winner of this by-election, Sir Robert Best, had been a Senator during the first decade until his defeat in 1910.
  11. Batman 1911—Well-known lawyer, Frank Brennan, won this seat for the Labor Party.
  12. North Sydney 1911—Major-General Sir Granville Ryrie, who had seen military service in South Africa, at Gallipoli and in Egypt, won this seat for the Liberal Party.
  13. Boothby 1911—The Fisher Labor Government lost this seat to the Liberal Party, but regained it at the 1913 general election.
  14. Werriwa 1912—David Robert Hall resigned to take up an appointment to the New South Wales Legislative Council.
  15. Kalgoorlie 1913—The first by-election for which there was just a single nomination.
  16. Adelaide 1914—The winner of this by-election, George Yates, soon left Australia to serve in the World War, though he retained his seat while he did so.
  17. Bendigo 1915—This by-election was caused by the death of the Minister for External Affairs, John Arthur.
  18. Grampians 1915—Sir Charles Salmon, second Speaker of the House of Representatives (1909-10) returned to the Parliament at this by-election.
  19. Dalley 1915—The death of Robert Howe, first secretary of the Labor Federation of Australia caused this by-election. Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.
  20. Wide Bay 1915—Former Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, resigned to take up an appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain. The Labor Party lost the seat, which it did not win back until 1961.
  21. Darwin 1917—Former Tasmanian MHA, Charles Howroyd, died five days after winning the seat at the 1917 general election. 22.       
  22. Grampians 1917—Sir Charles Salmon's death caused this by-election. He was replaced by Edmund Jowett, later elected first deputy leader of the Country Party.
  23. Flinders 1918—Upon the appointment of Sir William Irvine as Chief Justice of the Victorian Supreme Court, the by-election for his seat saw the victory of future Prime Minister Stanley Bruce.
  24. Swan 1918—By-election caused by the death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir John Forrest. The Nationalist Party failed to hold the seat, though it won it back at the 1919 general election.
  25. Corangamite 1918—This by-election saw the first use of preferential voting for a House election of any type. The Victorian Farmers' Union won the seat from the Nationalists. The defeated Labor candidate was future Prime Minister, James Scullin.
  26. Echuca 1919—This seat was also won by the Victorian Farmers' Union from the Nationalists. Not contested by the Opposition.
  27. Ballaarat 1920—In the 1919 general election, Edwin Kerby had defeated sitting member David McGrath by a single vote. Upon challenge, a Court of Disputed Returns declared void the general election result on the ground of irregularities by electoral officials. McGrath won the resulting by-election.
  28. Kalgoorlie 1920—Labor's Hugh Mahon remains the only member or senator to be expelled. The Labor Party failed to hold the seat in this by-election, though it won it back at the 1922 general election.
  29. Maranoa 1921—The Country Party won its first by-election taking the seat from the Labor Party.
  30. West Sydney 1921—Former Queensland Premier, Thomas Ryan, had been invited by the ALP Conference to contest this New South Wales division at the 1919 general election. Less than two years later he died causing this by-election.
  31. Parramatta 1921—Former Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Cook, caused the by-election by accepting appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.
  32. Yarra 1922—By-election caused by the death of the Labor Leader of the Opposition, Frank Tudor. The by-election was won by future Prime Minister, James Scullin.
  33. Eden-Monaro 1926—This by-election was caused by the death of Sir Austin Chapman, former Minister for Defence, Postmaster-General and Minister for Trade and Customs.
  34. Dalley 1927—By-election won by former Queensland Premier, Edward Theodore.
  35. Warringah 1927—By-election caused by the resignation of Sir Granville Ryrie to accept the position of Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.
  36. Martin 1928—Frederick Pratten replaced his uncle, the late Herbert Pratten, in this by-election.
  37. Wide Bay 1928—By-election in which Bernard Corser (CP) replaced his father Edward Corser (Nat). Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.
