House of Representatives By-elections 1901-2002


Current Issues Brief Index 2002-03

Current Issues Brief No 15

House of Representatives By-elections 1901-2002

Gerard Newman, Statistics Group
Scott Bennett, Politics and Public Administration Group
3 March 2003

Contents

Major Issues

Contests
Causes
Outcomes

The organisation of Commonwealth by-elections

The reasons why by-elections have been held
The timing of by-elections
Vacancies for which no by-election was held 1901-2002

Number of nominations
Candidates per by-election

Voter turnout

Party performance

Seats lost at by-elections 1901-2002
Impact upon party
Impact upon Government/Opposition
Party performance at by-elections 1901-2002
By-elections caused by resignation-safeness of seat 1949-2002
Analysing by-election swings since 1949
Average swings against government: by-elections 1949-2002
Two-party preferred swings, By-elections 1949-2002

Personal and political matters

The changing of the old guard
Future Prime Ministers
The passing of Prime Ministers
The passing of leaders of the Opposition
Family matters
Famous entries into the House
Kicked upstairs?
A matter of treason
By-elections that caused ripples
Voided elections


Endnotes
Appendix 1: Schedule of House of Representatives By-elections, 1901-2002
Appendix 2: Electoral division details

Appendix 3: Notes on Commonwealth by-elections
Appendix 4: By-election timing
Appendix 5

General studies
Case studies
Commonwealth
State

Party Abbreviations

AAP

Advance Australia Party

AC

Australian Constitutionalist

AFI

Australians Against Further Immigration

ALP

Australian Labor Party

ANAG

Australian National Action Group

AntiSoc

Anti-Socialist

AP

Australia Party

APPG

Australian Pensioner Pressure Group

AR

Australian Republican

ARM

Australian Reform Movement

ASP

Australian Shooters Party

Atok

Atokist

CDP

Christian Democratic Party

CEC

Citizens Electoral Council

Com

Communist Party

Cons

Conservative

Const

Constitutionalist

CP

Country Party

CRep

Constitutional Republican

CTA

Call to Australia

Dem

Australian Democrats

DLP

Democratic Labor Party

DOGS

Council for the Defence of Government Schools

DSP

Deadly Serious Party

EcRef

Economic Reform

FLP

Federal Labor Party

FLR

Family Law Reform Party

FP

Farmers' Party

FPA

Federal Party of Australia

FST

Australia First Party

FT

Free Trade

Grn

Greens

Gry

Grey Power

GWA

The Greens (WA)

HAN

Pauline Hanson's One Nation

HMP

Help End Marijuana Prohibition

HPA

Hope Party Australia

ICP

Independent CP

ILab

Independent Labor

ILCL

Independent Liberal Country League

ILib

Independent Liberal

INat

Independent Nationalist

Ind

Independent

LFF

Liberals for forests

Lib

Liberal Party

LibF

Liberal Forum

LLab

Lang Labor

LP

Liberal Party

LRG

Liberal Reform Group

NA

National Alliance

NAP

New Australian Party

Nat

Nationalist

NCPP

Non-Custodial Parents Party

NGST

No GST Party

NHP

National Humanitarian Party

NLP

Natural Law Party

NP

National Party

NSP

National Socialist Party

PCP

Progressive Conservative Party

PORP

Property Owners' Rights Party

PP

Progress Party

Prot

Protectionist

ProtLab

Protestant Labor

RARI

Reclaim Australia: Reduce Immigration

RPA

Republican Party of Australia

RSNP

Returned Soldiers National Party

SA

Socialist Alliance

SC

Social Credit

SLib

State Liberal

Soc

Socialist

SPA

Socialist Party of Australia

SWP

Socialist Workers' Party

TA

Taxpayers' Association

UAP

United Australia Party

UM

Uninflated Movement

Unite

Unite Australia Party

UTG

United Tasmanian Group

UWU

Unemployed Workers Union

VFU

Victorian Farmers' Union

VOTE

Voice of the Elderly

 

Major Issues

By-elections are held to fill vacancies in the House of Representatives. This paper gives details of by-elections held from the first for Darling Downs on 14 September 1901 to the most recent held on 19 October 2002 for Cunningham.

Among the major points made in the paper:

Contests

  • Since September 1901 there have been 140 by-elections, an average of 3.5 per parliament.
  • The number of contestants has grown over the years from 2.2 per by-election
  • (1901-18) to 8.7 per by-election (1990-2002).
  • In only four cases (2.9 per cent) was a by-election contested by just a single candidate.
  • An increasing tendency has been for governments to avoid contesting by-elections in their opponents' safe seats. Since 1990 this has occurred in 10 of the 18 by-elections held.
  • In only seven cases (5 per cent) has the Opposition party failed to contest a by-election, the most recent case being Bradfield in 1952.

Causes

  • Sixty-seven (47.9 per cent) of the by-elections occurred because of the death of the member, 67 (47.9 per cent) as the result of the resignation of the member, five (3.6 per cent) because of voided elections, and one (0.7 per cent) because of the expulsion of the Member from the House (Kalgoorlie 1920).
  • Since 1949 most by-elections have been caused by the resignation of the sitting member and have occurred in safe seats. Only eight of 52 by-elections in this period (15.4 per cent) have occurred in marginal seats.

Outcomes

  • On 34 occasions (24.3 per cent) the party complexion of a seat has altered at a by-election.
  • Twenty-four of these (17.1 per cent) have been in seats lost by the government of the day. The most recent case was the loss of Ryan by the Coalition Government to Labor in 2001.
  • Four of the losses (2.9 per cent) have been by the Opposition of the day. The most recent case was the loss of Cunningham by Labor to the Greens in 2002.
  • The average two-party preferred swing against the government of the day has been 4.0 per cent, while the average swing in government-held seats was 5.0 per cent against the government.
  • In the period since 1949, the largest two-party swing against a government occurred in Canberra in 1995 when the ALP Government's vote fell by 16.1 per cent. The largest swing to a government was 16.2 per cent, which occurred in the Coalition Government's seat of McPherson in 1981.

The organisation of Commonwealth by-elections

By-elections are held to fill vacancies in the House of Representatives resulting from the death, resignation, absence without leave, expulsion, disqualification or ineligibility of a Member.

  • There have been 140 Commonwealth by-elections held since Federation.
  • The first was held in the Queensland seat of Darling Downs, on 14 September 1901 barely four months after the opening of the new Commonwealth Parliament.
  • The most recent by-election was held in the New South Wales seat of Cunningham on 19 October 2002.

The reasons why by-elections have been held

Of the 140 by-elections, 67 (47.9 per cent) have occurred because of the death of the member, 67 (47.9 per cent) as the result of the resignation of the member, five (3.6 per cent) because of voided elections, and one (0.7 per cent) because of the expulsion of the member from the House (Kalgoorlie 1920).

The pattern has altered quite markedly, however:

  • From 1901 to 1970, 63.3 per cent of all by-elections were brought about by death.
  • By contrast, since 1971 85.7 per cent of all by-elections have been brought about by resignation.
  • Goot reports a similar phenomenon in New South Wales by-elections, with 1969 the first year in which more by-elections were brought by resignation than by death-in Commonwealth elections this occurred just five years earlier.(1)

Years

Vacancy due to
death
(%)

Vacancy due to
resignation
(%)

Other
(%)

1901-70

63.3

31.6

5.1

Since 1971

11.9

85.7

2.4

Various factors are probably relevant here.

Members today enter the House of Representatives at a significantly younger age than used to be the case. Of the 40 parliaments to date, the second quarter's intake (1929-51) was the oldest, averaging 48.3 years per new Member. By contrast, the fourth quarter's intake (1977-2001) was the youngest at 42.2 years per new Member.(2) Another factor is the greater preparedness of Members to leave Parliament before death, quite often to pursue another career. This has been aided by a third consideration, namely the general increase in longevity of male Australians.

The timing of by-elections

The Constitution (s. 33) confers on the Speaker of the House of Representatives the power to issue a writ for the election of a new Member. The Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 specifies that the election must be held between 33 and 68 days from the date the writ is issued.

Interestingly, there is no prescribed time period within which a by-election writ must be issued, and, in fact, there is no accepted view as to the period that should elapse between vacancy and polling day.

Perhaps surprisingly this has not become a matter of any long-term political debate, allowing governments a great deal of freedom in the setting of by-election dates. The length of time from a vacancy until polling day has therefore varied considerably, with the maximum number of days being the 82 days for Moreton in 1983, and the minimum being the 17 days for East Sydney in 1903.(3) The total elapsed time from vacancy to election has increased since 1901. Between 1901 and 1949, the average was 40.3 days, whereas during the period 1949 to 2002 the average has been 51.2 days. The average figure for all by-elections has been 46.7 days.

Ideally, of course, by-elections are held as early as possible after a seat becomes vacant, 'so that the electors are not left without representation any longer than is necessary'.(4) In fact, such a consideration is occasionally pushed aside by short-term political factors.

On 22 October 1982, the member for Flinders (Phillip Lynch) resigned his seat. The Speaker fixed 4 December as the date for a by-election, but also declared that there would be a delay of three almost three weeks before the writs for the by-election would be issued. According to Summers, this gave the Fraser Government the option of calling a general election for 4 or 11 December. The by-election could therefore have been pushed aside.(5)

In the cases of the eight by-elections held during 1994-5, the delay between the date of the seat becoming vacant and the date of the issuing of the writ varied considerably. The cases of Mackellar (35 days) and Kooyong (27 days) contrasted with the virtually instantaneous issuing of writs for by-elections in Fremantle, Boynthon and Warringah:

Division

Held by

Date of vacancy

Date of writ

Delay in issuing writ

Elapsed time from vacancy to election

Werriwa (NSW)

ALP

22.12.93

24.12.93

2 days

38 days

Fremantle (WA)

ALP

04.02.94

04.02.94

None

36 days

Bonython (SA)

ALP

11.02.94

11.02.94

None

36 days

Mackellar (NSW)

LP

14.01.94

18.02.94

35 days

71 days

Warringah (NSW)

LP

18.02.94

18.02.94

None

36 days

Kooyong (Vic)

LP

17.09.94

14.10.94

27 days

63 days

Canberra (ACT)

ALP

30.01.95

17.02.95

18 days

54 days

Wentworth (NSW)

LP

28.02.95

03.03.95

3 days

39 days

The variation that is allowed in regard to by-election dates is thus an interesting anomaly in an electoral system that is generally highly regulated.

Appendix 4 provides details of the timing of all by-elections held between September 1901 and October 2002. It also shows the number of days elapsed between the seat becoming vacant and the by-election date, as well as the number of days elapsed since the previous general election, and the number of days between the by-election and the next general election.

There have been 20 occasions when the Speaker has in fact declined to issue such a writ for a by-election due to a pending general election. The longest period a seat has been without a member prior to a general election was 128 days in the case of Hindmarsh in 1909-10. The shortest period was the 39 days between the plane crash on 13 August 1940 that killed three members and the election of 21 September 1940.

Vacancies for which no by-election was held 1901-2002.

 

Division

Vacant

Next election

Days

Hunter (NSW)

30.09.03

16.12.03

77

Indi (Vic)

12.10.06

12.12.06

61

Northern Melbourne (Vic)

13.10.06

12.12.06

60

Hindmarsh (SA)

06.12.09

13.04.10

128

East Sydney (NSW)

24.12.09

13.04.10

110

West Sydney (NSW)

06.09.28

17.11.28

72

Wimmera (Vic)

14.10.31

19.12.31

66

Martin (NSW)

05.06.34

15.09.34

102

Ballarat (Vic)

31.07.34

15.09.34

46

Werriwa (NSW)

02.08.34

15.09.34

44

Henty (Vic)

13.08.40

21.09.40

39

Flinders (Vic)

13.08.40

21.09.40

39

Corangamite (Vic)

13.08.40

21.09.40

39

West Sydney (NSW)

14.08.46

28.09.46

45

Hindmarsh (SA)

14.08.46

28.09.46

45

McMillan (Vic)

14.10.55

10.12.55

57

Leichhardt (Qld)

11.10.58

22.11.58

42

Warringah (NSW)

03.08.66

26.11.66

110

Bonython (SA)

30.09.77

10.12.77

71

Wills (Vic)

25.11.92

13.03.93

108

Number of nominations

The 140 by-elections have been contested by an average of 4.5 candidates. Over the years, however, there has been a steady increase in the number of nominations.

In the 24 first-past-the-post cases between 1901 and 1918 (October), the average number of nominations was 2.2 per contest.

In the 116 preferential voting cases there have been an average of 5.0 nominations per by-election.

  • Between the introduction of preferential voting in 1918 (December) to the start of 1970, there was an average of 3.7 nominations per by-election.
  • The 1970s and 1980s saw the first of two significant increases in candidate numbers, with 6.2 candidates per by-election over these decades.
  • This has been exceeded during 1990-2002, with the average climbing to 8.7 candidates per contest.

The record number of nominations occurred in this latter decade in Wills 1992, when 22 nominations were received to fill the seat vacated by former Prime Minister Hawke.

Candidates per by-election

Years

By-elections

Average number of candidates

Largest number of candidates

1901-2002

140

4.5

22 (Wills 1992)

1901-18 (first-past-the-post)

24

2.2

4 (Tasmania 1902)

1918-2002 (preferential voting)

116

5.0

22 (Wills 1992)

 

 

 

 

Preferential voting

 

 

 

1918-29

15

3.2

5 (3 cases)

1930-39

12

3.7

6 (Wilmot 1939)

1940-49

7

4.0

7 (Wimmera 1946)

1950-59

16

3.7

6 (3 cases)

1960-69

22

3.9

5 (8 cases)

1970-79

8

6.5

12 (Parramatta 1973)

1980-89

18

6.1

12 (Lowe 1982)

1990-2002

18

8.7

22 (Wills 1992)

In only four cases (2.9 per cent) (Kalgoorlie 1913, Dalley 1915, Wide Bay 1928, Cunningham 1956) was a by-election contested by just a single candidate.

