Social Security Payments for the Aged, People with Disabilities and Carers 1909 to 2010


Chronology Index

Social Policy Section

Dale Daniels - Social Policy Section

Back to contents

Means Testing

The history of the Australian pension system has been dominated by the means test. A rather severe means test applied to the pensions when initially introduced. Private income above a threshold reduced pension on a pound-for-pound basis and assets above a certain amount reduced pension by one pound for every ten pounds of assets. From the beginning the family home was concessionally treated and by 1912 it was completely exempt from consideration under the means test.

The means test changed little between 1909 and 1946. During the depression of the thirties attempts were made to reduce pension expenditure by among other things reducing the rate of pension, requiring relatives to contribute to the support of aged people and attempting to recover pension paid from the estate of deceased pensioners. Many of these measures proved to be administratively unworkable partly due to the intense opposition they provoked and were repealed by the late thirties.

The Push for a Universal Age Pension

After World War II pressure for the abolition of the means test prompted a series of changes, many of which were intended to be steps on the way to its eventual abolition. The means test was criticised for excluding the thrifty from the pension and generally discouraging saving. Both sides of politics endorsed abolition or liberalisation of the means test well into the seventies. The most significant changes along the road to abolition were:

  • Substantial increases in the levels of permissible income and the property limit introduced by the Chifley Government in 1946 and 1948.
  • Further increases to the levels of permissible income and the property limit, an increase in the property exemption, exemption of income from property from consideration and exemption of blind pensioners from the test by the Menzies Government in 1954.
  • A further increase in the property limit in 1958 and the introduction of a merged means test in 1961 by the Menzies Government. The new test had no property limit, but income was deemed to be derived from property above an exempt amount of 400 pounds. That deemed income and any income not derived from property reduced the annual pension paid by one pound for every pound of income above an exempt amount.
  • The introduction of a tapered withdrawal rate by the Gorton Government in 1969. The annual rate of pension was reduced by only half of the amount of income above the exempt amount rather than the full amount as had been the case previously.
  • In 1972 the McMahon Government introduced a large increase in the level of exempt income as a prelude to abolition of the means test within three years for age pensioners aged 65 years and older.
  • The Whitlam Government abolished the means test for age pensioners aged 75 years and over in 1973 and for those aged 70 years and over in 1975, having matched the McMahon Government commitment before the 1972 election.
  • In 1976 the Fraser Government removed any consideration of assets from the means test making it an income test only.

The years 1946 to 1980 saw a steady growth in the proportion of the aged population who received age pensions as the means test was liberalised. Table 2 shows that around 32 per cent of the aged population received an age pension up until World War II. Means test changes over the following decades saw that proportion rise to a high of 77 per cent in the late seventies. By the late eighties it had dropped back to around 60 per cent due to a major policy shift.

The Abandonment of Universalism and the Ascendancy of Targeting

In 1978 the Fraser Government began the retreat from universalism through abolition of the means test for the aged by freezing the rate of pension paid free of the income test to those aged 70 years or more. The income test was reintroduced for any additional entitlement. The process of reinstating a full means test was completed when the Hawke Government strengthened the income testing of pensions for those aged 70 years and over in 1983 and introduced an assets test in 1985. The fiscal pressures on government in the seventies and eighties reversed the trend to universalism and replaced it with a new orthodoxy called targeting. Means testing is essential in a targeted approach in order to ensure that that those most in need receive the benefit of the limited dollars available.

The Hawke and Keating Governments increased targeting through reforms to such areas as the treatment of investment income, assets testing and the handling of compensation payments. The objective was equitable treatment of all pensioners with private income no matter what the source. However between 1987 and 1993, the income testing provisions relating to investments became more and more complicated as the appearance of new investment products prompted the introduction of corresponding new income testing provisions. A review of the income and assets tests was commissioned and reported in 1994. The resulting reforms simplified arrangements by deeming income from investments based on the value of the investments held.

Further changes were introduced to moderate the tendency for means testing to produce poverty traps and disincentives to saving and self-provision. The amount of income exempt from the income test was increased substantially in 1987. It was further increased and the taper rate was reduced as part of the compensation package provided in 2000 when the Goods and Services Tax was introduced.

Back to contents

The Means Test 1909 to 1961, the Merged Means Test 1961 to 1976, the Income Test 1976 to 1985, the Income and Assets Tests from 1985

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

Original Enabling Legislation

Invalid and Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 (No. 17 of 1908)

1909

From April the Old-Age Pension (AP) was introduced. The pension was subject to a means test as follows:

  • The value of property, both real and personal, owned by a pensioner could not exceed 310 pounds and applicants were not permitted to deprive themselves of property in order to qualify for the pension
  • Where the value of the property of a single pensioner included their residence and exceeded 100 pounds, pension was reduced by one pound for every ten pounds of value in excess of 100 pounds. Where the property did not include their residence or that residence produced income, pension was reduced by one pound for every ten pounds of value in excess of 50 pounds. The pensions of members of couples were reduced in the same way but the amounts above which pension was reduced were halved to 50 pounds and 25 pounds respectively
  • Income over 26 pounds per annum reduced the amount of pension payable on a pound for pound basis. The rate of pension was initially 26 pounds per annum, so a pensioner's total income could not exceed 52 pounds per annum under these rules. Each member of a pensioner couple was deemed to receive half of the couple's total income and own half of the couple's total property

Fisher, ALP

1910

From November Invalid Pension (IP) was introduced and paid under the same means test as AP.

Fisher, ALP

1912

From December the value of a pensioners home was excluded from consideration when assessing the value of their property. The higher level of exempt property was removed as a result of this change.

Fisher, ALP

1917

From September:

  • War pensions paid to dependants of deceased or incapacitated soldiers was exempted from consideration as income under the means test.
  • Contributions to the maintenance of an invalid parent were excluded from consideration when assessing eligibility.

Hughes, Nationalist

1921

From January married blind pensioners could receive sufficient pension up to the maximum rate to bring the joint income of their family up to four pounds five shillings per week.

Hughes, Nationalist

1928

From September war pension for incapacitated soldiers became exempt income under the means test.

Bruce-Page, Nationalist-CP

1931

From July war pensions were once again counted as income under the means test as part of the financial emergency measures taken during the Depression.

From November pensioners with deposits in the Savings Bank of New South Wales could assign them to the government and have them excluded from their property value under the means test.