  38. Balaclava 1929—By-election to replace William Watt, former Victorian Premier, Commonwealth Treasurer and Speaker. His replacement was (Sir) Thomas White, son-in-law of Alfred Deakin and later a Menzies Government minister. Not contested by the Opposition.
  39. Franklin 1929—By-election caused by death of the independent William McWilliams, previously the first parliamentary leader of the Country Party. His replacement, Charles Frost, was later a minister under both Prime Ministers Curtin and Chifley.
  40. Parkes 1931—By-election caused by the appointment of Edward McTiernan to the High Court.
  41. East Sydney 1931—By-election won by Edward Ward for the ALP. Ward lost the seat to John Clasby (UAP) at the 1932 general election.
  42. East Sydney 1932—Sitting member John Clasby (UAP) died before taking his seat and former member Edward Ward won the by-election, now as a Lang Labor candidate. Ward is the only person to win two by-elections.
  43. Flinders 1933—Former Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, caused the by-election when he was appointed Resident Minister in England.
  44. Newcastle 1935—By-election at which David Oliver Watkins replaced his father, David Watkins.
  45. Fawkner 1935—By-election won by future Prime Minister, Harold Holt, for the UAP.
  46. Kennedy 1936—By-election at which David Riordan replaced his uncle, William Riordan.
  47. Darling Downs 1936—By-election won by future Prime Minister and Country Party leader, Arthur Fadden, for the Country Party.
  48. Gwydir 1937—By-election following the appointment of Charles Abbott to the position of Administrator of the Northern Territory. Three Country Party candidates nominated.
  49. Wakefield 1938—By-election at which the ALP won the seat from the UAP, following the death of Charles Hawker in a plane crash. The UAP retained the seat at the 1940 general election.
  50. Griffith 1939—By-election following death of Francis Baker.
  51. Wilmot 1939—By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister, Joseph Lyons. The field included three UAP and two ALP candidates. The ALP won the seat from the UAP, but lost it in the 1940 general election.
  52. Corio 1940—John Dedman (ALP) won this seat from the UAP after Richard Casey was appointed Australian Ambassador to the United States of America.
  53. Kalgoorlie 1940—By-election caused by the death of former Minister for Defence, Albert Green.
  54. Swan 1940—By-election won by former Senator Thomas Marwick.
  55. Boothby 1941—By-election won by (Sir) Archie Price, Master of St Mark's College, University of Adelaide, and noted Australian geographer.
  56. Fremantle 1945—By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister, John Curtin. The by-election was won by Kim Beazley senior.
  57. Wimmera 1946—After a battle between seven contenders, including two from the Country Party and one described as 'Independent Country Party', (Sir) Winton Turnbull narrowly won this by-election.
  58. Henty 1946—By-election to replace Arther Coles, former managing director of GJ Coles & Co., Lord Mayor of Melbourne and independent, who had shared the balance of power after the 1941 election with Alex Wilson. This was the first by-election won by the re-formed Liberal Party. It was won by Henry Gullett, son of Sir Henry who had held the seat between 1925 and 1940.
  59. Balaclava 1951—Percy Joske retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of Thomas White as High Commissioner in London.
  60. Macquarie 1951—By-election held following the death of the former Prime Minister, Ben Chifley. The ALP retained the seat despite a small (0.4 per cent) swing to the LP/CP Coalition Government.
  61. Lyne 1952—The Country Party, which stood two candidates in this by-election, retained the seat (Phil Lucock successful candidate) despite a large swing to the ALP (8.8 per cent).
  62. Flinders 1952—The Liberal Party lost the seat to the ALP as the result of a large (11.0 per cent) swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government. The successful candidate, Keith Ewert, lost the seat at the next general election.
  63. Werriwa 1952—The ALP achieved its largest by-election swing in the post-war period (12.4 per cent) at this by-election. The successful ALP candidate was future Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.
  64. Bradfield 1952—No ALP candidate contested this safe Liberal seat, previously held by former Prime Minister and longest serving member of the House of Representatives, William ‘Billy’ Hughes.