In recent years there has been a tendency for governments to avoid contesting by-elections in their opponents' safe seats. Since 1990 the incumbent government has failed to contest 10 of the 18 by-elections held. In all cases bar one this has meant an easy win to the party holding the seat. In the case of Cunningham in 2002, however, the absence of a Liberal candidate helped the Green candidate win the seat from the ALP.(6)

By way of contrast, oppositions have contested every by-election since Bradfield in 1952. In seven cases (5.0 per cent), over the whole period the Opposition has failed to contest a by-election (Darling Downs 1901, Echuca 1907, Dalley 1915, Echuca 1919, Wide Bay 1928, Balaclava 1929, Bradfield 1952).

Voter turnout

  • During the period of voluntary voting (1901-24) the average turnout was just 56.7 per cent.(7) The lowest figure was 15.1 per cent (East Sydney 1903).
  • Since the introduction of compulsory voting in 1924, the average by-election turnout figure has been 87.8 per cent. This contrasts with a 95.1 per cent turnout in general elections over that period.
  • During the compulsory voting years, there has been a slight fall in the by-election turnout figure. Prior to 1970 the turnout in 62 by-elections was 88.5 per cent; the turnout for the 44 by-elections since 1970 has been 86.8 per cent. In the 18 contests between 1991 and 2002 the turnout has been 86.7 per cent.
  • The lowest turnout figure for the compulsory voting period has been 69.5 per cent (Wentworth 1981).

Party performance

In 34 of the 140 by-elections (24.3 per cent) a seat has altered its party complexion:

Seats lost at by-elections 1901-2002

 

Division

Government

Sitting party

Winning party

Melbourne (Vic) 1904

Prot

Prot

ALP

Riverina (NSW) 1904

ALP

FT

Prot

Adelaide (SA) 1908

Prot

Prot

ALP

Boothby (SA) 1911

ALP

ALP

Lib

Grampians (Vic) 1915

ALP

ALP

Lib

Wide Bay (Qld) 1915

ALP

ALP

Lib

Swan (WA) 1918

Nat

Nat

ALP

Corangamite (Vic) 1918

Nat

Nat

VFU

Echuca (Vic) 1919

Nat

Nat

VFU

Ballarat (Vic) 1920

Nat

Nat

ALP

Kalgoorlie (WA) 1920

Nat

ALP

Nat

Maranoa (Qld) 1921

Nat

ALP

CP

Wide Bay (Qld) 1928

Nat

Nat

CP

Franklin (Tas) 1929

ALP

Ind

ALP

Parkes (NSW) 1931

ALP

ALP

Nat

East Sydney (NSW) 1932

UAP

UAP

LLab

Darling Downs (Qld) 1936

UAP

UAP

CP

Gwydir (NSW) 1937

UAP/CP

CP

ALP

Wakefield (SA) 1938

UAP/CP

UAP

ALP

Wilmot (Tas) 1939

UAP/CP

UAP

ALP

Corio (Vic) 1940

UAP

UAP

ALP

Henty (Vic) 1946

ALP

Ind

LP

Flinders (Vic) 1952

LP/CP

LP

ALP

Calare (NSW) 1960

LP/CP

LP

CP

Dawson (Qld) 1966

LP/CP

CP

ALP

Corio (Vic) 1967

LP/CP

LP

ALP

Bass (Tas) 1975

ALP

ALP

LP

Lowe (NSW) 1982

LP/NP

LP

ALP

Adelaide (SA) 1988

ALP

ALP

LP

Groom (Qld) 1988

ALP

NP

LP

Wills (Vic) 1992

ALP

ALP

Ind

Canberra (ACT) 1995

ALP

ALP

LP

Ryan (Qld) 2001

LP/NP

LP

ALP

Cunningham (NSW) 2002

LP/NP

ALP

Grn

Note: By the time of the Grampians by-election of 1917, the Liberal Party had been subsumed by the Nationalist Party. This by-election is therefore not included as an occasion when the seat changed party hands.

Impact upon party

  • Twenty-seven (19.3 per cent) by-elections have been lost by a major party to another major party.

Four (2.9 per cent) have been lost by a major party to a minor party (Corangamite 1918, Echuca 1919, East Sydney 1932, Cunningham 2002).

  • One (0.7 per cent) has been lost by a major party to an independent (Wills 1992).
  • Two (1.4 per cent) previously held by independents were won by a major party (Franklin 1929, Henty 1946).

Impact upon Government/Opposition

  • Twenty-four by-elections (17.1 per cent) have been lost by the government of the day.
  • Four (2.9 per cent) have been lost by the opposition of the day (Riverina 1904, Kalgoorlie 1920, Maranoa 1921, Cunningham 2002).
  • Four (2.9 per cent) have been lost by one Coalition partner to another (Wide Bay 1928, Darling Downs 1936, Calare 1960, Groom 1988). Note that the losses of Corangamite in 1918 and Echuca in 1919 by the Nationalist Party were both to the Victorian Farmers Union which shortly thereafter formed the Country Party. However, as there was no formal anti-Labor coalition at this time, these are not included here.
  • Two seats (1.4 per cent) that had been held by an independent MP were won by the government of the day (Franklin 1929, Henty 1946).

In terms of winning seats from other parties, over the long haul the major non-Labor parties of the day had not done quite as well as its rivals:

Party performance at by-elections 1901-2002

Party

Seats gained

Seats lost

ALP

14

11

Major non-Labor parties*

11

18

CP/NP

4

3

Other

5

2

* These figures include Riverina 1904, won by the Protectionists from the Free Traders.

On nine of the 34 occasions where a seat has changed party hands at a by-election (Boothby 1911, Swan 1918, Kalgoorlie 1920, Wakefield 1938, Wilmot 1939, Flinders 1952, Adelaide 1988, Canberra 1995 and Ryan 2001), the party that won the seat at the by-election lost the seat at the next general election.

The fact that relatively few seats have changed party hands in by-elections is probably due more to the propensity for by-elections to occur in safe seats, rather than any other factor. Political parties and individual members are only too aware of the possible political consequences of losing a seat at a by-election, and thus try to ensure that by-elections caused by resignation occur only in relatively safe seats. For example, since 1949, of the 52 by-elections that were caused by the resignation of the sitting member, only eight have been in marginal seats (i.e. seats requiring a swing of less than 6.0 per cent to change hands). By far the largest number of by-elections, 32, have occurred in safe seats (i.e. seats requiring a swing of over 10 per cent to change hands).

By-elections caused by resignation-safeness of seat 1949-2002

No

% of total

Marginal

8

15.4

Fairly Safe

12

23.1

Safe

32

61.5

Total

52

100.0

Of the 67 seats vacated by death, 15 have been lost by the party holding the seat, identical figures for the 67 seats vacated by resignation.

Analysing by-election swings since 1949(8)

Apart from a party's success or defeat in a by-election, the most important aspect of a by-election is the swing that takes place. Conventional wisdom holds that there is usually a swing against the government of the day at a by-election. The success or otherwise of a government, opposition, or party leader at the by-election is often measured by the size of the swing in comparison with the average swing recorded in past by-elections. However, by-elections occur in varied and disparate electoral divisions, with different numbers and mixes of candidates, and with a variety of local, state and national issues involved. It could therefore be argued that given the variety of factors involved, there is no 'normal' by-election swing. By-elections are held in such different circumstances that none can be regarded as typical, and it is generally agreed that any swing that occurs, is usually explained by the special factors pertaining to each by-election.(9)

By-election swings can be calculated by comparing the first preference and two-party preferred votes received by the various parties at the by-election, with the votes at the previous general election. The two-party preferred swing is more commonly used, as it overcomes some of the difficulties inherent in using first preference swings. First preference swings can be affected by the number and nature of candidates and parties contesting the by-election when compared with the previous general election.

Average first preference and two-party preferred vote swings for by-elections held between 1949 and October 2002 are given below. Swings cannot be calculated where one of the major parties (i.e. ALP or LP/NP Coalition) did not stand a candidate at the by-election or the preceding general election, or where the division was uncontested at the by-election or the preceding general election.

Average swings against government: by-elections 1949-2002

 

First Preference Swing
Average swing

Two-party Preferred Swing

All By-elections

-5.7%

-4.0%

Government held seats

-6.6%

-5.0%

LP/NP Governments

-4.8%

-3.4%

ALP Governments

-8.2%

-5.4%

By-elections caused by death

-3.0%

-2.5%

By-elections caused by resignation

-7.2%

-5.0%

The average two-party preferred swing against the government of the day in all by-elections held during the period 1949 to 2002 was 4.0 per cent. The swing against ALP governments, 5.4 per cent, was somewhat higher than the swing against LP/NP Coalition governments, 3.4 per cent, while the swing against the government in government-held seats was 5.0 per cent. The average two-party preferred swing in by-elections caused by the death of the sitting member was half the swing in by-elections caused by the resignation of the member.

Two-party preferred swings at by-elections during the period have varied from an anti-government swing of 16.1 per cent (Canberra 1995) to a swing of 16.2 per cent to the government (McPherson 1981). The largest swing against an ALP Government was the Canberra figure, while the largest swing against a LP/(CP)NP Coalition Government was achieved when Gough Whitlam won Werriwa in 1952 with a 12.4 per cent swing. Two-party preferred swings to the government of the day are a rare event in by-elections, with only ten being recorded during the period. The largest swing to an ALP Government was in Wills in 1992 with a 5.9 per cent swing (although the ALP lost the seat to an independent candidate, P. Cleary) while the largest swing to a LP/NP Coalition Government was in McPherson, referred to above. Because the number of candidates contesting a by-election is generally larger than the number contesting the previous general election, first preference swings against the government tend to be higher than two-party preferred swings.

Two-party preferred swings, By-elections 1949-2002

ALP Government

 

LP/NP Government

Division

Swing

Division

Swing

Parramatta 1973

-6.6

Balaclava 1951

-3.4

Bass 1975

-14.6

Macquarie 1951

+0.1

Wannon 1983

-1.5

Lyne 1952

-8.8

Bruce 1983

-3.8

Flinders 1952

-11.0

Moreton 1983

-1.2

Werriwa 1952

-12.4

Corangamite 1984

-1.3

Bradfield 1952

n.a.

Hughes 1984

-5.0

Dalley 1953

n.a.

Richmond 1984

+0.5

Lang 1953

-2.5

Scullin 1986

-4.4

Corangamite 1953

-6.5

Adelaide 1988

-8.4

Gwydir 1953

-0.4

Port Adelaide 1988

-11.1

Cook 1955

n.a.

Groom 1988

-5.2

Cunningham 1956

n.a.

Oxley 1988

-11.8

Barker 1956

-9.9

Gwydir 1989

n.a.

Wentworth 1956

n.a.

Menzies 1991

n.a.

Richmond 1957

n.a.

Wills 1992

+5.9

Parramatta 1958

-6.4

Werriwa 1994

-6.3

Hunter 1960

n.a.

Fremantle 1994

+1.0

La Trobe 1960

-7.5

Bonython 1994

-7.8

Balaclava 1960

-4.6

Mackellar 1994

n.a.

Bendigo 1960

+0.1

Warringah 1994

n.a.

Calare 1960

+1.0

Kooyong 1994

n.a.

Higinbotham 1960

-9.2

Canberra 1995

-16.1

Batman 1962

n.a.

Wentworth 1995

n.a.

Grey 1963

+4.9

East Sydney 1963

n.a.

Denison 1964

-1.9

Angas 1964

-2.1

Parramatta 1964

-3.0

Robertson 1964

-1.4

Riverina 1965

-0.9

Dawson 1966

-11.9

Kooyong 1966

-3.8

Corio 1967

-11.1

Capricornia 1967

+1.5

Higgins 1968

-0.3

Curtin 1969

-7.1

Bendigo 1969

+2.1

Gwydir 1969

-7.7

Australian Capital Territory 1970

+13.8

Chisholm 1970

-2.8

Murray 1971

-0.4

Cunningham 1977

-0.3

Werriwa 1978

-11.3

Grayndler 1979

-6.9

McPherson 1981

+16.2

Boothby 1981

-1.2

Curtin 1981

-7.5

Wentworth 1981

-6.2

Lowe 1982

-8.5

Flinders 1982

-3.3

Blaxland 1996

n.a.

Lindsay 1996

+5.0

Fraser 1997

n.a.

Holt 1999

n.a.

Isaacs 2000

n.a.

Ryan 2001

-9.7

Aston 2001

-3.7

n.a. not applicable

Personal and political matters(10)

A stark listing of 140 electoral contests can disguise the fact that many of them involved noteworthy personal and political matters that are part of Australia's political history. Some of these are referred to below.

The changing of the old guard

A number of members were senior politicians before they entered the national Parliament, with this latter service being the swan-song for a number of them:

  • The only convict to enter the Parliament, William Groom, died on 8 August 1901 soon after the opening of Parliament (Darling Downs 1901).
  • Three aged Constitution-writers all died in the first decade: Edward Braddon (Wilmot 1904), Charles Cameron Kingston (Adelaide 1908) and Frederick Holder (Wakefield 1909). John Forrest (Swan 1918), by contrast, enjoyed a much longer Commonwealth career, which included several ministries, with four periods as Treasurer.

Future Prime Ministers

Six future Prime Ministers entered the House of Representatives via by-elections. For Stanley Melbourne Bruce (Flinders 1918), Harold Holt (Fawkner 1935), Arthur Fadden (Darling Downs 1936) and Gough Whitlam (Werriwa 1952) this saw their entry into Parliament for the first time. James Scullin (Yarra 1922) had already served a term during 1910-13, while John Gorton (Higgins 1968) had recently retired from the Senate.