Scullin, ALP

1932

From October further emergency measures were introduced:

  • Eligibility for pension ceased where relatives could adequately maintain the pensioner. Relatives could be required to make compulsory contributions to pensioner's maintenance.
  • Transfers of property worth more than 100 pounds made for no consideration in the five years before claiming pension could prevent pension eligibility.
  • Pension payed to a pensioner could be recovered from the pensioner's estate after they died.
  • The rate of pension payable before the income test was applied was reduced to 15 shillings per week.

These emergency measures were not fully implemented and those concerning property were repealed in April 1935.

Lyons, UAP

1933

From October sustenance and food relief provided by a State Government were excluded as income under the means test.

Lyons, UAP

1934

From June relatives could no longer be required to contribute to a pensioner's maintenance.

Lyons, UAP

1941

From December:

  • The property exemption for a married pensioner was raised to be the same as that for a single pensioner.
  • The special provisions for blind pensioners under the means test introduced in 1921 were repealed.

Curtin, ALP

1942

From July:

  • Pensioners could no longer assign deposits in the Savings Bank of New South Wales to the government and have them excluded from consideration under the means test.
  • Voluntary support from relatives other than parents no longer excluded people from pension eligibility.
  • Permissible income for a blind pensioner was set at the level of the basic wage.

Curtin, ALP

1944

Permissible income for blind pensioners was set at five pounds and the link with the basic wage removed.

Curtin, ALP

1946

From August the following items were exempt when assessing the value of property under the means test:

  • the value of furniture and personal effects
  • the surrender value of any life insurance policy up to 200 pounds
  • the capital value of any life interest or annuity
  • the value of a contingent interest
  • the present value of a reversionary interest up to 500 pounds, and
  • the value of property not yet received from a deceased estate.

Permissible income under the means test was increased to one pound per week.

The upper limit on property was raised to 650 pounds.

The pension rate was reduced by two pounds for every complete ten pounds of property above 400 pounds.

Claimants for IP who were adequately maintained by their parents and were aged 21 years or more were made eligible for IP.

Chifley, ALP

1947

From July an income disregard in respect of children of ten shillings per week was introduced. Receipt of child endowment and child allowance reduced this disregard by the full amount received.

Chifley, ALP

1948

From October the amount of AP payable was reduced where the total amount of war, service and AP exceeded three pounds two shillings and sixpence for a single person or six pounds two shillings for a pensioner couple.

Chifley, ALP

1951

From October the income disregard in respect of children was reduced to five shillings per week and it was no longer reduced by the value of any child endowment and child allowance received.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1953

From October:

  • The permissible income for a single pensioner was raised to two pounds per week. It was raised to two pounds ten shillings for Wife's Allowance and married pensioners whose wife was not a pensioner.
  • The pension was now reduced by one pound for every complete ten pounds of property between 150 pounds and 450 pounds and by two pounds for every complete eleven pounds between 450 pounds and 1250 pounds.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1954

From October:

  • The means test for permanently blind people was removed.
  • Income from property became exempt under the means test.
  • The pension was now reduced by one pound for every complete ten pounds between 200 pounds and 1750 pounds.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1955

From October the limit on the total amount of age pension and war pension was removed and war pension only counted as income under the means test.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1961

From March a merged means test was introduced. It superseded the separate tests on income and property. One pound for every ten pounds of property above 200 pounds was added to the annual income of pensioners to produce an amount of 'means as assessed'. Where means as assessed exceeded 182 pounds per annum the annual rate of pension was reduced by the excess.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1967

From June Sheltered Employment Allowance (SEA) was introduced. People engaged in sheltered employment were eligible. SEA was paid at the same rate as IP but the means test was structured to allow for earnings. Earnings above $10 per week for a single person or $17 per week for a married person reduced SEA by one dollar for every two dollars earned.

Holt, LIB-CP

1969

From September:

  • The means test was adjusted so that only half of the amount of means as assessed was deducted from the annual rate of pension. The means test became known as the 'tapered means test'. The unadjusted means test was retained for determining eligibility for funeral benefit, the pensioner Medical Service and fringe benefits.
  • SEA became subject to the pension means test.

Gorton, LIB-CP

1972

From September pensioners receiving superannuation pensions or annuities received concessional treatment under the means test. Their superannuation could be treated as a property value determined by conversion factors which related to their age. This was only done where it was to the pensioner's advantage.

McMahon, LIB-CP

1973

From September the means test was abolished for those aged 75 years or more.

Whitlam, ALP

1975

From May the means test was abolished for those aged 70 to 74 years.

Whitlam, ALP

1976

From November the means test was replaced by an income only test. Assets were no longer taken into account but any income derived from those assets was included under the income test. Concessional treatment of superannuation pensions was discontinued. Where a pensioner deprived themselves of property or income in order to receive a pension they were no longer refused a pension. Instead the disposed of income could be deemed to be income received by the pensioner.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1978

From October the rate of pension paid free of the income test to those aged 70 years or more was frozen at $51.45 for a single pensioner and $42.90 for a married pensioner. Higher rates of payment could be received if they qualified under the income test. Blind pensioners were not affected by this change.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1983

From November:

  • The income test free component of the pension for those aged 70 years or older was subject to a special income test. Where income exceeded $200 per week for a single pensioner or $333 per week for a couple the previously income test free component was reduced by fifty cents for each dollar of income above those levels.
  • The exemption under the income test for income from Friendly societies or trade unions was removed.

Hawke, ALP

1985

From March an assets test was introduced which applied to all income-tested pensions. The assets or income test was applied, but not both. The test giving the lower pension level was applied. The following assets were not considered under the test:

  • the pensioners home
  • special aids for disabled people
  • pre-paid funeral expenses
  • an inheritance not able to be received
  • awards for valour not held as investments, and
  • the capital value of a life interest, most annuities, contingent or reversionary interests not created by the person or gift cars provided by DVA.

The value of the assets if sold at the time of assessment, less any debt, was used. Disposal of assets without adequate return was allowed to the value of $2000 per annum for a single pensioner or $4000 for a couple. Disposal above these values resulted in the excess being assessable. The value of disposed assets being assessed was reduced by 10 per cent each year.

Hardship provisions applied where a person was considered to be in severe hardship as a result of the assets test. Under these provisions assets could be disregarded where they produced little or no income, could not be sold or could not be expected to be sold or used as security for a loan.