  65. Dalley 1953—The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for the ALP by Arthur Greenup.
  66. Corangamite 1953—Ewen Mackinnon retained this seat for the Liberal Party despite a 6.5 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.
  67. Lang 1953—Frederick Stewart retained this seat for the ALP following the death of Daniel Mulcahy.
  68. Gwydir 1953—Two Country Party candidates contested this by-election together with candidates from the ALP and Liberal Party. The seat was won by the Country Party's Archibald Allan.
  69. Cook 1955—The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for Labor by Jim Cope. Typically of inner-city electorates there was a low voter turnout (76.0 per cent) at this by-election.
  70. Cunningham 1956—Victor Kearney retained this safe seat for the ALP, in the only uncontested by-election since the Second World War.
  71. Barker 1956—Following the death of long-term member and Speaker of the House of Representatives, Archie Cameron, the Liberal Party retained this seat despite a 9.9 per cent swing against the government.
  72. Wentworth 1956—Leslie Bury retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of Eric Harrison as High Commissioner in London.
  73. Richmond 1957—Four Country Party candidates contested this by-election, including the eventual winner, Doug Anthony, the son of the former member, Hubert Lawrence Anthony.
  74. Parramatta 1958—Garfield Barwick retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of former member Oliver Beale as Ambassador to the United States of America.
  75. Hunter 1960—The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate for this safe ALP seat, formerly held by Herbert Evatt.
  76. La Trobe 1960—Seat retained for the Liberal Party by John Jess following the resignation of the Minister for External Affairs, Richard Casey.
  77. Balaclava 1960—PE Joske resigned to become a judge of the ACT Supreme Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Raymond Whittorn.
  78. Bendigo 1960—This marginal seat was retained for the ALP by Noel Beaton following the death of sitting member, Percy Clarey.
  79. Calare 1960—Seat won by John England for the Country Party from the Liberal Party. This has been the only occasion when the Country Party has won a seat from the Liberal Party at a by-election.
  80. Higinbotham 1960—Don Chipp just retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the death of TF Timson.
  81. Batman 1962—Captain Sam Benson retained this safe seat for the Labor Party following the death of sitting member, Alan Bird. Benson subsequently retained Batman as an independent at the 1966 general election.
  82. Grey 1963—Retained for the ALP by Jack Mortimer following the death of Edgar Russell.
  83. East Sydney 1963—This by-election resulted in the second lowest voter turnout (71.9 per cent) since the introduction of compulsory voting. The ALP retained the seat. The Liber
  84. Denison 1964—Athol Townley was re-elected at the 1963 general election but died before the opening of the Parliament. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Adrian Gibson.
  85. Angas 1964—Alexander Downer senior resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Geoffrey Giles.
  86. Parramatta 1964—Garfield Barwick resigned to become Chief Justice of the High Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Nigel Bowen.
  87. Robertson 1964—Roger Dean resigned to become Administrator of the Northern Territory. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Crawford Bridges-Maxwell.
  88. Riverina 1965—Hugh Roberton resigned to become Ambassador to Ireland. The seat was retained for the Country Party by Adam Armstrong.
  89. Dawson 1966—The ALP candidate, Rex Patterson, achieved a large swing (11.9 per cent) against the LP/CP Coalition Government to win the seat from the Country Party.
  90. Kooyong 1966—The Liberal Party candidate, Andrew Peacock, retained this safe Liberal seat in the by-election following the resignation of Prime Minister, Robert Menzies.
  91. Corio 1967—A large swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government (11.1 per cent) resulted in the ALP candidate, Gordon Scholes, winning the seat from the Liberal Party, following the retirement of popular sporting personality, Hubert Opperman.
  92. Capricornia 1967—Following the death of sitting member George Shaw, this seat was retained by the ALP by Doug Everingham.
  93. Higgins 1968—This by-election was held following the presumed death of Prime Minister Harold Holt. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by new Prime Minister (and ex-Senator) John Gorton.