The passing of Prime Ministers

The passing from Parliament of fifteen of the twenty-five MPs who have held the office of Prime Minister has been the trigger for a by-election:

  • In two cases (Wilmot 1939, Fremantle 1945) the by-election followed the death of the Prime Minister while in office-Joe Lyons and John Curtin, respectively. The by-election in Higgins in 1968 was caused by the disappearance while swimming, of Prime Minister Harold Holt.
  • Ben Chifley (Macquarie 1951) and Billy Hughes (Bradfield 1952) remained in Parliament after losing office, and both died while still MPs.
  • Some early Prime Ministers resigned from Parliament to assume other positions. Andrew Fisher (Wide Bay 1915) and Joseph Cook (Parramatta 1921) both became Australian High Commissioner in London. S. M. Bruce had lost his seat in 1929, returned to the House in 1931, and left Parliament for good when he was appointed as Resident Minister in London (Flinders 1933).
  • Since the departure of Robert Menzies (Kooyong 1966), John Gorton has been the only former Prime Minister not to have caused a by-election by his passing from the House of Representatives. John McEwen (Murray 1971), William McMahon (Lowe 1982) and Gough Whitlam (Werriwa 1978) all remained in Parliament for a time after ceasing to be Prime Minister before resigning from the House. By contrast, Malcolm Fraser (Wannon 1983), Bob Hawke (Wills 1992) and Paul Keating (Blaxland 1996) all resigned their seats very soon after their loss of office.

The passing of leaders of the Opposition

Of the twelve Leaders of the Opposition who have never become Prime Minister, the passing from Parliament of six has caused a by-election:

  • Frank Tudor (Yarra 1922) died in office.
  • H. V. Evatt (Hunter 1960), Bill Snedden (Bruce 1983), Bill Hayden (Oxley 1988), Andrew Peacock (Kooyong 1994) and John Hewson (Wentworth 1995) all left Parliament between general elections.

Family matters

Many MPs have been replaced by family members over the years. In four by-elections such a generational transfer has been from father to son:

  • Three were caused by death-Littleton Groom replacing William Groom (Darling Downs 1901), Bernard Corser replacing Edward Corser (Wide Bay 1928) and David Oliver Watkins replacing David Watkins (Newcastle 1935).
  • The fourth father to son replacement was when Harry Jenkins senior became Ambassador to Spain in 1986. He was replaced by Harry Jenkins junior (Scullin 1986).

In two cases the family transfer has been from uncle to nephew:

  • Herbert Pratten to Frederick Pratten (Martin 1928), and David Riordan to William Riordan (Kennedy 1936).

Famous entries into the House

Some MPs have achieved a national prominence prior to their election to the House of Representatives via a by-election:

  • William Spence (Darwin 1917) had been a co-founder and long-time President of the Australian Workers' Union.
  • Successive Queensland Premiers, T. J. Ryan (1915-19) and Edward Theodore (1919-25) entered the House of Representatives as MPs for New South Wales seats-Ryan in 1921 for West Sydney, and Theodore for Dalley in 1925.
  • Archie Grenfell Price (Boothby 1941), Master of St Mark's College, University of Adelaide, was a noted Australian geographer.
  • Garfield Barwick KC (Parramatta 1958) was a leading Australian barrister.
  • John Gorton (Higgins 1968), former prominent member of the Senate, entered following his replacement of Harold Holt as Prime Minister.
  • Steele Hall (Boothby 1981) had been Premier of South Australia 1968-70, as well as a Senator for South Australia.
  • Carmen Lawrence (Fremantle 1994) had been Premier of Western Australia 1990-3. Lawrence's success was the first by-election victory by a woman candidate.

Kicked upstairs?

Many MPs have been appointed to prominent positions, thus ending their parliamentary careers. Some have seen this as an ideal way in which to leave the political hurly-burly, while for others there has been a suggestion that this was a means to push a potential leadership contender out of the picture:

  • By-elections were caused when Paul Hasluck (Curtin 1969) and Bill Hayden (Oxley 1988) accepted the office of Governor-General.
  • Charles Abbott (Gwydir 1937) and Roger Dean (Robertson 1964) were both appointed Administrator of the Northern Territory, while Alex Wilson (Wimmera 1946) was appointed Administrator of Norfolk Island.
  • Some sudden departures have been caused by appointment to the judiciary. Edward McTiernan (Parkes 1931) and Garfield Barwick (Parramatta 1964) joined the High Court. Supreme Court appointments have also been made: William Irvine (Flinders 1918) in Victoria, H. V. Evatt (Hunter 1960) in New South Wales, and Percy Joske (Balaclava 1960) in the Australian Capital Territory. Bob Ellicott (Wentworth 1981) was appointed to the Federal Court, while Lionel Bowen (Parramatta 1973) joined the New South Wales Court of Appeal.
  • Various people have accepted ambassadorships: Richard Casey (Corio 1940) and Howard Beale (Parramatta 1958) to the USA, Hugh Roberton (Riverina 1965) to Ireland, Lance Barnard (Bass 1975) to Norway, Finland and Sweden, and Harry Jenkins senior (Scullin 1986) to Spain.
  • By far the most-used diplomatic position for appointments of former MPs has been the High Commissioner position in London, with the appointment of eight former Members forcing by-elections. Former Prime Ministers Fisher (Wide Bay 1915) and Cook (Parramatta 1921) began the list, followed by Granville Ryrie (Warringah 1927), Thomas White (Balaclava 1951), E. J. Harrison (Wentworth 1956), Alexander Downer sen. (Angas 1964), Vic Garland (Curtin 1981) and Neal Blewett (Bonython 1994). Hubert Opperman (Corio 1967) became High Commissioner to Malta, while Les Johnson (Hughes 1984) became High Commissioner to New Zealand.
  • Perhaps the most unusual of such appointments was of A. I. Allan (Gwydir 1969) to the Secretary-Generalship of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

A matter of treason

On 7 November 1920 Hugh Mahon chaired a public meeting sponsored by the Irish Ireland League, and in a speech attacking the British presence in Ireland, spoke of 'this bloody and accursed Empire'. His expulsion from the House four days later for his 'seditious and disloyal utterances', was due to the House finding that he had been 'guilty of conduct unfitting him to remain a member of this House'. Mahon's is the only expulsion to have occurred from the Parliament, and it forced a by-election (Kalgoorlie 1920). The House of Representatives lost this power with the passage of the Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987.

By-elections that caused ripples

Occasionally by-elections can be seen as having an importance beyond the immediate contest to fill a vacancy in the House of Representatives.

Occasionally by-elections are a sign of things to come electorally:

  • The by-election to replace Deputy Prime Minister, Lance Barnard (Bass 1975), gave a very clear indication of the decline in popularity of the Whitlam Government, that was confirmed in the December 1975 election.
  • The by-election to replace former Hawke and Keating Minister, Ros Kelly (Canberra 1995), presaged the Keating Government's defeat in the March 1996 election.(11)

Other by-elections have had a different type of political impact:

  • In late 1939, coalition negotiations between the United Australia Party and the Country Party broke down over Prime Minister Menzies' insistence on his right to choose all ministers. The 1940 Corio by-election to fill the place of Richard Casey unexpectedly produced a Labor victory. According to Earle Page this was instrumental in Menzies' weakening his stance and offering five Cabinet positions to the Country Party, with the leader of each party to choose his own party's representatives.(12)
  • The Dawson by-election of 26 February 1966 was fought largely for Labor by the candidate, Rex Patterson, and the party's deputy leader, Gough Whitlam. The national leader, Arthur Calwell, was convinced that Labor could not win and took little part. To the surprise of many, Patterson was successful. Whitlam was due to come before the Federal Executive of the ALP on 2 March to face possible disciplinary treatment, possibly even expulsion. According to Freudenberg, the last-minute change of stance of the Queensland delegates grateful to Whitlam for the Dawson result, saved his position-and possibly his political career.(13)
  • Labor's failure to win the seat of Flinders in a by-election of late 1982 was said to have had a double impact. Bill Hayden's position as Labor leader became increasingly insecure, while Prime Minister Fraser apparently became convinced of the need for an early election before there was any chance of Hayden's replacement by Bob Hawke. The consequential replacement of Hayden and the announcement of an early election on the same day were thus intimately connected with the by-election's outcome.(14)
  • During 1993-4 a lot of media discussion focussed on the possibility of Senator Bronwyn Bishop eventually assuming the leadership of the Liberal Party. When the seat of Mackellar fell vacant, Bishop secured Liberal preselection in an apparent move to clear the way for a push to the leadership. Labor did not contest the by-election and Bishop's main rival was the writer, Bob Ellis, standing as an independent. Although Bishop won the seat comfortably with 52.2 per cent of first preferences, the Liberal first preference vote had fallen by 4.4 per cent. Although this was hardly a major loss of votes, her failure to increase her vote in the absence of a Labor candidate, was enough to sink any chance she may have had for the Liberals' top job. As fellow Liberal, Peter Reith, put it, 'Most people within the parliamentary party were of the opinion that Bronwyn didn't have any votes within the parliamentary party ... if she didn't have many before Saturday [i.e. the by-election], she hasn't got any more today.'(15)

Voided elections

Some by-elections have been caused by the voiding of particular results after a general election: Melbourne and Riverina in 1904, Echuca 1907, Ballarat 1920 and Lindsay 1996.

The Wills by-election of 1992 was itself voided, but another by-election was not held because of the proximity of the next general election.

Endnotes

  1. Murray Goot, Swings and Roundabouts: New South Wales By-elections 1941 to 1986, New South Wales Parliamentary Library Background Paper 1987/1, Sydney, 1987, vol. 1, p. 5.

  2. Figures from Chamber Research Office, Department of House of Representatives.

  3. Such a short period is no longer possible under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918.

  4. Australian Electoral Commission, Electoral Pocketbook, Canberra, 2002, p. 72.

  5. Anne Summers, Gamble for power: how Bob Hawke beat Malcolm Fraser, the 1983 Federal election, Melbourne, Nelson, 1983, p. 63.

  6. Scott Bennett, 'The Cunningham by-election 2002', Research Note, no. 18, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2002

  7. The enrolment figure for the first by-election in Darling Downs in 1901 is not available and turnout therefore cannot be calculated.

  8. No effort is made to look at two-party preferred figures between the introduction of preferential voting in 1918 and 1949, due to the difficulty in establishing such figures for the earlier period. All swing figures used in the paper are calculated on two-party preferred votes unless where otherwise indicated.

  9. Perhaps surprisingly, the academic literature on by-elections in Australia is quite sparse, see Appendix 5.

  10. For notes on by-elections, see Appendix 2.

  11. Michael Gordon, A True Believer: Paul Keating, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1996, pp. 297-301.

  12. Sir Earle Page, Truant Surgeon: The Inside Story of Forty Years of Australian Political Life, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1963, pp. 284-6.

  13. Graham Freudenberg, A Certain Grandeur: Gough Whitlam in Politics, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1977, pp. 31-5.

  14. Anne Summers, op. cit., pp. 13, 63.

  15. Lenore Taylor, 'Poll result a blow to Bishop Libs', Australian, 29 March 1994.

Appendix 1: Schedule of House of Representatives By-elections, 1901-2002

No.

Date

Division

Member Elected

Previous Member

Reason for Vacancy

1

14.09.01

Darling Downs (Qld)

Groom, LE (Prot)

Groom, WH (Prot)

Died

2

26.03.02

Tasmania

Hartnoll, W (FT)

Piesse, FW (FT)

Died

3

04.09.03

East Sydney (NSW)

Reid, GH (FT)

Reid, GH (FT)

Resigned in protest against rejection of proposals for redistribution of NSW

4

26.02.04

Wilmot (Tas)

Cameron, DN (FT)

Braddon, ENC (FT)

Died

5

30.03.04

Melbourne (Vic)

Maloney, WRN (ALP)

McEacharn, MD (Prot)

Election declared void

6

18.05.04

Riverina (NSW)

Chanter, JM (Prot)

Blackwood, RO (FT)

Election declared void

7

10.07.07

Echuca (Vic)

Palmer, AC (Prot)

Palmer, AC (Prot)

Election declared void

8

13.06.08

Adelaide (SA)

Roberts, EA (ALP)

Kingston, CC (Prot)

Died

9

28.08.09

Wakefield (SA)

Foster, RW (AntiSoc)

Holder, FW (AntiSoc)

Died

10

24.08.10

Kooyong (Vic)

Best, RW (Lib)

Knox, W (Lib)

Resigned

11

08.02.11

Batman (Vic)

Brennan, F (ALP)

Beard, HE (ALP)

Died

12

11.03.11

North Sydney (NSW)

Ryrie, GdeL (Lib)

Edwards, GB (Lib)

Died

13

11.11.11

Boothby (SA)

Gordon, DJ (Lib)

Batchelor, EL (ALP)

Died

14

01.06.12

Werriwa (NSW)

Bennett, BH (ALP)

Hall, DR (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed MLC (NSW)

15

22.12.13

Kalgoorlie (WA)

Mahon, H (ALP)

Frazer, CE (ALP)

Died

16

10.01.14

Adelaide (SA)

Yates, GE (ALP)

Roberts, EA (ALP)

Died

17

06.02.15

Bendigo (Vic)

Hampson, AJ (ALP)

Arthur, JA (ALP)

Died

18

20.02.15

Grampians (Vic)

Salmon, CC (Lib)

Jolly, EFG (ALP)

Died

19

06.05.15

Dalley (NSW)

Mahony, WG (ALP)

Howe, R (ALP)

Died

20

11.12.15

Wide Bay (Qld)

Corser, EBC (Lib)

Fisher, A (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain

21

30.06.17

Darwin (Tas)

Spence, WG (Nat)

Howroyd, CR (Nat)

Died

22

27.10.17

Grampians (Vic)

Jowett, E (Nat)

Salmon, CC (Lib)