A pensioner loan scheme was introduced for people entitled to little or no pension due to the assets test, who did not want to sell or rearrange their assets. Provided that at least 70 per cent of their assets could not readily be converted to cash, and there was adequate security for the loan, the person could receive the pension payable if only the income test applied. The excess over the entitlement under the assets test became a debt with interest of 10 per cent per annum.

The first $120 000 of a single pensioner's assets and the first $150 000 of a pensioner couple's assets were exempt from consideration under the test. For those who owned their own home only $70 000 of assets for single pensioners and $100 000 of assets for a pensioner couple were exempt. These exemption levels were subject to annual indexation in line with the CPI. Pension was reduced by $2.00 per week for every $1000 of assets in excess of the exemption levels.

Hawke, ALP

1986

From November the rate of DSS pension payable to a recipient of a war widow's pension was frozen. New grants were paid at the rate of $60.05 per week subject to the income and assets tests.

Hawke, ALP

1987

From May:

  • The timing of automatic indexation of assets test exemption levels was deferred by six weeks to 12 June of each year from 1 May of each year.
  • For new claimants for IP, Rehabilitation Allowance (ReA) and SEA, amounts equal to the pension or allowance they received were recoverable from any compensation for an incapacity to work which they received.

From July the separate income test for rent assistance was abolished.

From November:

  • Earnings credits were introduced for all pensioners except Carer Pension (CP). Pensioners could save up unused portions of the income test free area to a limit of $1000. When income exceeded the free area the credit was reduced until totally depleted. The normal income test then applied again.
  • Restitution payments made by the West German Government were not regarded as income under the income test.

From December separate rules for the treatment of investment income under the income test were introduced. The growth component of market linked investments made before or after 13 December 1987 was treated as income averaged over the 12 months after withdrawal. Income from accruing return investments (which produced a known rate of return) was deemed to be received throughout the period of the investment. Savings provisions applied to investments of this type entered into before 1 January.

Hawke, ALP

1988

From February 50 per cent of a lump sum settlement of a compensation claim for personal injury was deemed to be for economic loss and was recoverable where pension had been paid during the period of that economic loss.

From November:

  • Money received from a home equity conversion loan was exempt from consideration under the income test until it reached the amount of $40 000.
  • The value free or subsidised board and lodgings was disregarded under the income test.

From December an 11 per cent annual rate of return was imputed to all market linked investments entered into after 9 September 1988. A lower rate could be used where evidence suggested that the product was yielding a lower return.

Hawke, ALP

1990

From January:

  • Insurers and/or employers (including State and Territory instrumentalities) were made liable to DSS for money owed to DSS from lump sum compensation payments even where they had released to money prior to the service of a notice of charge.
  • Compensation recovery debts could be recovered by withholdings from pension payments.

From February income from compulsorily preserved superannuation benefits was disregarded under the income and assets tests.

From April that part of an annuity or funded superannuation payment made up of return of capital was excluded from consideration under the income test.

From August a minimum interest rate (initially 10 per cent) was deemed on new loans made by pensioners.

From November a person who had a work related accident or illness was required to make a compensation claim to be eligible for any DSS payment.

Hawke, ALP

1991

From March:

  • The amount a pensioner could give away without triggering the deprivation provisions was increased to $10 000 per annum. The full amount of deprived assets was deemed to earn 10 per cent for five years under the income test.
  • A minimum interest rate was deemed on cash and deposits in financial institutions. The first $2000 was exempt from this provision. For amounts above $2000, 10 per cent interest or the actual return if higher was assessed as income under the income test. The Minister for Social Security had the power to vary the deeming rate from time to time.

From July the income test free areas were indexed annually.

Hawke, ALP

1993

From March:

  • Assessment of income from managed investments was simplified. The categorisation into market linked investments and accruing return investments was removed. All managed investments were assessed on their actual rate of return over the previous twelve months.
  • Losses assessed on managed investments could be offset against gains during the same period on other managed investments.

From July an earnings credit was introduced for CP recipients.

From September:

  • The managed investment rules were extended to shares and other securities listed on the stock exchange and acquired after 18 August 1992.
  • The Assets test was modified so that assets above the asset test thresholds reduced pension by $1.50 per week for every $1000.

From November non-cash credits from exchange trading systems were exempt from consideration under the income test.

Keating, ALP

1994

From March pensioners were required to take action to claim any comparable foreign payments (CPF) they may be entitled to. This provision applied to those with an entitlement in a country that Australia had a social security agreement with.

Keating, ALP

1996

From January certain saved investments could be cashed in without the capital growth being assessed under the income test as a transition measure before the introduction of 'Extended Deeming'.

Keating, ALP

 

From July a major reform of the income test treatment of financial assets was introduced. A system called 'Extended Deeming' was introduced. When assessing income under the income test, the total value of all financial assets was added together. A rate of return of five per cent was deemed to have been received on the first $30 000 ($50 000 for a couple) worth of assets and a rate of seven per cent was deemed for asset holdings above these levels. The first $2000 ($4000 for a couple) was exempt from extended deeming. These rates were set at levels considered to be easily achievable using safe investments. The Minister for Social Security could vary the deeming rates as market rates changed.

Financial assets included:

  • bank, building society and credit union accounts
  • cash
  • term deposits
  • cheque accounts
  • friendly society bonds
  • managed investments
  • investments in superannuation funds, approved deposit funds and deferred annuities after age pension age
  • listed shares and securities
  • loans, debentures and bonds
  • shares in unlisted public companies
  • gifted assets above the allowable limits, and
  • gold and other bullion.

Financial assets did not include:

  • Homes, contents or other real estate
  • cars, boats or caravans
  • antiques or stamp and coin collections
  • investments in superannuation funds, approved deposit funds and deferred annuities before age pension age
  • standard life insurance policies, and
  • income streams such as superannuation pensions allocated pensions, immediate annuities or allocated annuities.

Howard, LIB-NPA

1997

From March:

  • The earnings credit scheme was abolished.
  • People becoming AP recipients after 20 March 1997 and receiving compensation on or after 20 March 1997 had the economic loss component considered in assessing their eligibility. Previously AP eligibility was not affected by compensation.
  • The calculation of preclusion periods due to the receipt of compensation after 20 March 1997 was altered. The compensation amount was divided by the amount above which no pension was payable to a single person under the income test. Previously the compensation amount had been divided by 'all persons average weekly earnings'.
  • For compensation received after 20 March 1997, the compensation preclusion period was applied only to the recipient and not to his or her spouse as had previously been the case.
  • The exemption under the 'extended deeming' provisions for the first $2000 ($4000 for a couple) held by a pensioner was removed.