  94. Curtin 1969—The sitting member, Minister for External Affairs, Paul Hasluck, resigned to become Governor-General. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Ransley Garland, despite a 7.1 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.
  95. Bendigo 1969—Noel Beaton resigned because of ill health. The seat was retained for the ALP by David Kennedy.
  96. Gwydir 1969—Allan Armstrong resigned to become Secretary-General of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. The seat was retained for the Country Party by Ralph Hunt, despite a 7.7 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.
  97. Australian Capital Territory 1970—Despite a large swing against it, the ALP retained this seat held for 18 years by popular member, Jim Fraser. The Australia Party candidate, Alan Fitzgerald, received 17.5 per cent of the first preference votes.
  98. Chisholm 1970—Tony Staley retained this seat for the Liberal Party. The ALP candidate was Francis ‘Frank’ Costigan, later Royal Commissioner investigating the activities of the Federated Ship Painters' and Dockers' Union, and tax evasion matters.
  99. Murray 1971—Bruce Lloyd retained this seat for the Country Party following the resignation of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Trade and Industry, John McEwen.
  100. Parramatta 1973—Nigel Bowen resigned to become a judge of the NSW Court of Appeal. Philip Ruddock retained the seat for the Liberal Party. Twelve candidates contested the by-election, a record to that time.
  101. Bass 1975—The second largest swing recorded against any government to that time (14.6 per cent) occurred at this by-election held following the appointment of former Deputy Prime Minister, Lance Barnard, to be Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden. The Liberal Party candidate, Kevin Newman, won the seat from the ALP.
  102. Cunningham 1977—Following the death of sitting member, Reginald ‘Rex’ Connor, this seat was retained by the ALP by Stewart West.
  103. Werriwa 1978—The ALP candidate, John Kerin, achieved a large swing (11.3 per cent) against the LP/NP Coalition Government in this by-election, held following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.
  104. Grayndler 1979—Retained for the ALP by Leo McLeay following the death of Frank Stewart.
  105. Boothby 1981—Retained for the Liberal Party by Steele Hall, former Premier of South Australia and Senator, following the resignation of John McLeay, who became Consul-General in Los Angeles.
  106. Curtin 1981—Ransley Garland resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Allan Rocher.
  107. McPherson 1981—The Liberal Party candidate, Peter White, achieved a swing to the LP/NP Coalition Government of 16.2 per cent, the largest swing to any government since 1949. The National Party candidate (future Senator Glen Sheil) outpolled the ALP candidate.
  108. Wentworth 1981—The former leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party, Peter Coleman, comfortably retained the seat despite a 6.2 per cent swing to the ALP candidate, Robert Tickner. The voter turnout (69.5 per cent) was the lowest since the introduction of compulsory voting in 1924.
  109. Lowe 1982—This marginal Liberal Party seat became vacant following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Sir William McMahon. The ALP candidate, Michael Maher, won the seat from the Liberal Party with an 8.5 per cent swing.
  110. Flinders 1982—The Liberal Party retained this marginal seat despite a 3.3 per cent swing against the LP/NP Coalition Government. However, new member, Peter Reith, was unable to take up his seat in the House of Representatives as the Parliament was dissolved before he could be sworn in and he was defeated at the subsequent general election.
  111. Wannon 1983—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by David Hawker, following the resignation of sitting member, former Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser.
  112. Bruce 1983—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Kenneth Aldred, following the resignation of sitting member, former Opposition Leader and Speaker Billy Snedden.
  113. Moreton 1983¾The Liberal Party retained this marginal Liberal seat with a small swing in its favour. The successful candidate, Don Cameron, had lost the neighbouring seat of Fadden at the previous general election.
  114. Corangamite 1984—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Fergus Stewart McArthur. Labor candidate Gavan O'Connor subsequently became Member for Corio.
  115. Hughes 1984—The seat was retained for ALP by Robert Tickner, following the resignation of Leslie Johnson, who became High Commissioner to New Zealand.