Died

23

11.05.18

Flinders (Vic)

Bruce, SM (Nat)

Irvine, WH (Nat)

Resigned. Appointed Victorian Supreme Court

24

26.10.18

Swan (WA)

Corboy, EW (ALP)

Forrest, J (Nat)

Died

25

14.12.18

Corangamite (Vic)

Gibson, WG (VFU)

Manifold, JC (Nat)

Died

26

20.09.19

Echuca (Vic)

Hill, WC (VFU)

Palmer, AC (Nat)

Died

27

10.07.20

Ballaarat (Vic)

McGrath, DC (ALP)

Kerby, ETJ (Nat)

Election declared void

28

18.12.20

Kalgoorlie (WA)

Foley, GJ (Nat)

Mahon, H (ALP)

Expelled

29

30.07.21

Maranoa (Qld)

Hunter, JAJ (CP)

Page, J (ALP)

Died

30

03.09.21

West Sydney (NSW)

Lambert, WH (ALP)

Ryan, TJ (ALP)

Died

31

10.12.21

Parramatta (NSW)

Pratten, HE (Nat)

Cook, J (Nat)

Resigned. Appointed Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain

32

18.02.22

Yarra (Vic)

Scullin, JH (ALP)

Tudor, FG (ALP)

Died

33

06.03.26

Eden-Monaro (NSW)

Perkins, JA (Nat)

Chapman, A (Nat)

Died

34

26.02.27

Dalley (NSW)

Theodore, EG (ALP)

Mahony, WG (ALP)

Resigned

35

21.05.27

Warringah (NSW)

Parkhill, RA (Nat)

Ryrie, GdeL (Nat)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

36

16.06.28

Martin (NSW)

Pratten, FG (Nat)

Pratten, HE (Nat)

Died

37

03.09.28

Wide Bay (Qld)

Corser, BH (CP)

Corser, EBC (Nat)

Died

38

03.08.29

Balaclava (Vic)

White, TW (Nat)

Watt, WA (Nat)

Resigned

39

14.12.29

Franklin (Tas)

Frost, CW (ALP)

McWilliams, WJ (Ind)

Died

40

31.01.31

Parkes (NSW)

Marr, CWC (Nat)

McTiernan, EA (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed to High Court

41

07.03.31

East Sydney (NSW)

Ward, EJ (ALP)

West, JE (ALP)

Died

42

06.02.32

East Sydney (NSW)

Ward, EJ (LLab)

Clasby, JJ (UAP)

Died

43

11.11.33

Flinders (Vic)

Fairbairn, JV (UAP)

Bruce, SM (UAP)

Resigned. Appointed Resident Minister in London.

44

01.06.35

Newcastle (NSW)

Watkins, DO (FLP)

Watkins, D (FLP)

Died

45

17.08.35

Fawkner (Vic)

Holt, HE (UAP)

Maxwell, GA (UAP)

Died

46

12.12.36

Kennedy (Qld)

Riordan, WJF (FLP)

Riordan, D (FLP)

Died

47

19.12.36

Darling Downs (Qld)

Fadden, AW (CP)

Groom, LE (UAP)

Died

No.

Date

Division

Member Elected

Previous Member

Reason for Vacancy

48

08.05.37

Gwydir (NSW)

Scully, WJ (ALP)

Abbott, CLA (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Administrator of Northern Territory

49

10.12.38

Wakefield (SA)

McHugh, S (ALP)

Hawker, CAS (UAP)

Died

50

20.05.39

Griffith (Qld)

Conelan, WP (ALP)

Baker, FMJ (FLP)

Died

51

27.05.39

Wilmot (Tas)

Spurr, LT (ALP)

Lyons, JA (UAP)

Died

52

02.03.40

Corio (Vic)

Dedman, JJ (ALP)

Casey, RG (UAP)

Resigned. Appointed Australian Ambassador to United States of America

53

16.11.40

Kalgoorlie (WA)

Johnson, HV (ALP)

Green, AE (ALP)

Died

54

21.12.40

Swan (WA)

Marwick, TW (CP)

Gregory, H (CP)

Died

55

24.05.41

Boothby (SA)

Price, AG (UAP)

Price, JL (UAP)

Died

56

18.08.45

Fremantle (WA)

Beazley, KE (ALP)

Curtin, J (ALP)

Died

57

09.02.46

Wimmera (Vic)

Turnbull, WG (CP)

Wilson, A (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Administrator of Norfolk Island

58

30.03.46

Henty (Vic)

Gullett, HBS (Lib)

Coles, AW (Ind)

Resigned

59

28.07.51

Balaclava (Vic)

Joske PE (LP)

White TW (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

60

28.07.51

Macquarie (NSW)

Luchetti AS (ALP)

Chifley JB (ALP)

Died

61

22.03.52

Lyne (NSW)

Lucock PE (CP)

Eggins EJ (CP)

Died

62

18.10.52

Flinders (Vic)

Ewert KWW (ALP)

Ryan RS (LP)

Died

63

29.11.52

Werriwa (NSW)

Whitlam EG (ALP)

Lazzarini HP (ALP)

Died

64

20.12.52

Bradfield (NSW)

Turner HB (LP)

Hughes WM (LP)

Died

65

09.05.53

Dalley (NSW)

Greenup AE (ALP)

Rosevear JS (ALP)

Died

66

29.08.53

Corangamite (Vic)

Mackinnon ED (LP)

McDonald AM (LP)

Died

67

29.08.53

Lang (NSW)

Stewart FE (ALP)

Mulcahy D (ALP)

Died

68

19.12.53

Gwydir (NSW)

Allan AI (CP)

Treloar TJ (CP)

Died

69

21.05.55

Cook (NSW)

Cope JF (ALP)

Sheehan T (ALP)

Died

70

11.04.56

Cunningham (NSW)

Kearney VD (ALP)

Davies W (ALP)

Died

71

13.10.56

Barker (SA)

Forbes AJ (LP)

Cameron AG (LP)

Died

72

08.12.56

Wentworth (NSW)

Bury LHE (LP)

Harrison EJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

73

14.09.57

Richmond (NSW)

Anthony JD (CP)

Anthony HL (CP)

Died

74

08.03.58

Parramatta (NSW)

Barwick GEJ (LP)

Beale OH (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to USA.

75

09.04.60

Hunter (NSW)

James AW (ALP)

Evatt HV (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed NSW Supreme Court

76

09.04.60

La Trobe (Vic)

Jess JD (LP)

Casey RG (LP)

Resigned

77

16.07.60

Balaclava (Vic)

Whittorn RH (LP)

Joske PE (LP)

Resigned. Appointed ACT Supreme Court.

78

16.07.60

Bendigo (Vic)

Beaton NL (ALP)

Clarey PJ (ALP)

Died

79

05.11.60

Calare (NSW)

England JA (CP)

Howse JB (LP)

Resigned

80

10.12.60

Higinbotham (Vic)

Chipp DL (LP)

Timson TF (LP)

Died

81

01.09.62

Batman (Vic)

Benson SJ (ALP)

Bird AC (ALP)

Died

82

01.06.63

Grey (SA)

Mortimer J (ALP)

Russell EHD (ALP)

Died

83

28.09.63

East Sydney (NSW)

Devine LT (ALP)

Ward EJ (ALP)

Died

84

15.02.64

Denison (Tas)

Gibson A (LP)

Townley AG (LP)

Died

85

20.06.64

Angas (SA)

Giles GO (LP)

Downer AR (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

86

20.06.64

Parramatta (NSW)

Bowen NH (LP)

Barwick GEJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed to High Court.

87

05.12.64

Robertson (NSW)

Bridges-Maxwell CW (LP)

Dean RL (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Administrator of NT.

88

27.02.65

Riverina (NSW)

Armstrong AA (CP)

Roberton HS (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Ireland.

89

26.02.66

Dawson (Qld)

Patterson RA (ALP)

Shaw GW (CP)

Died

90

02.04.66

Kooyong (Vic)

Peacock AS (LP)

Menzies RG (LP)

Resigned

91

22.07.67

Corio (Vic)

Scholes GGD (ALP)

Opperman HF (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Malta.

92

30.09.67

Capricornia (Qld)

Everingham DN (ALP)

Gray GH (ALP)

Died

93

24.02.68

Higgins (Vic)

Gorton JG (LP)

Holt HE (LP)

Presumed dead

94

19.04.69

Curtin (WA)

Garland RV (LP)

Hasluck PM (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

95

07.06.69

Bendigo (Vic)

Kennedy AD (ALP)

Beaton NL (ALP)

Resigned

96

07.06.69

Gwydir (NSW)

Hunt RJD (CP)

Allan AI (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Secretary-General Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

No.

Date

Division

Member Elected

Previous Member

Reason for Vacancy

97

30.05.70

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

Enderby KE (ALP)

Fraser JR (ALP)

Died

98

19.09.70

Chisholm (Vic)

Staley AA (LP)

Kent Hughes WS (LP)

Died

99

20.03.71

Murray (Vic)

Lloyd EB (CP)

McEwen J (CP)

Resigned

100

22.09.73

Parramatta (NSW)

Ruddock PM (LP)

Bowen NH (LP)

Resigned. Appointed to NSW Court of Appeal.

101

28.06.75

Bass (Tas)

Newman KE (LP)

Barnard LH (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden

102

15.10.77

Cunningham (NSW)

West SJ (ALP)

Connor RFX (ALP)

Died

103

23.09.78

Werriwa (NSW)

Kerin JC (ALP)

Whitlam EG (ALP)

Resigned

104

23.06.79

Grayndler (NSW)

McLeay LB (ALP)

Stewart FE (ALP)

Died

105

21.02.81

Boothby (SA)

Hall S (LP)

McLeay JE (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in Los Angeles.

106

21.02.81

Curtin (WA)

Rocher AC (LP)

Garland RV (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

107

21.02.81

McPherson (Qld)

White PND (LP)

Robinson EL (LP)

Died

108

11.04.81

Wentworth (NSW)

Coleman WP (LP)

Ellicott RJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed to Federal Court.

109

13.03.82

Lowe (NSW)

Maher MJ (ALP)

McMahon W (LP)

Resigned

110

04.12.82

Flinders (Vic)

Reith PK (LP)

Lynch PR (LP)

Resigned

111

07.05.83

Wannon (Vic)

Hawker DPM (LP)

Fraser JM (LP)

Resigned

112

28.05.83

Bruce (Vic)

Aldred KJ (LP)

Snedden BM (LP)

Resigned

113

05.11.83

Moreton (Qld)

Cameron DM (LP)

Killen DJ (LP)

Resigned

114

18.02.84

Corangamite (Vic)

McArthur FS (LP)

Street AA (LP)

Resigned

115

18.02.84

Hughes (NSW)

Tickner RE (ALP)

Johnson LR (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to NZ.

116

18.02.84

Richmond (NSW)

Blunt CW (NP)

Anthony JD (NP)

Resigned

117

08.02.86

Scullin (Vic)

Jenkins HA (ALP)

Jenkins HA (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Spain.

118

06.02.88

Adelaide (SA)

Pratt MP (LP)

Hurford CJ (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in New York.

119

26.03.88

Port Adelaide (SA)

Sawford RW (ALP)

Young MJ (ALP)

Resigned

120

09.04.88

Groom (Qld)

Taylor WL (LP)

McVeigh DT (NP)

Resigned

121

08.10.88

Oxley (Qld)

Scott LJ (ALP)

Hayden WG (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

122

15.04.89

Gwydir (NSW)

Anderson JD (NP)

Hunt RJD (NP)

Resigned

123

11.05.91

Menzies (Vic)

Andrews KJ (LP)

Brown NA (LP)

Resigned

124

11.04.92

Wills (Vic)

Cleary PR (Ind)

Hawke RJL (ALP)

Resigned

125

29.01.94

Werriwa (NSW)

Latham M (ALP)

Kerin JC (ALP)

Resigned

126

12.03.94

Fremantle (WA)

Lawrence C (ALP)

Dawkins J (ALP)

Resigned

127

19.03.94

Bonython (SA)

Evans M (ALP)

Blewett N (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to the UK

128

26.03.94

Warringah (NSW)

Abbott T (LP)

MacKellar M (LP)

Resigned

129

26.03.94

Mackellar (NSW)

Bishop B (LP)

Carlton J (LP)

Resigned

130

19.11.94

Kooyong (Vic)

Georgiou P (LP)

Peacock AS (LP)

Resigned

131

25.03.95

Canberra (ACT)

Smyth B (LP)

Kelly R (ALP)

Resigned

132

08.04.95

Wentworth (NSW)

Thomson A (LP)

Hewson J (LP)

Resigned

133

15.06.96

Blaxland (NSW)

Hatton M (ALP)

Keating P (ALP)

Resigned

134

19.10.96

Lindsay (NSW)

Kelly J (LP)

Kelly J (LP)

Election declared void

135

01.02.97

Fraser (ACT)

Dargavel S (ALP)

Langmore J (ALP)

Resigned

136

06.11.99

Holt (Vic)

Byrne A (ALP)

Evans G (ALP)

Resigned

137

12.08.00

Isaacs (Vic)

Corcoran A (ALP)

Wilton G (ALP)

Died

138

17.03.01

Ryan (Qld)

Short L (ALP)

Moore J (LP)

Resigned

139

14.07.01

Aston (Vic)

Pearce C(LP)

Nugent, P(LP)

Died

140

19.10.02

Cunningham (NSW)

Organ M (Grn)

Martin, S (ALP)

Resigned

Note that seats which changed party hands at a by-election are highlighted. By the time of the Grampians by-election of 1917, the Liberal Party had effectively been subsumed by the Nationalist Party. Henceforth, this by-election is not regarded as an occasion when the division changed parties.

For votes received in each contest, see Appendix 2.