From September:

  • Superannuation assets were assessed under the income and assets tests where a person had been in receipt of pension for 39 weeks after reaching the age of 55 years.
  • Farmers of age pension age were able to transfer farms and farming assets up to the value of $500 000 to the next generation without the transfer affecting their pension entitlement. The farmer needed to have a long term involvement in farming and be on a low income to qualify. This provision was to be effective only until 14 September 2000.

Howard, LIB-NPA

1998

The 1998-99 Budget included a proposal to modify the income test treatment of non-economic loss compensation payments. Lump sums in excess of $10 000 were to be treated as ordinary income over 26 fortnights. Periodic payments of more than $2000 in any 28 day period were to be treated as ordinary income. The measure was originally intended for implementation from July 1999, but implementation was delayed until January 2004.

From July a pension bonus scheme for people deferring retirement and continuing to work for at least 20 hours per week was introduced. A tax free bonus payment equal to 9.4 per cent of the basic pension entitlement for each year of deferral up to a maximum of five years was to be paid when the pension was received.

From September the treatment of income streams such as superannuation pensions, allocated pensions and annuities, and roll-over and ordinary annuities was reformed. Three categories were introduced:

  • Income streams for life, life expectancy or at least 15 years with no access to capital and purchased after age pension age were exempt from the assets test. Under the income test a deduction based on the purchase price was applied.
  • Other income streams with a term greater than five years but less than lifetime or life expectancy if the person was over pension age were asset tested. Under the income test a deduction based on the purchase price was applied.
  • Short-term income streams of five years or less were asset tested. Under the income test they were treated as other financial investments.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2000

From July:

  • The income and assets tests were adjusted as part of a package of measures to compensate for the impact of the introduction of the GST.
  • The taper rate under the income test was reduced from 50 cents in every dollar of private income to 40 cents in every dollar.
  • The income and assets test free areas were increased by 2.5 per cent above the normal indexation rise.

From September the expiry date for the Retirement Assistance for Farmers Scheme was extended until 30 June 2001.

The requirement to take action to claim a comparable foreign payment was extended to people with entitlements in any country, rather than only those countries with which Australia had a social security agreement.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2001

From April overpayments caused by administrative error gave rise to recoverable debts.

From July the superannuation assets of people aged between 55 years and age pension age were exempt from the income and assets tests.

From September partners of compensation recipients were no longer subject to dollar for dollar reduction of their payment. Instead once the compensation recipient's payment was reduced to nil by dollar for dollar deductions the excess was treated as income under the income test for their partner.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2002

From January the income and assets of certain private companies and trusts were included in a persons income and assets for the purposes of the income and assets tests.

From July no more than $30 000 could be given away by a pensioner or a pensioner couple in any five year period before the deprivation provisions were triggered. The annual $10 000 limit remained in place.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2003

From December compensation payments for victims of Nazi persecution paid by any country were exempt from the income test. Only payments from Germany and Austria had previously been exempt.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2004

From July intergenerational transfers of sugarcane farms and farm assets (valued at up to $500,000) by people of pension age were exempt from the gifting rules for a 3 year period. Recipients of the gifted assets had to be actively involved in the farm.

From September a 50% assets test exemption for market linked income streams was introduced. The existing 100% exemption for certain non-commutable income streams was reduced to 50% for those purchased after 20 September 2004.

Howard, LIB-NPA
2005 From July aged care accommodation bonds were no longer assessed as assets under the assets test. Howard, LIB-NPA
2006

From September special disability trusts could be established by parents or immediate family members to provide for the care and accommodation needs of the beneficiary. Amounts of up to $500,000 could be held in the trust (amount to be indexed annually). The amount in the trust would not be assessed under the assets test and income of the trust would not be assessed under the income test. Contributions to the trust could be made by pensioners without the asset disposal rules applying.

Howard, LIB-NPA
2008

From January the threshold for funeral investments that were exempt from the means test was increased from $5000 to $10,000. The threshold was also indexed to movements in the CPI.

 

Rudd, ALP
2009

From September the income test taper rate was increased from 40 per cent to 50 per cent of each dollar of private income above the income test free area.

Transitional arrangements were put in place to ensure that no pensioners suffered a reduction in pension rate due to the change in the taper rate.

A work bonus was introduced for pensioners of age pension age. Half of the first $500 earned in each fortnight was disregarded under the income test.

The Pension Bonus Scheme was closed to new applicants.

Rudd, ALP

Back to contents

Table 3: Maximum Rates of Pension, from 1909

Date of effect

Rate

 
 

$ per week

 

01.07.09

1.00

 

12.10.16

1.25

 

01.01.20

1.50

 

13.09.23

1.75

 

08.10.25

2.00

 

23.07.31

1.75

 

04.07.35

1.80

 

24.09.36

1.90

 

09.09.37

2.00

 

26.12.40

2.10

 

03.04.41

2.15

 

11.12.41

2.35

 

02.04.42

2.50

 

01.10.42

2.55

 

07.01.43

2.60

 

01.04.43

2.65

 

05.08.43

2.70

 

05.07.45

3.25

 

03.07.47

3.75

 

21.10.48

4.25

 

02.11.50

5.00

 

01.11.51

6.00

 

02.10.52

6.75

 

29.10.53

7.00

 

27.10.55

8.00

 

24.10.57

8.75

 

08.10.59

9.50

 

06.10.60

10.00

 

05.10.61

11.00

 

Date of effect

Standard Rate

Couple Rate (each)

   
 

$ per week

$ per week

   

14.11.63

11.50

10.50

   

01.10.64

12.00

11.00

   

13.10.66

13.00

11.75

   
 

$ per fortnight

$ per fortnight

   

10.10.68

28.00

25.00

   

09.10.69

30.00

26.50

   

08.10.70

31.00

27.50

   

08.04.71

32.00

28.50

   

07.10.71

34.50

30.50

   

04.05.72

36.50

32.00

   

05.10.72

40.00

34.50

   

14.12.72

43.00

37.50

   

04.10.73

46.00

40.50

   

04.04.74

52.00

45.50

   

08.08.74

62.00

51.50

   

01.05.75

72.00

60.00

   

13.11.75

77.50

64.50

   

13.05.76

82.50

68.50

   

11.11.76

87.00

72.90

   

12.05.77

94.20

78.50

   