  116. Richmond 1984—The seat was retained for the National Party by Charles Blunt, following the resignation of former Deputy Prime Minister, Doug Anthony.
  117. Scullin 1986—The seat was retained for ALP by Henry Alfred Jenkins who succeeded his father Dr Henry Alfred Jenkins.
  118. Adelaide 1988—The ALP lost this seat with a swing of 8.4 per cent against the ALP Government. The successful Liberal Party candidate, Michael Pratt, lost the seat at the next general election.
  119. Port Adelaide 1988—An 11.1 per cent swing against the ALP Government was insufficient for the Liberal Party to win the seat. The ALP's Rod Sawford was the winning candidate.
  120. Groom 1988—The Liberal Party candidate, Bill Taylor, won the seat previously held by the National Party.
  121. Oxley 1988—The prospective appointment of Bill Hayden as Governor-General caused the vacancy in this safe ALP seat. The ALP candidate, Les Scott, was successful despite an 11.8 per cent swing against the ALP Government.
  122. Gwydir 1989—John Anderson retained this seat for the National Party following the resignation of sitting member Ralph Hunt. Anderson defeated two independent candidates to win the seat.
  123. Menzies 1991—Kevin Andrews retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the resignation of sitting member Neil Brown.
  124. Wills 1992—An equal record number of 22 candidates contested this ALP seat vacated by the former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke. Prominent local identity, Phil Cleary, won the seat to become the only independent candidate to win a Commonwealth by-election. The by-election result was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. A subsequent by-election was not held because of the impending general election.
  125. Werriwa 1994—The ALP retained this safe seat despite a swing against the ALP Government of 6.3 per cent. The successful candidate was Mark Latham.
  126. Fremantle 1994—Former Western Australian Premier, Carmen Lawrence, retained this seat for the ALP with a swing of 1.0 per cent to the government.
  127. Bonython 1994—Despite a swing of 7.8 per cent against the ALP, Martyn Evans retained this seat for the government.
  128. Mackellar 1994—Liberal candidate, ex-Senator Bronwyn Bishop, easily retained this safe Liberal Party seat. Prominent writer, Bob Ellis (Ind), received 23.1 per cent of the first preference vote in the absence of a Labor Party candidate.
  129. Warringah 1994¾This seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Tony Abbott.
  130. Kooyong 1994—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Petro Georgiou, following the resignation of sitting member and former Leader of the Opposition, Andrew Peacock. In the absence of an ALP candidate the Greens candidate, Peter Singer, received 28.0 per cent of the vote.
  131. Canberra 1995—After initially considering not to contest this fairly safe ALP seat, the LP ultimately decided to enter the race and won the seat from the government with a record swing of 16.1 per cent. The successful candidate, Brendan Smyth, lost the seat at the following general election.
  132. Wentworth 1995—Despite being classified as a marginal Liberal seat the ALP did not contest this by-election caused by former Leader of the Opposition, John Hewson. The winning Liberal candidate was Andrew Thomson.
  133. Blaxland 1996—The seat was retained for the ALP by Michael Hatton, following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Paul Keating.
  134. Lindsay 1996—The 1996 general election result for Lindsay was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. At the by-election the successful Liberal candidate at the general election, Jackie Kelly, won with a swing of 5.0 per cent to the government.
  135. Fraser 1997—The seat was retained for the ALP by Steve Dargavel, following the resignation of sitting member, John Langmore. At the subsequent general election, the ACT's representation in the House of Representatives was reduced to two seats. Dargavel did not contest ALP pre-selection so that Bob McMullan, Member for Canberra, could contest Fraser.
  136. Holt 1999—The seat was retained for the ALP by Anthony Byrne, following the resignation of sitting member, Gareth Evans.
  137. Isaacs 2000—This was the first by-election since McPherson 1981 which was caused by the suicide of the sitting member. The LP did not contest this fairly safe Labor seat. Retained for the ALP by Ann Corcoran.