Appendix 2: Electoral division details

First past the post electoral system

1. Darling Downs (Qld)

14.09.01

 

Enrolled n.a.

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Bell JT

Ind

2687

37.2

Groom LE

Prot

4532

62.8

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

7219

99.4

Informal

 

45

0.6

Turnout

 

7264

n.a.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Tasmania

26.03.02

 

Enrolled 39762

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Hall C

Prot

482

4.0

Hartnoll W

FT

6956

57.9

McCall J

Prot

2051

17.1

Whitelaw JC

ALP

2525

21.0

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

12014

99.2

Informal

 

101

0.8

Turnout

 

12115

30.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. East Sydney (NSW)

04.09.03

 

Enrolled 13763

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Blake J

Ind

96

4.7

Maguire WEJ

Prot

259

12.6

Reid GH

FT

1697

82.7

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

2052

99.0

Informal

 

21

1.0

Turnout

 

2073

15.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Wilmot (Tas)

26.02.04

 

Enrolled 15718

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Cameron DN

FT

2368

52.0

Cheek JW

Prot

2183

48.0

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

4551

96.8

Informal

 

153

3.3

Turnout

 

4704

29.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Melbourne (Vic)

30.03.04

 

Enrolled 26669

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

McEacharn MD

Prot

7808

47.4

Maloney WRN

ALP

8667

52.6

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

16475

98.7

Informal

 

225

1.4

Turnout

 

16700

62.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Riverina (NSW)

18.05.04

 

Enrolled 19031

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Blackwood RO

FT

5184

48.3

Chanter JM

Prot

5547

51.7

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

10731

97.6

Informal

 

264

2.4

Turnout

 

10995

57.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Echuca (Vic)

10.07.07

 

Enrolled 31183

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Kennedy T

Prot

10481

47.4

Palmer AC

Prot

11618

52.6

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

22099

99.0

Informal

 

230

1.0

Turnout

 

22329

71.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Adelaide (SA)

13.06.08

 

Enrolled 29874

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

McLachlan AJ

Ind

4887

48.8

Roberts EA

ALP

5121

51.2

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

10008

99.4

Informal

 

60

0.6

Turnout

 

10068

33.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Wakefield (SA)

28.08.09

 

Enrolled 30782

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Foster RW

AntiSoc

8120

54.5

Vaughan JH

ALP

6789

45.5

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

14909

99.4

Informal

 

89

0.6

Turnout

 

14998

48.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Kooyong (Vic)

24.08.10

 

Enrolled 38394

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Best RW

Lib

11926

55.5

Erson EGL

ALP

1363

6.3

Lumsden AG

ILib

8214

38.2

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

21503

97.8

Informal

 

477

2.2

Turnout

 

21980

57.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Batman (Vic)

08.02.11

 

Enrolled 31729

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Brennan F

ALP

9385

57.5

O'Neill FSM

Lib

6932

42.5

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

16317

97.9

Informal

 

356

2.1

Turnout

 

16673

52.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. North Sydney (NSW)

11.03.11

 

Enrolled 39550

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

O'Brien SE

ALP

4437

27.5

Ryrie, GdeL

Lib

11687

72.5

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

16124

99.5

Informal

 

86

0.5

Turnout

 

16210

41.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Boothby (SA)

11.11.11

 

Enrolled 35460

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Gordon DJ

Lib

10656

57.1

Jelley J

ALP

8008

42.9

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

18664

99.8

Informal

 

38

0.2

Turnout

 

18702

52.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. Werriwa (NSW)

01.06.12

 

Enrolled 28565

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Bennett BH

ALP

10884

50.8

Conroy AHB

Lib

10546

49.2

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

21430

98.7

Informal

 

279

1.3

Turnout

 

21709

76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. Kalgoorlie (WA)

22.12.13

 

Enrolled n.a.

Candidate

Party

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahon H

ALP

 

Unopposed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. Adelaide (SA)

10.01.14

 

Enrolled 33662

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Votes

 

 

 

Craigie EJ

ST

1936

15.7

Yates GE

ALP

10418

84.3

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

12354

99.3

Informal

 

92

0.7

Turnout

 

12446

37.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. Bendigo (Vic)

06.02.15

 

Enrolled 35495

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Hampson AJ

ALP

12188

50.9

Richards WJT

Lib

11761

49.1

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

23949

99.2

Informal

 

201

0.8

Turnout

 

24150

68.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. Grampians (Vic)

20.02.15

 

Enrolled 34977

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

McDougall JK

ALP

11522

48.7

Salmon CC

Lib

12116

51.3

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

23638

99.5

Informal

 

120

0.5

Turnout

 

23758

69.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. Dalley (NSW)

06.05.15

 

Enrolled n.a.

Candidate

Party

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahony WG

ALP

 

Unopposed

20. Wide Bay (Qld)

11.12.15

 

Enrolled 34276

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Corser EBC

Lib

14027

50.2

Thompson A

Soc

13941

49.9

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

27968

99.1

Informal

 

248

0.9

Turnout

 

28216

82.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. Darwin (Tas)

30.06.17

 

Enrolled 19300

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Hurst JA

ALP

5225

43.9

Spence WG

Nat

6665

56.1

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

11890

99.6

Informal

 

48

0.4

Turnout

 

11938

61.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. Grampians (Vic)

27.10.17

 

Enrolled 31346

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Jowett E

Nat

11232

54.8

Russell DP

ALP

9265

45.2

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

20497

99.5

Informal

 

109

0.5

Turnout

 

20606

65.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. Flinders (Vic)

11.05.18

 

Enrolled 40257

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Bruce SM

Nat

14445

64.0

Hall JJ

VFU

382

1.7

Holmes, GJ

ALP

7740

34.3

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

22567

99.1

Informal

 

203

0.9

Turnout

 

22770

56.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. Swan (WA)

26.10.18

 

Enrolled 29892

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

Corboy EW

ALP

6540

34.7

Hedges WN

Nat

5635

29.9

Murray, BL

CP

5795

30.7

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

18854

99.1

Informal

 

179

0.9

Turnout

 

19033

63.7

Preferential voting electoral system

25. Corangamite (Vic)

14.12.18

 

 

Enrolled 34895

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Coldham FR

Inat

1174

4.7

 

Gibson WG

VFU

6604

26.4

 

Knox GH

Nat

5737

22.9

 

Leaper, TD

RSNP

892

3.6

 

Scullin JH

ALP

10633

42.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Gibson WG

VFU

14096

56.3

 

Scullin JH

ALP

10944

43.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

25040

98.0

 

Informal

 

516

2.0

 

Turnout

 

25556

73.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. Echuca (Vic)

20.09.19

 

 

Enrolled 34704

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hill WC

VFU

13800

68.8

 

Purbrick EL

Inat

1418

7.1

 

Purcell FG

Nat

4848

24.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

20066

97.2

 

Informal

 

572

2.8

 

Turnout

 

20638

59.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27. Ballaarat (Vic)

10.07.20

 

 

Enrolled 34091

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callow AE

Ind

186

0.6

 

Kerby ETJ

Nat

11443

39.3

 

McGrath DC

ALP

15058

51.8

 

Troup J

FP

2413

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29100

99.3

 

Informal

 

214

0.7

 

Turnout

 

29314

86.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. Kalgoorlie (WA)

18.12.20

 

 

Enrolled 20789

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foley GJ

Nat

8382

51.4

 

Mahon H

ALP

7939

48.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

16321

99.3

 

Informal

 

113

0.7

 

Turnout

 

16434

79.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29. Maranoa (Qld)

30.07.21

 

 

Enrolled 30047

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dunstan WJ

ALP

10329

46.8

 

Hunter JAJ

CP

11751

53.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

22080

99.6

 

Informal

 

89

0.6

 

Turnout

 

22169

73.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30. West Sydney (NSW)

03.09.21

 

 

Enrolled 31620

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry AS

Nat

5237

38.2

 

Lambert WH

ALP

7857

57.3

 

McCristal TW

Ilab

430

3.1

 

Powell JK

TA

186

1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

13710

95.8

 

Informal

 

606

4.2

 

Turnout

 

14316

45.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31. Parramatta (NSW)

10.12.21

 

 

Enrolled 63114

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Addison B

CP

2268

7.2

 

Hutchison WH

ALP

5625

17.9

 

Piddington AB

Ind

2787

8.9

 

Pratten HE

Nat

20768

66.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31448

97.3

 

Informal

 

859

2.7

 

Turnout

 

32307

51.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32. Yarra (Vic)

18.02.22

 

 

Enrolled 39098

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Davidson AM

Nat

3473

21.5

 

Scullin JH

ALP

12553

77.7

 

Smyth FA

Ind

129

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

16155

96.5

 

Informal

 

590

3.5

 

Turnout

 

16745

42.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33. Eden-Monaro (NSW)

06.03.26

 

 

Enrolled 40760

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Morgan CAA

ALP

13729

40.0

 

Perkins JA

Nat

20573

60.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34302

97.5

 

Informal

 

887

2.5

 

Turnout

 

35189

86.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34. Dalley (NSW)

26.02.27

 

 

Enrolled 40729

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gee WS

Nat

12667

37.4

 

Theodore EG

ALP

21186

62.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33853

93.1

 

Informal

 

2517

6.9

 

Turnout

 

36370

89.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35. Warringah (NSW)

21.05.27

 

 

Enrolled 46870

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conway TP

ALP

3159

7.8

 

Fell WS

Inat

7477

18.5

 

O'Gorman AAL

ALP

4285

10.6

 

Parkhill RA

Nat

22583

55.8

 

Roberts TV

Const

2990

7.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

40494

97.8

 

Informal

 

928

2.2

 

Turnout

 

41422

88.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. Martin (NSW)

16.06.28

 

 

Enrolled 59535

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hannett PG

ALP

18922

39.1

 

Pratten FG

Nat

29482

60.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

48404

93.0

 

Informal

 

3635

7.0

 

Turnout

 

52039

87.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37. Wide Bay (Qld)

03.09.28

 

 

Enrolled n.a.

Candidate

Party

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corser BH

CP

 

Unopposed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38. Balaclava (Vic)

03.08.29

 

 

Enrolled 55121

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis FH

Inat

16048

35.9

 

White TW

Nat

28655

64.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

44703

94.9

 

Informal

 

2404

5.1

 

Turnout

 

47107

85.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39. Franklin (Tas)

14.12.29

 

 

Enrolled 24473

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Blacklow AC

Nat

5003

23.2

 

Foster FO

Inat

820

3.8

 

Frost CW

ALP

9615

44.5

 

Murdoch P

Ind

1476

6.8

 

Seabrook AC

Nat

4675

21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Blacklow AC

Nat

10385

48.1

 

Frost CW

ALP

11204

51.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

21589

95.9

 

Informal

 

931

4.1

 

Turnout

 

22520

92.0

 

40. Parkes (NSW)

31.01.31

 

 

Enrolled 63552

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blake RC

EcRef

986

1.8

 

Marr CWC

Nat

31227

56.8

 

Martin JM

ALP

22394

40.7

 

Tripp EC

Com

382

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

54989

97.5

 

Informal

 

1431

2.5

 

Turnout

 

56420

88.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41. East Sydney (NSW)

07.03.31

 

 

Enrolled 46700

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Courtenay LT

Nat

16333

44.2

 

Mountjoy WA

Com

611

1.7

 

Ward EJ

ALP

19975

54.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36919

97.2

 

Informal

 

1068

2.8

 

Turnout

 

37987

81.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42. East Sydney (NSW)

06.02.32

 

 

Enrolled 44630

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cunningham LL

FLP

2817

7.6

 

McCall WV

UAP

16304

43.9

 

Miles JB

Com

597

1.6

 

Ward EJ

LLab

17461

47.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

McCall WV

UAP

18503

49.8

 

Ward EJ

LLab

18676

50.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37179

97.3

 

Informal

 

1018

2.7

 

Turnout

 

38197

85.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43. Flinders (Vic)

11.11.33

 

 

Enrolled 71825

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fairbairn JV

UAP

36773

59.0

 

Gibson RS

Com

3124

5.0

 

Haywood AR

FLP

22454

36.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

62351

97.3

 

Informal

 

1747

2.7

 

Turnout

 

64098

89.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44. Newcastle (NSW)

01.06.35

 

 

Enrolled 56282

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith JE

LLab

22135

42.7

 

Sykes HS

SC

4302

8.3

 

Watkins DO

FLP

25374

49.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith JE

LLab

23944

46.2

 

Watkins DO

FLP

27867

53.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

51811

98.3

 

Informal

 

908

1.7

 

Turnout

 

52719

93.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45. Fawkner (Vic)

17.08.35

 

 

Enrolled 48030

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cameron D

FLP

16433

40.1

 

Holt HE

UAP

24594

60.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

41027

97.8

 

Informal

 

946

2.3

 

Turnout

 

41973

87.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46. Kennedy (Qld)

12.12.36

 

 

Enrolled 51351

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Boyd JT

ILab

13223

32.8

 

Killoran J

SC

3565

8.8

 

Riordan WJF

ALP

19111

47.4

 

Slater J

Com

4459

11.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Boyd JT

ILab

17170

42.5

 

Riordan WJF

ALP

23188

57.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

40358

96.2

 

Informal

 

1581

3.8

 

Turnout

 

41939

81.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47. Darling Downs (Qld)

19.12.36

 

 

Enrolled 51519

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Annand JD

UAP

8725

19.0

 

Boyce LAG

Cons

5809

12.6

 

Buchanan JT

ALP

13321

29.0

 

Fadden AW

CP

15235

33.1

 

Hannay DV

SC

2929

6.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Buchanan JT

ALP

19639

42.7

 

Fadden AW

CP

26380

57.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

46019

96.9

 

Informal

 

1472

3.1

 

Turnout

 

47491

92.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48. Gwydir (NSW)

08.05.37

 

 