10.11.77

98.60

82.20

   

11.05.78

102.90

85.80

   

09.11.78

106.40

88.70

   

08.11.79

115.80

96.50

   

08.05.80

122.10

101.70

   

06.11.80

128.20

106.80

   

07.05.81

133.30

111.10

   

05.11.81

139.40

116.20

   

06.05.82

148.30

123.60

   

04.11.82

154.50

128.80

   

05.05.83

164.70

137.30

   

03.11.83

171.80

143.20

   

03.05.84

178.80

149.10

   

01.11.84

183.80

153.30

   

02.05.85

188.60

157.30

   

14.11.85

195.80

163.30

   

01.05.86

204.20

170.30

   

25.12.86

212.40

177.10

   

25.06.87

224.30

187.00

   

24.12.87

232.20

193.50

   

23.06.88

240.10

200.10

   

22.12.88

248.50

207.10

   

22.06.89

258.40

215.40

   

23.11.89

267.20

222.70

   

26.04.90

282.40

235.40

   

27.09.90

291.70

243.20

   

28.03.91

301.60

251.50

   

26.03.92

306.10

255.30

   

28.01.93

312.10

260.30

   

19.09.93

316.20

263.70

   

20.03.94

318.10

265.30

   

20.09.94

321.40

268.20

   

20.03.95

326.10

272.00

   

20.09.96

335.90

280.20

   

20.03.96

342.60

285.80

   

20.09.96

346.40

288.90

   

20.03.97

347.80

290.10

   

20.03.98

354.60

295.80

   

20.09.98

357.30

298.10

   

20.03.99

361.40

301.60

   

20.09.99

366.50

305.90

   

20.03.00

372.00

310.50

   

20.07.00

386.90

322.90

   

20.09.00

394.10

328.90

   

20.03.01

402.00

335.50

   

20.09.01

410.50

342.60

   

20.03.02

421.80

352.10

   

20.09.02

429.40

358.40

   

20.03.03

440.30

367.50

   

20.09.03

452.80

378.00

   
20.03.04
464.20
387.60
   
20.09.04
470.70
393.00
   
20.03.05
476.30
397.70
   
20.09.05
488.90
408.20
   
20.03.06
499.70
417.20
   
20.09.06
512.10
427.70
   
20.03.07
525.10
438.50
   
20.09.07
537.70
449.10
   
20.03.08
546.80
456.80
Pension Supplement
20.09.08
562.10
469.50
single rate
partnered rate
20.03.09
569.80
475.90
$ per fortnight $ per fortnight
20.09.09(a)
615.80
464.20
56.10
42.30
20.03.10
644.20
485.60
56.90
42.90
20.09.10
658.40
496.30
57.70
43.50

Notes: (a) a pension supplement was also paid from this date.

Back to contents

Table 4: Pension Means Test Limits from 1909

Date of Effect

Permitted income

($ pa) (a)

Property Limit

($ pa) (b)

Property Exempt

($) I

.

Child Disregard

($ pa) (d)

01.07.09

52

620

100(e)

     

-

13.09.23

65

800

100(f)

     

-

15.08.46

104

1 300

100

     

-

03.07.47

104

1 300

100

     

52

21.10.48

156

1 500

200

     

52

01.11.51

156

2 000

200

     

26

02.10.52

156

2 000

200

     

52

29.10.53

208

2 500

300

     

52

14.10.54

364

3 500

400

     

52

23.10.58

364

4 500

400

     

52

 

Means as assessed (g)

         
 

Single

Couple

         

09.03.61

364

728

400

     

52

13.10.66

364

728

400

     

156

24.04.67

520

884

400

     

156

09.10.69

520

884

400

     

208

05.10.72

1 040

1 794

400

     

312

 

Permitted income (h)

         
 

Single

Couple

         

25.11.76

1 040

1 794

       

312

04.11.82

1 560

2 600

       

312

     

Assets limit (i)

 
     

Homeowners

Non-homeowners

 
     

Single

Couple

Single

Couple

 

21.03.85

1 560

2 600

70 000

100 000

120 000

150 000

312

01.05.86

1 560

2 600

75 750

108 000

129 750

153 000

312

25.06.87

1 560

2 600

83 250

118 500

143 250

178 500

312

09.07.87

2 080

3 640

83 250

118 500

143 250

178 500

624

23.06.88

2 080

3 640

89 250

127 000

153 250

191 000

624

22.06.89

2 080

3 640

96 000

137 000

164 500

205 500

624

13.06.90

2 080

3 640

103 500

147 500

177 500

221 500

624

01.07.91

2 184

3 848

110 750

157 500

190 250

237 000

624

01.07.92

2 236

3 952

112 500

160 000

193 000

240 500

624

01.07.93

2 288

3 952

112 750

160 500

193 250

241 000

624

01.07.94

2 340

4 056

115 000

163 500

197 000

245 500

624

01.07.95

2 444

4 264

118 000

167 500

202 000

251 500

624

01.07.96

2 548

4 472

124 000

176 000

212 500

264 500

624

01.07.98

2 600

4 576

125 750

178 500

215 750

268 500

624

01.07.99

2 652

4 680

127 750

181 500

219 250

273 000

624

01.07.00

2 756

4 888

133 250

189 500

228 750

285 000

639.60

01.07.01

2 912

5 200

141 000

200 500

242 000

301 500

639.60

01.07.02

3 016

5 304

145 250

206 500

249 750

311 000

639.60

01.07.03

3 120

5 512

149 500

212 500

257 500

320 500

639.60

01.07.04
3 172
5 616
153 000
217 500
263 500
328 000
639.60
01.07.05
3 224
5 720
157 000
223 000
270 500
336 500
639.60
01.07.06
3 328
5 928
161 500
229 000
278 500
346 000
639.60
01.07.07
3 432
6 032
166 750
236 500
287 750
357 500
639.60
01.07.08
3 588
6 240
171 750
243 500
296 250
368 000
639.60
01.07.09
3 692
6 448
178 000
252 500
307 000
381 500
639.60
10.07.10
3 796
6 656
181 750
258 000
313 250
389 500
639.60

Notes:

(a) Amount of income allowed before pension was reduced.
(b) No pension was payable where property exceeded this value.
(c) Amount of property allowed before pension was reduced.
(d) Amount of income disregarded for each child.
(e) $50 for each married pensioner. Higher rates until 1912 for those not owning a home. From 1912 pensioners home was fully exempt.
(f) From 1941 property exemption was the same for both single and married pensioners.
(g) Merged means test introduced.
(h) Income only test introduced.
(i) Assets test introduced.