  138. Ryan 2001—The ALP candidate, Leonie Short, won this fairly safe Liberal seat following the retirement of John Moore. The swing of 9.7 per cent against the government was just sufficient for Short to succeed. She lost the seat in the following general election.
  139. Aston 2001—A field of fifteen candidates contested the by-election in this marginal government seat. It was retained for the Liberal Party by Chris Pearce, following the death of sitting member, Peter Nugent.
  140. Cunningham 2002—Greens candidate, Michael Organ, won this safe Labor seat following the resignation of sitting member, Stephen Martin. For the first time since Maranoa in 1921 an Opposition-held seat was lost in a by-election. The winning candidate received 23.0 per cent of the vote, the lowest winning vote first preference of any Commonwealth by-election. This was the first by-election victory by a minor party candidate since Echuca in 1919.
  141. Werriwa 2005—Mark Latham had won Werriwa for the ALP in a by-election in 1994. It was his resignation from the seat soon after his resignation as Leader of the Opposition that caused this by-election. Sixteen candidates contested the by-election, the third-highest total since 1901, with the seat being retained by the ALP.
  142. Gippsland 2008—Peter McGauran (NP) had held Gippsland for 25 years, the longest term of the Federation electorate’s eight members to that time. The by-election was contested by National, Liberal, Labor and Green candidates, but Darren Chester continued the Country/National Party hold of the seat that dated back to 1922.
  143. Lyne 2008—First contested in 1949, Lyne had been held by four Country/National MPs, including Mark Vaile, the party leader between 2005 and 2007. Former National, and later independent MLA, Rob Oakeshott, (1996–2008), was elected as an independent with a first preference vote of 63.8 per cent. The Labor Party did not contest the by-election.
  144. Mayo 2008—Former Liberal Party leader and later Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Downer, had been the first and only Member for Mayo when he retired after serving 23 years. Labor did not contest the by-election which was won for the Liberal Party by Jamie Briggs.
  145. Bradfield 2009—Former Howard government minister and Liberal Party leader, Brendan Nelson, retired to take up Ambassadorships to the European Communities, Belgium and Luxembourg and posts as Representative to NATO and Special Representative to WHO. Labor did not stand a candidate in the by-election which was contested by an equal record number of 22 candidates. The blue ribbon Liberal seat was easily retained by Paul Fletcher.
  146. Higgins 2009—The resignation of former Howard government Treasurer, Peter Costello, triggered only the second by-election to be held in this fairly safe Liberal Party seat (the first being in 1968 after Prime Minister Harold Holt was presumed dead). Labor did not contest this by-election which was won by Costello’s former advisor, Kelly O’Dwyer.
  147. Griffith 2014—Former Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, resigned after leading the ALP government to a loss at the 2013 election in his second stint as Prime Minister. Terri Butler retained the marginal seat for the ALP despite a two-party preferred swing against the ALP of 1.3 per cent.

 

For copyright reasons some linked items are only available to members of Parliament.


© Commonwealth of Australia

Creative Commons

In essence, you are free to copy and communicate this work in its current form for all non-commercial purposes, as long as you attribute the work to the author and abide by the other licence terms. The work cannot be adapted or modified in any way. Content from this publication should be attributed in the following way: Author(s), Title of publication, Series Name and No, Publisher, Date.

To the extent that copyright subsists in third party quotes it remains with the original owner and permission may be required to reuse the material.

Inquiries regarding the licence and any use of the publication are welcome to webmanager@aph.gov.au.

This work has been prepared to support the work of the Australian Parliament using information available at the time of production. The views expressed do not reflect an official position of the Parliamentary Library, nor do they constitute professional legal opinion.

Any concerns or complaints should be directed to the Parliamentary Librarian. Parliamentary Library staff are available to discuss the contents of publications with Senators and Members and their staff. To access this service, clients may contact the author or the Library‘s Central Entry Point for referral.

Top