Enrolled 54791

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Batchelor EG

CP

13168

27.0

 

Milling OL

CP

8155

16.7

 

Moore GS

CP

1963

4.0

 

Scully WJ

ALP

25551

52.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

48837

98.7

 

Informal

 

639

1.3

 

Turnout

 

49476

90.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49. Wakefield (SA)

10.12.38

 

 

Enrolled 54388

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Butler RL

UAP

19591

39.3

 

McHugh S

ALP

18870

37.9

 

Quirke PH

Ind

11343

22.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Butler RL

UAP

21549

43.3

 

McHugh S

ALP

28255

56.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

49804

97.8

 

Informal

 

1114

2.2

 

Turnout

 

50918

93.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50. Griffith (Qld)

20.05.39

 

 

Enrolled 61804

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Conelan WP

ALP

22967

41.3

 

Graham EH

ProtLab

15437

27.8

 

McCowan P

UAP

17168

30.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Conelan WP

ALP

27790

50.0

 

McCowan P

UAP

27782

50.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

55572

98.2

 

Informal

 

1025

1.8

 

Turnout

 

56597

91.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51. Wilmot (Tas)

27.05.39

 

 

Enrolled 25275

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cameron DK

UAP

2657

11.8

 

Guy JA

UAP

6673

29.7

 

Parsons CF

UAP

1823

8.1

 

Spurr LT

ALP

6568

29.3

 

Watson, JH

Ind

799

3.6

 

Weston MD

ALP

3925

17.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Guy JA

UAP

11188

49.9

 

Spurr LT

ALP

11257

50.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

22445

96.1

 

Informal

 

915

3.9

 

Turnout

 

23360

92.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52. Corio (Vic)

02.03.40

 

 

Enrolled 54942

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dedman JJ

ALP

26122

51.8

 

O'Day GP

Com

1466

2.9

 

Smith JTV

UAP

22878

45.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

50466

98.5

 

Informal

 

786

1.5

 

Turnout

 

51252

93.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53. Kalgoorlie (WA)

16.11.40

 

 

Enrolled 43962

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ferguson C

UAP

1140

3.2

 

Finlay B

Ind

1721

4.9

 

Johnson HV

ALP

18228

51.4

 

Lee FR

UAP

14385

40.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35474

98.4

 

Informal

 

567

1.6

 

Turnout

 

36041

82.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54. Swan (WA)

21.12.40

 

 

Enrolled 53685

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Barker CO

Ind

4980

11.1

 

Dinan J

ALP

16729

37.4

 

Ferguson PD

CP

10628

23.8

 

Marwick TW

CP

12354

27.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Dinan J

ALP

21154

47.3

 

Marwick TW

CP

23537

52.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

44691

98.5

 

Informal

 

701

1.5

 

Turnout

 

45392

84.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55. Boothby (SA)

24.05.41

 

 

Enrolled 72882

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lawton TE

ALP

28041

43.4

 

Price AG

UAP

36624

56.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

64665

97.9

 

Informal

 

1378

2.1

 

Turnout

 

66043

90.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56. Fremantle (WA)

18.08.45

 

 

Enrolled 72421

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beazley KE

ALP

34009

57.3

 

Cleland DM

UAP

19880

33.5

 

Ferguson C

SLib

1273

2.2

 

Hughes TJ

Ind

2210

3.7

 

Phillips L

Atok

143

0.2

 

Troy PL

Com

1807

3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

59322

97.1

 

Informal

 

1769

2.9

 

Turnout

 

61091

84.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

57. Wimmera (Vic)

09.02.46

 

 

Enrolled 44831

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Arlington-Burke F

ILab

1824

5.1

 

Eberle AW

Ind

2042

5.8

 

Everett AC

CP

6724

19.0

 

Phillips L

Ind

312

0.9

 

Smith, JS

ILab

2923

8.2

 

Stoddart JH

ICP

6361

17.9

 

Turnbull WG

CP

15284

43.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Everett AC

CP

14546

41.0

 

Turnbull WG

CP

20924

59.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35470

95.5

 

Informal

 

1692

4.6

 

Turnout

 

37162

82.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58. Henty (Vic)

30.03.46

 

 

Enrolled 80883

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doube VJ

ALP

32556

45.7

 

Gullett HB

Lib

38718

54.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

71274

98.5

 

Informal

 

1086

1.5

 

Turnout

 

72360

89.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59. Balaclava (Vic)

28.7.51

 

 

Enrolled 42823

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Joske PE

LP

20337

57.0

-6.3

Lewis A

ALP

13279

37.3

+0.6

Stratton GM

Ind

2035

5.7

+5.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Joske PE

LP

21355

59.9

-3.4

Lewis A

ALP

14296

40.1

+3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35651

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

274

0.8

-0.5

Turnout

 

35925

83.9

-12.2

60. Macquarie (NSW)

28.7.51

 

 

Enrolled 39271

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Blanchard WH

Ilab

3853

10.9

+10.9

Hannam WH

LP

12356

35.1

-3.7

Luchetti AS

ALP

18426

52.3

-5.4

Moffit VB

Com

575

1.6

-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hannam WH

LP

13983

39.7

+0.4

Luchetti AS

ALP

21227

60.3

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35210

99.1

+0.3

Informal

 

325

0.9

-0.3

Turnout

 

35535

90.5

-7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

61. Lyne (NSW)

22.3.52

 

 

Enrolled 40160

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cordner TN

Ind

421

1.2

-3.4

Hayes EJ

ALP

13588

37.3

+7.4

Lancaster DJAL

CP

10631

29.2

+29.2

Lucock PE

CP

10994

30.2

-35.3

Spensley EH

Ind

775

2.1

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hayes EJ

ALP

14925

41.0

+8.8

Lucock PE

CP

21484

59.0

-8.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36409

98.5

+0.1

Informal

 

565

1.5

-0.1

Turnout

 

36974

92.1

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62. Flinders (Vic)

18.10.52

 

 

Enrolled 46748

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Ewert KWW

ALP

22674

53.8

+10.8

Hipwell RA

Ind

453

1.1

-1.0

Rossiter JF

LP

18384

43.7

-11.1

Stratton GM

Ind

602

1.4

+1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Ewert KWW

ALP

23202

55.1

+11.0

Rossiter JF

LP

18911

44.9

-11.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

42113

98.8

+0.4

Informal

 

493

1.2

-0.4

Turnout

 

42606

91.1

-5.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63. Werriwa (NSW)

29.11.52

 

 

Enrolled 55486

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Griffith IR

LP

15706

32.5

-12.4

Whitlam EG

ALP

32561

67.5

+12.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Griffith IR

LP

15706

32.5

-12.4

Whitlam EG

ALP

32561

67.5

+12.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

48267

98.3

+0.6

Informal

 

826

1.7

-0.6

Turnout

 

49093

88.5

-7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64. Bradfield (NSW)

20.12.52

 

 

Enrolled 45442

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hardie MF

Ind

15336

38.2

+38.2

Potts CE

Ind

569

1.4

+1.4

Simons S

Ind

84

0.2

+0.2

Smith JS

Ilab

1070

2.7

+2.7

Turner HB

LP

22912

57.0

-21.7

Wright E

Ind

225

0.6

+0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

40196

98.1

-0.1

Informal

 

784

1.9

+0.1

Turnout

 

40980

90.2

-5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65. Dalley (NSW)

9.5.53

 

 

Enrolled 37737

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cole WL

Ind

8285

24.5

+24.5

Greenup AE

ALP

23812

70.5

+3.4

Sheean J

Com

1667

4.9

+4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33764

95.4

-2.3

Informal

 

1618

4.6

+2.3

Turnout

 

35382

93.8

-2.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66. Corangamite (Vic)

29.8.53

 

 

Enrolled 40559

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mackinnon ED

LP

19449

52.2

-6.5

McLean AC

ALP

17782

47.8

+6.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Mackinnon ED

LP

19449

52.2

-6.5

McLean AC

ALP

17782

47.8

+6.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37231

99.5

+0.4

Informal

 

196

0.5

-0.4

Turnout

 

37427

92.3

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

67. Lang (NSW)

29.8.53

 

 

Enrolled 44912

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Boyd RD

Com

1082

2.7

-2.0

Brosnan TJ

Ind

276

0.7

+0.7

Stewart FE

ALP

21699

53.9

+3.9

Thorncraft HR

LP

17218

42.8

-2.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Stewart FE

ALP

22756

56.5

+2.5

Thorncraft HR

LP

17518

43.5

-2.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

40274

98.6

+0.3

Informal

 

584

1.4

-0.3

Turnout

 

40858

91.0

-6.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

68. Gwydir (NSW)

19.12.53

 

 

Enrolled 39618

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Allan AI

CP

9823

28.2

-25.0

Howard AM

LP

3584

10.3

+10.3

Kirkby TF

CP

5649

16.2

+16.2

Quinn MTL

ALP

15784

45.3

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Allan AI

CP

18409

52.8

-0.4

Quinn MTL

ALP

16431

47.2

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34840

98.6

-0.3

Informal

 

480

1.4

+0.3

Turnout

 

35320

89.2

-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69. Cook (NSW)

21.5.55

 

 

Enrolled 33521

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cope JF

ALP

21411

86.8

+3.4

Smith JS

Ind

3248

13.2

+13.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

24659

96.8

-0.6

Informal

 

814

3.2

+0.6

Turnout

 

25473

76.0

-18.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

70. Cunningham (NSW)

11.4.56

 

 

Enrolled 44070

Candidate

Party

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kearney VD

ALP

 

Unopposed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

71. Barker (SA)

13.10.56

 

 

Enrolled 41810

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Crowe BR

DLP

2207

5.8

+5.8

Dettman RA

ALP

14454

38.1

+5.8

Forbes AJ

LP

18471

48.7

-19.0

McAnaney WP

ILCL

2819

7.4

+7.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Dettman RA

ALP

16016

42.2

+9.9

Forbes AJ

LP

21935

57.8

-9.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37951

98.0

+1.1

Informal

 

771

2.0

-1.1

Turnout

 

38722

92.6

-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72. Wentworth (NSW)

8.12.56

 

 

Enrolled 42909

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bartley RJ

Ilib

4109

12.2

+12.2

Bury LHE

LP

13956

41.3

-30.7

Laing AW

Ilib

1414

4.2

+4.2

Robson RG

Ilib

6414

19.0

+19.0

Sindel CAO

Ind

1470

4.4

+4.4

Starr TJK

ALP

6455

19.1

+19.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Bury LHE

LP

22764

67.3

 

Starr TJK

ALP

11054

32.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33818

96.7

-0.1

Informal

 

1167

3.3

+0.1

Turnout

 

34985

81.5

-10.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73. Richmond (NSW)

14.9.57

 

 

Enrolled 37767

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Anthony JD

CP

18819

49.8

 

Gordon RR

CP

4678

12.4

 

Jackson OJ

CP

1696

4.5

 

O'Neill RL

CP

1241

3.3

 

Smith WH

ALP

10276

27.2

 

Wilson C

Ind

1057

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Anthony JD

CP

25820

68.4

 

Smith WH

ALP

11947

31.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37767

98.7

 

Informal

 

487

1.3

 

Turnout

 

38254

92.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74. Parramatta (NSW)

8.3.58

 

 

Enrolled 48649

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Barwick GEJ

LP

22826

54.8

-7.5

Fenwick AV

Ind

920

2.2

+2.2

Mahoney DJ

ALP

17931

43.0

+5.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Barwick GEJ

LP

23286

55.9

-6.4

Mahoney DJ

ALP

18391

44.1

+6.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

41677

98.6

+1.3

Informal

 

610

1.4

-1.3

Turnout

 

42287

86.9

-8.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75. Hunter (NSW)

9.4.60

 

 

Enrolled 46060

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Brown R

Ind

11876

30.8

+30.8

Dumbrell CO

Com

3895

10.1

+10.1

James AW

ALP

21978

57.0

-17.4

Murnane K

Ind

826

2.1

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

38575

97.6

-0.2

Informal

 

965

2.4

+0.2

Turnout

 

39540

85.8

-10.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76. La Trobe (Vic)

9.4.60

 

 

Enrolled 59644

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Jess JD

LP

22880

42.8

-10.9

Martyr JR

DLP

6834

12.8

+3.5

Murray J

AR

406

0.8

+0.8

Pritchard D

ALP

23387

43.7

+6.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Jess JD

LP

28999

54.2

-7.5

Pritchard D

ALP

24508

45.8

+7.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

53507

98.4

+0.3

Informal

 

872

1.6

-0.3

Turnout

 

54379

91.2

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77. Balaclava (Vic)

16.7.60

 

 

Enrolled 42256

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Murray J

AR

865

2.6

+2.6

Ryan JT

DLP

4672

14.2

+2.2

Smith GL

ALP

9519

28.9

+3.6

Whittorn RH

LP

17859

54.3

-6.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith GL

ALP

10652

32.4

+4.6

Whittorn RH

LP

22263

67.6

-4.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32915

97.9

+0.2

Informal

 

694

2.1

-0.2

Turnout

 

33609

79.5

-16.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78. Bendigo (Vic)

16.7.60

 

 

Enrolled 45286

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Beaton NL

ALP

20290

48.0

-0.5

Drechsler WF

DLP

6200

14.7

+1.6

Snell HW

LP

15773

37.3

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Beaton NL

ALP

21198

50.2

-0.1

Snell HW

LP

21065

49.8

+0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

42263

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

345

0.8

-0.5

Turnout

 

42608

94.1

-2.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79. Calare (NSW)

5.11.60

 

 

Enrolled 41434

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

England JA

CP

12039

32.6

+32.6

Meares WA

LP

8039

21.8

-36.3

Phillips J

AR

113

0.3

+0.3

Proust RJ

DLP

2540

6.9

+6.9

Serisier LD

ALP

14175

38.4

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

England JA

CP

21824

59.1

+0.1

Serisier LD

ALP

15082

40.9

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36906

98.8

+0.6

Informal

 