Concessions and Allowances

From quite early in the history of pension provision by the Commonwealth consideration was given to additional allowances and entitlements. As early as the 1920s payments to assist with the cost of funerals were discussed with the aim of relieving pensioners from the need to save for that last big expense. Funeral Benefit was eventually introduced in 1943 as part of a broader move towards a comprehensive welfare scheme. Its existence as a separate payment was ended in 1990 but provision for assistance with the costs of funerals is still provided through bereavement payments to surviving spouses or to the deceased's estate.

Concessions for pensioners developed gradually. The earliest example was the provision of free radio licences to blind people in 1933. The Pensioner Medical Service created in 1951 provided for the first time free medical services and medicines to pensioners. Since then a range of other concessions have been added by both the Commonwealth and the State governments. Eligibility for the Commonwealth concessions came to be used by the States as a convenient eligibility test for their own concessions. As the range of concessions and the eligibility conditions expanded, the value of these concessions increased considerably as did their cost. In 1993 cost sharing arrangements were developed to allow the states to expand eligibility for their concessions to match eligibility extensions for Commonwealth concessions.

Assistance directly linked to rent payments was introduced in 1958 as a means of assisting the poorest pensioners who were entirely dependent on their pensions. It was called Supplementary Assistance at first but was renamed Rent Assistance in 1985. Over time it has been extended to all pensioners who rent in recognition of the extra costs they face compared to home owners.

Concessions for low-income self-funded retirees were introduced in 1994. Since then they have been extended to middle income retirees as well.

Back to contents

Funeral Benefit 1943 to 1990

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

Original Enabling Legislation

Invalid and Old-Age Pensions Act 1943 (No. 14 of 1943)

1943

From April funeral benefits of up to ten pounds were introduced to pay for the funeral expenses of deceased age pensioners and invalid pensioners.

Curtin, ALP

1947

From July funeral benefit could be paid in respect of claimants for AP or IP who would have qualified had they lived.

Chifley, ALP

1951

From October funeral benefit was payable for recipients of tuberculosis allowance if they would have qualified for AP or IP.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1965

From October funeral benefit of up to twenty pounds was payable to age, invalid or widow pensioners or wife allowance recipients who were responsible for the funeral costs of a spouse, a child or a pensioner. The rate remained at ten pounds for deceased claimants and tuberculosis allowees.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1969

From September when the tapered means test was introduced, funeral benefit for deceased pensioners who had qualified for pension only because of the new test was paid only at the lower $20 rate.

Gorton, LIB-CP

1976

From November an income only test replaced the means test for funeral benefit.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1990

From January funeral benefit was replaced by a lump sum bereavement payment equivalent to 14 weeks pension payable to the surviving member of a pensioner couple. When a single pensioner died one fortnight's payment was paid to their estate.

Hawke, ALP

Back to contents

Pensioner Concessions from 1933

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

1933

Free radio licences were introduced for blind people.

Lyons, UAP

1946

Concessional rate radio licences were provided to age and invalid pensioners. These were later extended to widow pensioners and also to television licences. Eligibility was based on that for telephone rental concession as described below.

Curtin, ALP

1951

From February a Pensioner Medical Service scheme of free general practitioner medical services and medicines was established. Age, invalid, widow and service pensioners, tuberculosis allowees and their dependants were eligible to use the Service.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1955

From November a special means test limited access to the Pensioner Medical Service to those who would have qualified for a full rate pension under the income test in force at 31 December 1953. Pensioners with more income of more than two pounds per week were excluded. Tuberculosis allowees and those already enrolled were not excluded.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1964

From October telephone rental concession was introduced. A one-third reduction of the annual rental for a telephone was available to age, invalid or widow pensioners who lived alone, or with other eligible people or with other low-income people.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1966

From January the special means test was abolished and all pensioners were eligible to use the Pensioner Medical Service.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1969

From September following the introduction of the tapered means test, those who were eligible for pension only because of the new test were not eligible to use the Pensioner Medical Service or any other fringe benefits.

Gorton, LIB-CP

1973

From June Supporting Mother's Benefit was introduced. Recipients were eligible for telephone rental concession but not to use the Pensioner Medical Service.

From September eligibility for the Pensioner Medical Service and fringe benefits was restricted to pensioners with means of less than $1716 per annum ($2990 for a couple).

Whitlam, ALP

1975

From July:

  • The Pensioner Medical Service was superseded by the introduction of Medibank. Pensioners were entitled to the full range of medical services. Free pharmaceuticals continued as under the Pensioner Medical Service and eligible pensioners were issued with a Pensioner Health Benefit Card.
  • The Department of Social Security Annual Report for 1974-75 mentions fare reductions available to pensioners travelling on Australian Government rail and shipping services.

Whitlam, ALP

1976

From September:

  • Pensioner Health Benefit Cardholders were exempt from the Health Insurance Levy introduced in October 1976. They remained entitled to standard Medibank medical and hospital cover.
  • The Department of Social Security Annual Report for 1975-76 mentions mail redirection concessions for pensioners and a range of concessions offered by State Governments for the first time. State concessions had however existed at least since 1972.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1983

From January pensioners who did not qualify for a Pensioner Health Benefit Card were made eligible for concessional rate pharmaceuticals, paying $2.00 per item.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1983

From November the basic income limits for the fringe benefits income test were indexed on a similar basis to the indexation of pension rates.

Hawke, ALP

1988

From January holders of Pensioner Health Benefit Cards were able to retain fringe benefits for three months where their income rose no more than 25 per cent above the income test limits.

Hawke, ALP

1990

From October access to free pharmaceuticals for Pensioner Health Benefit Card holders was replaced by pharmaceuticals at a concessional rate of $2.50 per item. Once expenditure per family reached $130 per annum there was no charge for additional items. A Pharmaceutical allowance was introduced to compensate pensioners for their reduced entitlements to free pharmaceuticals. The allowance was paid at the rate of $2.50 per week and indexed annually.

Hawke, ALP

1992

From July Telephone allowance was introduced to replace the telephone voucher scheme. Quarterly payments totalling $51.80 per annum were paid to pensioners who qualified for fringe benefits and were telephone subscribers.

Keating, ALP

1993

From April the separate income and assets tests for fringe benefits were abolished. All pensioners were given eligibility for fringe benefits.