445

1.2

-0.6

Turnout

 

37351

90.1

-5.5

80. Higinbotham (Vic)

10.12.60

 

 

Enrolled 56541

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Chipp DL

LP

19661

39.1

-10.4

Fowler HG

ALP

23541

46.8

+7.6

McBride E

AP

325

0.6

+0.6

Nugent J

DLP

6756

13.4

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Chipp DL

LP

25443

50.6

-9.2

Fowler HG

ALP

24840

49.4

+9.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

50283

98.1

+0.1

Informal

 

993

1.9

-0.1

Turnout

 

51276

90.7

-5.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

81. Batman (Vic)

1.9.62

 

 

Enrolled 43683

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Benson SJ

ALP

21776

60.1

+5.2

Davis SE

Ind

302

0.8

+0.8

Little JA

DLP

6811

18.8

+4.4

McLeod DW

LibF

7026

19.4

+19.4

Phillips J

AR

304

0.8

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36219

97.5

-0.3

Informal

 

939

2.5

+0.3

Turnout

 

37158

85.1

-10.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82. Grey (SA)

1.6.63

 

 

Enrolled 46386

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Clark DM

ILab

705

1.7

+1.7

Dyason VH

LP

17494

41.8

+3.6

Kent LF

Ind

1265

3.0

+3.0

Mills RJ

DLP

935

2.2

-1.4

Mortimer J

ALP

21463

51.3

-6.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Dyason VH

LP

19203

45.9

+4.9

Mortimer J

ALP

22659

54.1

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

41862

98.3

+0.9

Informal

 

718

1.7

-0.9

Turnout

 

42580

91.8

-4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

83. East Sydney (NSW)

28.9.63

 

 

Enrolled 35736

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bond LSJ

Ind

1224

5.0

+5.0

Cook HK

PORP

699

2.9

+2.9

Devine LT

ALP

19704

80.7

+12.9

Luckman VA

ILib

2233

9.1

+9.1

Phillips J

AR

546

2.2

+2.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

24406

94.9

-1.4

Informal

 

1305

5.1

+1.4

Turnout

 

25711

71.9

-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84. Denison (Tas)

15.2.64

 

 

Enrolled 36825

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Finlay DM

ALP

14367

43.3

+4.1

Gibson A

LP

16953

51.1

-0.2

Senior HP

DLP

1563

4.7

-1.7

Symmons BH

Ind

277

0.8

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Finlay DM

ALP

14740

44.5

+1.9

Gibson A

LP

18420

55.5

-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33160

98.5

+0.5

Informal

 

491

1.5

-0.5

Turnout

 

33651

91.4

-3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

85. Angas (SA)

20.6.64

 

 

Enrolled 43356

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Giles GO

LP

23468

60.3

-1.6

Nielsen R

ALP

15452

39.7

+4.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Giles GO

LP

23468

60.3

-2.1

Nielsen R

ALP

15452

39.7

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

38920

98.4

0.0

Informal

 

623

1.6

0.0

Turnout

 

39543

91.2

-6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

86. Parramatta (NSW)

20.6.64

 

 

Enrolled 59154

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Beck EJ

DLP

2701

5.3

-0.2

Bowen NH

LP

26506

52.1

-3.9

Fenwick AV

Ind

248

0.5

+0.5

Phillips J

Ind

152

0.3

+0.3

Wilde BC

ALP

21227

41.8

+3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Bowen NH

LP

29002

57.1

-3.0

Wilde BC

ALP

21832

42.9

+3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

50834

98.1

-0.8

Informal

 

975

1.9

+0.8

Turnout

 

51809

87.6

-8.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87. Robertson (NSW)

5.12.64

 

 

Enrolled 59047

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bridges-Maxwell CW

LP

27220

50.1

-0.4

Mollett A

ALP

25432

46.8

+2.3

Taylor VA

ILib

648

1.2

+1.2

Woodbury CMR

DLP

1068

2.0

-3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Bridges-Maxwell CW

LP

28517

52.5

-1.4

Mollett A

ALP

25851

47.5

+1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

54368

97.0

-2.0

Informal

 

1701

3.0

+2.0

Turnout

 

56069

95.0

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

88. Riverina (NSW)

27.2.65

 

 

Enrolled 43870

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Armstrong AA

CP

21371

56.3

+4.6

Ward JTA

ALP

16561

43.7

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Armstrong AA

CP

21371

56.3

-0.9

Ward JTA

ALP

16561

43.7

+0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37932

98.8

0.0

Informal

 

455

1.2

0.0

Turnout

 

38387

87.5

-7.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

89. Dawson (Qld)

26.2.66

 

 

Enrolled 41055

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Fordyce J

CP

16572

44.9

-6.9

Patterson RA

ALP

20372

55.1

+13.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Fordyce J

CP

16572

44.9

-11.9

Patterson RA

ALP

20372

55.1

+11.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36944

98.8

+1.0

Informal

 

433

1.2

-1.0

Turnout

 

37377

91.0

-5.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90. Kooyong (Vic)

2.4.66

 

 

Enrolled 49954

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Brereton PA

Ind

781

1.8

+1.8

Cock CB

AR

220

0.5

+0.5

Cooper WD

ALP

12181

27.7

+3.3

Gaynor BW

DLP

5854

13.3

+3.1

Peacock AS

LP

25012

56.8

-7.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Cooper WD

ALP

13560

30.8

+3.8

Peacock AS

LP

30488

69.2

-3.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

44048

98.0

-0.9

Informal

 

900

2.0

+0.9

Turnout

 

44948

90.0

-5.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

91. Corio (Vic)

22.7.67

 

 

Enrolled 55809

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bourke PJ

DLP

5418

10.6

-0.2

Cardinal MJ

Ind

486

1.0

+1.0

Hay RJB

LP

18583

36.4

-8.9

Jones G

LRG

923

1.8

-0.3

Scholes GGD

ALP

25679

50.3

+11.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hay RJB

LP

23893

46.8

-11.1

Scholes GGD

ALP

27196

53.2

+11.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

51089

98.0

+1.8

Informal

 

1038

2.0

-1.8

Turnout

 

52127

93.4

-2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

92. Capricornia (Qld)

30.9.67

 

 

Enrolled 41078

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Boyle PH

DLP

2628

6.9

-2.4

Everingham DN

ALP

20215

53.0

+0.8

Rudd FB

LP

12048

31.6

-6.9

Sheil WG

CP

3279

8.6

+8.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Everingham DN

ALP

20937

54.9

-1.5

Rudd FB

LP

17233

45.1

+1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

38170

99.2

+0.4

Informal

 

316

0.8

-0.4

Turnout

 

38486

93.7

-2.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93. Higgins (Vic)

24.2.68

 

 

Enrolled 41425

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bennett DM

ALP

9601

27.7

+2.5

Courtis FA

Ind

347

1.0

+1.0

Gorton JG

LP

24067

69.4

+6.1

Weber LC

ARM

662

1.9

+1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Bennett DM

ALP

10105

29.1

+0.3

Gorton JG

LP

24572

70.9

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34677

98.6

+1.4

Informal

 

481

1.4

-1.4

Turnout

 

35158

84.9

-9.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94. Curtin (WA)

19.4.69

 

 

Enrolled 44829

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Garland RV

LP

17983

50.5

-9.4

Jones HG

ALP

11047

31.0

+0.7

Scoggins RC

Ind

6586

18.5

+18.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Garland RV

LP

21276

59.7

-7.1

Jones HG

ALP

14340

40.3

+7.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35616

98.3

+2.1

Informal

 

608

1.7

-2.1

Turnout

 

36224

80.8

-13.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95. Bendigo (Vic)

7.6.69

 

 

Enrolled 44172

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Brennan PG

DLP

5710

12.9

+0.3

Cambridge RW

LP

15106

34.2

-1.6

Candler C

Ind

595

1.3

+1.3

Hutchinson LJ

Ind

2750

6.2

+6.2

Kennedy AD

ALP

20011

45.3

-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Cambridge RW

LP

21751

49.2

+2.1

Kennedy AD

ALP

22421

50.8

-2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

44172

98.5

0.0

Informal

 

693

1.5

0.0

Turnout

 

44865

93.6

-2.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96. Gwydir (NSW)

7.6.69

 

 

Enrolled 45104

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hunt RJD

CP

21113

53.6

-7.7

Nott RB

ALP

18293

46.4

+7.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hunt RJD

CP

21113

53.6

-7.7

Nott RB

ALP

18293

46.4

+7.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

39406

99.0

+0.8

Informal

 

394

1.0

-0.8

Turnout

 

39800

88.2

-6.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97. Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

30.5.70

 

 

Enrolled 64482

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bellchambers EC

Ind

438

0.8

+0.8

Cawthron RE

NSP

173

0.3

+0.3

Christie TJ

DLP

1857

3.3

+3.3

Enderby KE

ALP

20132

35.6

-32.1

Fitzgerald AJ

AP

9914

17.5

+12.9

Hermes CL

LP

15900

28.1

+1.3

Pead JH

Ind

8151

14.4

+14.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Enderby KE

ALP

32690

57.8

-13.8

Hermes CL

LP

23875

42.2

+13.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

56565

96.9

-1.3

Informal

 

1813

3.1

+1.3

Turnout

 

58378

90.5

-2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

98. Chisholm (Vic)

19.9.70

 

 

Enrolled 56737

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Costigan FX

ALP

15335

33.5

-0.6

Morrow AE

AP

1501

3.3

-0.6

Nilsen RN

DOGS

4138

9.0

+9.0

Staley AA

LP

24767

54.2

+1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Costigan FX

ALP

18568

40.6

+2.8

Staley AA

LP

27173

59.4

-2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

45741

98.4

+0.5

Informal

 

756

1.6

-0.5

Turnout

 

46497

82.0

-12.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

99. Murray (Vic)

20.3.71

 

 

Enrolled 49856

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Flynn MT

Ind

535

1.2

+1.2

Hunter WB

LP

9622

21.0

+21.0

Lacey BV

DLP

4316

9.4

-0.2

Lloyd EB

CP

19710

43.0

-10.2

Riordan JA

ALP

11670

25.4

+2.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Lloyd EB

CP

32306

70.5

-0.4

Riorden JA

ALP

13547

29.5

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

45853

97.6

+0.6

Informal

 

1116

2.4

-0.6

Turnout

 

46969

94.2

-2.7

100. Parramatta (NSW)

22.9.73

 

 

Enrolled 73679

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Aussie-Stone MD

Ind

363

0.6

+0.6

Bellchambers EC

Ind

53

0.1

+0.1

Butterworth JH

AP

3522

5.5

+2.0

Hourihan ME

DOGS

528

0.8

-1.0

Kiernan LJ

Ind

30

. .

. .

Lister GD

Ind

65

0.1

+0.1

May R

NSP

37

0.1

+0.1

McGarrity S

Ind

325

0.5

+0.5

Meares KJ

Ind

25

. .

 

Pye MN

Ind

575

0.9

+0.9

Ruddock PM

LP

33506

52.6

+6.6

Whelan MJ

ALP

24623

38.7

-7.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Ruddock PM

LP

36228

56.9

+6.6

Whelan MT

ALP

27424

43.1

-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

63652

97.7

-0.1

Informal

 

1493

2.3

+0.1

Turnout

 

65145

88.4

-7.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101. Bass (Tas)

28.6.75

 

 

Enrolled 46744

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Aussie-Stone MD

Ind

243

0.6

+0.6

Kent P

Ind

904

2.1

+2.1

Macrostie JT

ALP

15609

36.5

-17.5

Negus SA

Ind

124

0.3

+0.3

Newman KE

LP

24638

57.6

+11.6

Petrosky VK

UTG

1272

3.0

+3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Macrostie JT

ALP

16880

39.4

-14.6

Newman KE

LP

25910

60.6

+14.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

42790

98.2

+0.2

Informal

 

773

1.8

-0.2

Turnout

 

43563

93.2

-2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

102. Cunningham (NSW)

15.10.77

 

 

Enrolled 76620

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dezelin R

Ind

1136

1.8

+1.8

Griffin TJ

LP

20748

32.1

-4.3

Nixon MF

Com

1236

1.9

+1.9

Sampson RW

Dem

5011

7.8

+7.8

West SJ

ALP

36425

56.4

-5.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Griffin TJ

LP

24007

37.2

-0.3

West SJ

ALP

40549

62.8

+0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

64556

97.2

-0.8

Informal

 

1888

2.8

+0.8

Turnout

 

66444

86.7

-9.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

103. Werriwa (NSW)

23.9.78

 

 

Enrolled 59897

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Garcia JA

SWP

1081

1.8

+1.8

Kerin JC

ALP

40272

67.2

+11.7

Olson KN

Dem

3774

6.3

-2.7

Penninger HR

NAP

214

0.4

+0.4

Sadler WP

LP

14556

24.3

-9.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Kerin JC

ALP

43185

72.1

+11.3

Sadler WP

LP

16712

27.9

-11.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

59897

98.2

+1.4

Informal

 

1093

1.8

-1.4

Turnout

 

60990

81.7

-13.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

104. Grayndler (NSW)

23.6.79

 

 

Enrolled 67726

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bellchambers EC

Ind

1051

2.1

+2.1

Duncan SJE

VOTE

1845

3.7

+3.7

Keig JE

SWP

591

1.2

+1.2

Kirkman SR

Dem

1848

3.7

-3.5

McLeay LB

ALP

30764

61.8

+4.1

Salter FK

NA

863

1.7

+1.7

Vasseleou V

LP

12161

24.4

-9.0

Vouros F

SPA

665

1.3

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

McLeay LB

ALP

34635

69.6

+6.9

Vasseleou V

LP

15153

30.4

-6.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

49788

94.7

-2.0

Informal

 