Keating, ALP

1995

From September Disability Support Pension (DSP) recipients could retain fringe benefits for 12 months after losing eligibility due to earnings.

Keating, ALP

2004 From December a utilities allowance of $100 for a single person and $50 for each member of a couple was paid annually to age pensioners and age service pensioners. The allowance was paid in two installments in March and September of each year. Howard, LIB-NPA
2006

In June a one-off payment  of $102.80 for a single person or $51.40 for a partnered person, was paid to people of age pension age in receipt of income support and recipients of Mature Age Allowance, Widow Allowance and Partner Allowance.

From July eligibility for Telephone Allowance was extended to Newstart and Youth Allowance recipients who had a' partial capacity to work' (partially disabled) or were single 'principal carers' (sole parents). They could retain eligibility for 12 months (disabled) or 6 months (sole parents) after ceasing to receive an allowance.

Eligibility for the Pensioner Concession Card was extended to Newstart and Youth Allowance recipients who had a 'partial capacity to work' (partially disabled) or were single 'principal carers' (sole parents). They could retain eligibility for 12 months (disabled) or 12 weeks (sole parents) after ceasing to receive an allowance.

Eligibility for Utilities Allowance was extended to recipients of Mature Age Allowance, Widow Allowance and Partner Allowance.

 

Howard, LIB-NPA
2007 In June a one-off payment  of $500 was paid to people of age pension age in receipt of income support and recipients of Mature Age Allowance, Widow Allowance and Partner Allowance. Howard, LIB-NPA
2008

From March the rate of Utilities Allowance was increased to $500 per annum for a single person and $250 per annum for a partnered person. It was paid quarterly. Eligibility was also extended to all people receiving Disability Support Pension, Carer Payment, Wife Pension, Widow B Pension and Bereavement Allowance.

The rate of Telephone Allowance for people recieving Age Pension, Disability Support Pension, Carer Payment and Commonwealth Seniors Health Card was increased to $132 per annum if they had an internet connection in their home.

In June a one-off payment  of $500 was paid to people of age pension age in receipt of income support and recipients of Mature Age Allowance, Widow Allowance, Wife Pension, Widow B Pension and Partner Allowance.

In December all pensioners received an economic Security Strategy payment of $1400 as part of the Government response to the Global Financial Crisis.

Rudd, ALP
2009

From September the Pension Supplement (PS) was introduced for recipients of Age Pension, Carer Payment, Wife Pension, Widow B Pension, Bereavement Allowance, Disability Support Pension (except if under 21 years without children) and certain other recipients of age pesnion age. PS combined the value of Telephone Allowance, Utilities Allowance, Pharmaceutical Allowance, the GST Supplement and an additional increase into one payment.

PS was income tested as part of the pension except that there was a minimum component that was not reduced until entitlement to the pension plus PS was reduced to nil. PS was paid fortnightly but up to half could be paid quarterly if the pensioner chose that option.

Rudd, ALP

Back to contents

Commonwealth Seniors Health Card from 1994

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

1994

From July the Commonwealth Seniors Health Card (CSHC) was introduced. The card gave access to concessional prescription medicines under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, free hearing aids and certain free basic dental services. The card was available to people of age pension age who were not eligible for Age Pension (AP) for some reason such as insufficient length of residence or high asset holdings, but whose incomes would qualify them for AP under the income test.

Keating, ALP

1999

From January the income test for the CSHC was changed to one based on taxable income and the income limits were increased to $40 000 per annum for a single person and $67 000 for a couple. Taxable income would be adjusted to include foreign income, certain employer-provided fringe benefits and the value of net rental property losses.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2001

From September holders of the CSHC were entitled to receive the telephone allowance of $17.20 per quarter.

The income limits under the income test for the CSHC were increased to $50 000 per annum for single people and $80 000 per annum for couples.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2004 From December a Seniors Concession Allowance of $200 per annum was payable to holders of the CSHC to compensate for them being ineligible for the same range of State and Territory concessions as social security pensioners. The allowance was paid in two installments in December and June of each year. Howard, LIB-NPA
2006 In June a one-off payment of $102.80 was paid to those eligible for the Seniors Concession Allowance. Howard, LIB-NPA
2007 In June a one-off payment of $500 was paid to those eligible for the Seniors Concession Allowance. Howard, LIB-NPA
2008

From March Seniors Concession Allowance was paid quarterly and the rate was increased to $500 per annum.

In June a one-off payment of $500 was paid to those eligible for the Seniors Concession Allowance.

In December all recipients of Seniors Concession Allowance

received an economic Security Strategy payment of $1400 as part of the Government response to the Global Financial Crisis.

Rudd, ALP
2009 From September the Senior Concession Allowance and Telephone Allowance were combined to form Seniors Supplement (SS). The single rate was also increased to bring it to two-thirds of the combined couple rate. SS was paid at the rate of $785.20 pa for single people and $692.80 for a partnered person in four quarterly payments. Rudd,ALP

Back to contents

Mobility Allowance from 1983

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

Original Enabling Legislation

Social Security Legislation Amendment Act 1982 (No. 98 of 1982)

1983

From April:

  • Mobility Allowance (MA) was introduced for severely handicapped people in employment or vocational training who were unable to use public transport without substantial assistance. MA was tax-free and income test free. It was paid at the rate of $10 per week.
  • recipients had to be aged 16 years or more, be legally present in Australia and be undertaking employment or vocational training for at least 20 hours per week. MA could continue for three months after employment or training ceased. It could not be paid where a person was provided with a vehicle under the gift car scheme for veterans or had been provided with a sales tax exemption on a new vehicle during the previous two years.

Hawke, ALP

1986

From November MA was payable where the claimant performed a combination of employment and vocational training for at least 20 hours per week.

Hawke, ALP

1993

From January MA was indexed annually in line with movements in the CPI.

From March:

  • MA recipients could choose to take their entitlement as a lump sum advance payment equivalent to six-months of MA. They could do this once in any twelve month period.
  • Qualification for MA was extended to people who were unable to use public transport unaided and were undertaking job search or doing voluntary work for at least eight hours per week.

Keating, ALP

1994

From May eligibility was extended to people undertaking job search activities under a Competitive Employment, Placement and Training Program (CETP).

Keating, ALP

1995

From September eligibility for MA was extended to handicapped recipients of NSA/JSA/YTA.

Keating, ALP

2000

From July the rate of MA was increased as part of the package of measures to compensate for the introduction of the GST.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2006 From July a higher rate of MA was introduced for people receiving Disability Support Pension, Newstart Allowance or Youth Allowance (not students) , who could not use public transport without substantial assistance and who were undertaking job search for a part-time job of at least 15 hours per week or who were working part-time for at least 15 hours per week. The higher rate was $100 per fortnight and was indexed to the CPI annually.  

Back to contents

Supplementary Assistance 1958 to 1985, Rent Assistance from 1985

Commencement Date

Details

Government at Commencement

Original Enabling Legislation:

Social Services Act (No. 2) 1970 (No. 59 of 1970)

1958

From October Supplementary Assistance (SA) was introduced for pensioners paying rent and having no more than ten shillings per week of private income. It was paid at the rate of ten shillings for single pensioners and married pensioners where only one spouse was receiving a payment.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1965

From October:

  • Eligibility for SA was extended to pensioners whose wives received a Wife s Allowance and to single residents of benevolent homes.
  • The means test was altered so that SA was reduced by the amount of means as assessed in excess of 26 pounds.

Menzies, LIB-CP

1968

From September married age or invalid pensioners, whose spouses were receiving benefits, became eligible for SA.

Gorton, LIB-CP

1970

From March married pensioners who had to live apart due to illness became eligible for SA.

Gorton, LIB-CP

1974

From November:

  • The amount of SA was restricted to the amount of rent actually paid.
  • SA for sheltered employment allowees was replaced by Incentive Allowance. The new allowance was paid at the rate of $5 per week and was means test free.

Whitlam, ALP

1982

From February the maximum rate of SA became either $8 per week or one half of the amount by which rent paid or payable was more than $10 per week, whichever was the lower. Tenants of government housing authorities ceased to be eligible.

Fraser, LIB-NCP

1984

From March SA was no longer subject to income tax.

Hawke, ALP

1985

From September Supplementary Assistance was renamed Rent Assistance (RA).

Hawke, ALP

1986

From December the rent threshold above which RA was payable was increased to $15 per week.

Hawke, ALP

1987

From July the separate income test on RA was abolished and RA was means tested under the pension income test.

From December RA for families with children was paid as part of Family Allowance Supplement (FAS).

Hawke, ALP

1989

From June:

  • A $5 per week payment was added to RA for those with children.
  • Ex-prisoners were able to reduce the waiting period by the length of time they spent in prison.
  • The rent threshold above which RA was payable was raised to $20 per week.
  • Those paying for board and lodgings had only two-thirds of their payment counted as rent.

From December the maximum rate was standardised across all pensions, benefits and family allowance supplement.

Hawke, ALP

1990

From June a higher rate was introduced for those with three or more children.

Hawke, ALP

1991

From March:

  • The rent threshold above which RA was paid was increased to $25 per week.
  • Twice yearly indexation in line with movements of the CPI was introduced for the rate of RA.

Hawke, ALP

1993

From March:

  • The rent threshold above which RA is payable was indexed and set at levels which varied according to family situation. For single people with no children the threshold was $60 per fortnight, for single people with children $80 per fortnight, for couples without children $100 per fortnight and for couples with children $120 per fortnight.
  • Above the new thresholds RA was paid at the rate of 75 cents for each dollar of rent paid up to the maximum amount.

Keating, ALP

1996

From March the following changes occurred:

  • Maximum rates of RA were increased by $5 per fortnight for families with children
  • The minimum amount of rent that must be paid to receive RA was raised by $5, and
  • People receiving RA under various savings provisions resulting from previous changes in RA conditions had their rate frozen until general rates caught up to their higher saved rate.

Howard, LIB-NPA

1997

From July single people sharing accommodation were eligible for a maximum rate of RA which was two thirds of the maximum rate payable to other people receiving RA. People receiving Carer Payment (CP) or Disability Support Pension (DSP) were exempt from this change.

Howard, LIB-NPA

1998

From January people who lived in public housing but were not the primary tenant were to be excluded from eligibility for RA. Exemptions applied where the primary tenant was unsubsidised or where the State Housing Authority had been notified of the sub-tenants presence and their income had been taken into account in setting the rent for the household.

Howard, LIB-NPA

2000

From July the rates of payment for RA were increased as part of a package of measures to compensate for the introduction of the GST.

Howard, LIB-NPA

Back to contents

Table 5: Maximum Rates of Supplementary Allowance/Rent Assistance for Pensioners from 1958

Date of Effect

Basic Rate

 
 

$ per fortnight

 

23.10.58

2.00

 

14.10.65

4.00

 

05.10.72

8.00

 

14.11.74

10.00

 

11.02.82

16.00

 

04.11.82

20.00

 

01.11.84

30.00

 

22.06.89

30.00

 

21.12.89

40.00

 

21.06.90

50.00

 

27.09.90

60.00

 

28.03.91

62.00

 

28.03.92

62.90

 

20.09.92

63.00

 
 

Couple

Single

20.03.93

63.20

67.20

20.09.93

64.00

68.00

20.03.94

64.40

68.40

20.09.94

65.20

69.20

20.03.95

66.20

70.20

20.09.95

68.20

72.40

20.03.96

69.60

73.80

20.09.96

70.40

74.60

20.03.97

70.60

74.80

20.09.97

70.60

74.80

20.09.98

71.00

75.20

20.03.99

71.40

75.80

20.09.99

71.60

76.00

20.03.00

72.60

77.20

01.07.00

79.80

85.00

20.09.00

81.20

86.40

20.03.01

82.80

88.00

20.09.01

84.40

89.60

20.03.02

85.40

90.60

20.09.02

86.80

92.00

20.03.03

88.00

93.20

20.09.03

89.20

94.40

20.03.04
90.20
95.40
20.09.04
91.40
96.80
20.03.05
92.40
98.00
20.09.05
93.60
99.20
20.03.06
95.00
100.60
20.09.06
97.40
103.20
20.03.07
98.20
104.00
20.09.07
99.40
105.40
20.03.08
101.00
107.20
20.09.08
103.80
110.20
20.03.09
104.80
111.20
20.09.09
105.40
111.80
20.03.10
107.00
113.40
20.09.10
108.60
115.20

Back to contents

Commonwealth of Australia
Chronologies are written for Members of Parliament, being located on the Internet they can be read by members of the public, however some linked items are available to Members of Parliament only, due to copyright reasons.


Top