2806

5.3

+2.0

Turnout

 

52594

77.7

-14.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

105. Boothby (SA)

21.2.81

 

 

Enrolled 80404

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Arkins D

UWU

544

0.8

+0.8

Gard A

Ind

555

0.9

+0.9

Hall RS

LP

36406

56.7

+0.5

Hercus RW

Dem

9188

14.3

+1.2

Herreen JD

PCP

398

0.6

-0.4

Whyatt JB

ALP

17108

26.6

-3.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hall RS

LP

40830

63.6

-1.2

Whyatt JB

ALP

23369

36.4

+1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

64199

97.7

-0.4

Informal

 

1480

2.3

+0.4

Turnout

 

65679

81.7

-12.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

106. Curtin (WA)

21.2.81

 

 

Enrolled 64512

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Busell AD

Ind

1843

3.8

+3.8

Crouch J

ALP

15644

32.1

-0.7

de la Hunty SB

Dem

8356

17.1

+8.8

Rocher AC

LP

22951

47.0

-11.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Crough J

ALP

21732

44.5

+7.5

Rocher AC

LP

27062

55.5

-7.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

48794

96.7

-1.1

Informal

 

1664

3.3

+1.1

Turnout

 

50458

78.2

-14.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

107. McPherson (Qld)

21.2.81

 

 

Enrolled 86139

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Aabraham-Steer W

Ind

512

0.7

-1.1

Chaffey KD

PP

537

0.8

+0.8

Courtney P

Ind

290

0.4

+0.4

Giesberts H

Ind

469

0.7

+0.7

McKenna RP

ALP

18278

25.7

-5.1

Sheil G

NP

21189

29.8

+29.8

White PND

LP

29776

41.9

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

McKenna RP

ALP

21445

30.2

-16.2

White PND

LP

49606

69.8

+16.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

71051

97.8

+0.1

Informal

 

1575

2.2

-0.1

Turnout

 

72626

84.3

-8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

108. Wentworth (NSW)

11.4.81

 

 

Enrolled 69972

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bussell AD

Ind

534

1.1

+1.1

Coleman WP

LP

22736

48.1

-12.4

Kersey JS

Dem

2186

4.6

-1.6

More WL

Ind

176

0.4

+0.4

Roach WE

Ind

92

0.2

+0.2

Tickner RE

ALP

16637

35.2

+1.9

Wentworth KW

Ilib

4923

10.4

+10.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Coleman WP

LP

27136

57.4

-6.2

Tickner RE

ALP

20148

42.6

+6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

47284

97.2

-0.3

Informal

 

1349

2.8

+0.3

Turnout

 

48633

69.5

-19.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

109. Lowe (NSW)

13.3.82

 

 

Enrolled 71140

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bellchambers EC

Ind

460

0.8

+0.8

Cameron RJ

Ind

116

0.2

+0.2

Consandine PW

Crep

405

0.7

+0.7

Gustin M

Ind

729

1.2

+1.2

Kirkham SR

Dem

2495

4.1

+1.1

Lee M

Ind

144

0.2

+0.2

Maher MJ

ALP

32717

53.4

+7.0

Martin FE

Ind

49

0.1

+0.1

Penninger J

Ind

56

0.1

+0.1

Taylor PJ

LP

23637

38.6

-10.2

Webeck RJ

Ind

27

. .

. .

Wentworth KW

Ind

462

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Maher MJ

ALP

35188

57.4

+8.5

Taylor PJ

LP

26109

42.6

-8.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

61297

97.7

-0.4

Informal

 

2091

3.3

+0.4

Turnout

 

63388

89.1

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

110. Flinders (Vic)

4.12.82

 

 

Enrolled 84782

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Consandine PW

Crep

607

0.8

+0.8

Crossley PM

DSP

1211

1.6

+1.6

Farrell G

AP

389

0.5

+0.5

Ferwerda PA

DLP

1271

1.7

+1.7

Fraser HA

Dem

6785

8.9

-1.6

Reith PK

LP

34756

45.7

-4.6

Ward RJ

ALP

31052

40.8

+1.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Reith PK

LP

39804

52.3

-3.3

Ward RJ

ALP

36276

47.7

+3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

76080

97.4

-0.7

Informal

 

1991

2.6

+0.7

Turnout

 

78071

92.1

-3.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

111. Wannon (Vic)

7.5.83

 

 

Enrolled 69466

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Genardini NM

ALP

23069

36.1

-1.1

Hallam RM

NP

14290

22.3

+22.3

Hawker DPM

LP

26631

41.6

-16.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Genardini NM

ALP

25060

39.2

-1.5

Hawker DPM

LP

38930

60.8

+1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

63990

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

527

0.8

-0.5

Turnout

 

64517

92.9

-4.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

112. Bruce (Vic)

28.5.83

 

 

Enrolled 81668

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Aldred KJ

LP

35849

48.5

+0.6

Fogarty PA

PP

105

0.1

+0.1

Johnson MR

Dem

4769

6.5

-1.3

Kapphan W

Ind

111

0.2

+0.2

Mulholland JV

DLP

1621

2.2

+2.2

O'Connor HW

ALP

31354

42.4

-1.9

Thiele B

AC

94

0.1

+0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Aldred KJ

LP

40259

54.5

+3.8

O'Connor WH

ALP

33644

45.5

-3.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

73903

98.3

. .

Informal

 

1266

1.7

. .

Turnout

 

75169

92.0

-5.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

113. Moreton (Qld)

5.11.83

 

 

Enrolled 67335

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cameron DM

LP

31440

52.1

+5.4

Eather NL

APPG

508

0.8

+0.8

Platen MJ

NHP

252

0.4

+0.4

Robson BL

ALP

28130

46.6

+1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Cameron DM

LP

31882

52.8

+1.2

Robson BL

ALP

28448

47.2

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

60330

98.9

+0.4

Informal

 

655

1.1

-0.4

Turnout

 

60985

90.6

-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

114.Corangamite (Vic)

18.2.84

 

 

Enrolled 75571

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Lam JK

DLP

1336

1.9

+1.9

McArthur FS

LP

32083

46.7

-11.3

O'Connor GM

ALP

25517

37.1

-4.9

Seymour DCG

NP

9794

14.3

+14.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

McArthur FS

LP

40837

59.3

+1.3

O'Connor GM

ALP

27893

40.7

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

68730

98.4

+0.1

Informal

 

1096

1.6

-0.1

Turnout

 

69826

92.4

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

115. Hughes (NSW)

18.2.84

 

 

Enrolled 83072

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hellyer RK

Dem

4065

5.8

-3.3

Johnson L

Ind

1393

2.0

+2.0

Mason CB

LP

22962

32.7

+4.3

Saleam J

ANAG

970

1.4

+1.4

Tickner RE

ALP

40728

58.1

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Mason CB

LP

25956

37.0

+5.0

Tickner RE

ALP

44162

63.0

-5.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

70118

97.9

-0.3

Informal

 

1486

2.1

+0.3

Turnout

 

71604

86.2

-9.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

116. Richmond (NSW)

18.2.84

 

 

Enrolled 90494

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Blunt CW

NP

26972

33.8

-19.2

Bucks F

Ind

3657

4.6

+4.6

Carmont PW

ALP

28914

36.2

-3.5

Clough SD

Dem

2587

3.2

-4.1

Griffin DA

Ind

469

0.6

+0.6

Pezzutti BPV

LP

16948

21.2

+21.2

Ponnuswamy M

UM

290

0.4

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Blunt CW

NP

44528

55.8

-0.5

Carmont PW

ALP

35309

44.2

+0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

79837

98.3

-0.4

Informal

 

1383

1.7

+0.4

Turnout

 

81220

89.8

-5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

117. Scullin (Vic)

8.2.86

 

 

Enrolled 62448

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cichello D

LP

11741

22.9

+4.4

Privitelli J

Dem

3727

7.3

+0.6

Mulholland JV

DLP

924

1.8

+1.8

Jenkins HA

ALP

34021

66.3

-5.2

Sibelle M

SWP

930

1.8

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Cichello D

LP

13770

26.8

+4.4

Jenkins HA

ALP

37562

73.2

-4.4

Exhausted

 

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

51343

93.9

+0.8

Informal

 

3318

6.1

-8.0

Turnout

 

54661

87.5

-7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

118. Adelaide (SA)

6.2.88

 

 

Enrolled 73750

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mewett BR

Ind

1408

2.3

+2.3

Consandine P

Ind

104

0.2

+0.2

Brander M

Ind

409

0.7

+0.7

Litten JD

Ind

367

0.6

+0.6

McLiesh I

Dem

7097

11.8

+2.7

McGregor-Dey D

Unite

218

0.4

-0.2

Stokes B

NP

1000

1.7

-3.4

Farrell D

ALP

22897

38.0

-10.9

Pratt M

LP

26777

44.4

+8.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Farrell D

ALP

28967

48.1

-8.4

Pratt M

LP

31195

51.9

+8.4

Exhausted

 

115

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

60277

96.1

+3.7

Informal

 

2431

3.9

-3.7

Turnout

 

62708

85.0

-7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

119. Port Adelaide (SA)

26.3.88

 

 

Enrolled 72571

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Chaplin T

Ind

2385

3.8

+3.8

Brander M

Ind

438

0.7

+0.7

Fuller J

LP

23818

37.7

+9.1

Sawford R

ALP

29773

47.1

-14.2

Deering B

Ind

412

0.7

+0.7

Lees M

Dem

4506

7.1

+1.0

Hammond R

Ind

1142

1.8

+1.8

Auer J

Ind

743

1.2

+1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Fuller J

LP

28276

44.8

+11.1

Sawford R

ALP

34885

55.2

-11.1

Exhausted

 

56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

63217

95.7

+4.9

Informal

 

2865

4.3

-4.9

Turnout

 

66082

91.1

-2.6

120. Groom (Qld)

9.4.88

 

 

Enrolled 71402

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Carew MJ

Dem

3474

5.6

+0.2

Dwyer LA

ALP

14973

24.2

-8.2

Taylor B

LP

20651

33.3

+20.0

Russell DG

NP

17814

28.8

-20.1

Consandine P

Ind

369

0.6

+0.6

Burke VJ

Ind

4661

7.5

+7.5

 

 

 

 

 

Final Count

 

 

 

 

Taylor B

LP

38651

62.4

 

Russell DG

NP

23271

37.6

 

Exhausted

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Dwyer LA

ALP

19797

32.0

-5.2

Taylor B

LP

42129

68.0

+5.2

Exhausted

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

61942

98.6

+1.5

Informal

 

889

1.4

-1.5

Turnout

 

62831

88.0

-5.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

121. Oxley (Qld)

8.10.88

 

 

Enrolled 67125

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Darby M

Ind

3345

5.8

+5.8

Kuhne OE

Ind

353

0.6

+0.6

Hoffenstz B

NP

9876

17.1

-3.1

Cooke D

LP

15853

27.4

+12.6

Scott L

ALP

28427

49.1

-10.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Cooke D

LP

27134

46.9

+11.8

Scott L

ALP

30705

53.1

-11.8

Exhausted

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

57854

97.4

+0.6

Informal

 

1563

2.6

-0.6

Turnout

 

59417

88.5

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

122. Gwydir (NSW)

15.4.89

 

 

Enrolled 69709

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Anderson J

NP

31209

56.0

-1.2

O'Regan B

Ind

9881

17.7

+17.7

Uebergang J

Ind

14660

26.3

+26.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

55750

95.3

-1.2

Informal

 

2768

4.7

+1.2

Turnout

 

58518

83.9

-10.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

123. Menzies (Vic)

11.5.91

 

 

Enrolled 72518

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Andrews KJ

LP

40164

67.7

+9.3

McCormack D

AFI

4055

6.8

+6.8

Barnard J

Ind

2035

3.4

+3.4

Peak K

Dem

13070

20.0

+8.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Andrews KJ

LP

42719

72.0

 

Peak K

Dem

16578

28.0

 

Exhausted

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

59314

95.0

-1.9

Informal

 

3103

5.0

+1.9

Turnout

 

62417

86.1

-10.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

124. Wills (Vic)

11.4.92

 

 

Enrolled 76217

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Savage K

Ind

1660

2.6

+2.6

Kardimitsis B

ALP

18784

29.4

-19.3

Kuhn OE

Ind

35

0.1

+0.1

Phillips R

Ind

136

0.2

+0.2

Kapphan W

Ind

34

0.1

+0.1

Rawson G

Ind

453

0.7

+0.7

Delacretaz J

LP

17582

27.6

-6.9

Poulos P

Ind

61

0.1

+0.1

Droulers JP

Ind

68

0.1

+0.1

French B

Ind

90

0.1

+0.1

Potter FC

Ind

30

0.1

+0.1

Murray J

Ind

54

0.1

+0.1

Vassis C

Ind

43

0.1

+0.1

Cleary P

Ind

21391

33.5

+33.5

Ferraro S

Ind

221

0.3

+0.3

Germaine S

FPA

280

0.4

+0.4

Walker A

AFI

577

0.9

+0.9

Markay D

Dem

1383

2.2

-7.4

Lewis B

Ind

216

0.3

+0.3

Sykes IG

Ind

364

0.6

-0.9

Kyrou K

Ind

81

0.1

+0.1

Murgatroyd

Ind

258

0.4

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Final Count

 

 

 

 

Kardimitsis B

ALP

21772

34.3

 

Cleary P

Ind

41708

65.7

 

Exhausted

 

321

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Kardimitsis B

ALP

40416

63.8

+5.9

Delacretaz J

LP

22942

36.2

-5.9

Exhausted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

63801

93.6

. .

Informal

 

4348

6.4

. .

Turnout

 

68149

89.4

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

125. Werriwa (NSW)

29.1.94

 

 

Enrolled 74512

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

MacAllister GM

Ind

1111

1.8

+1.8

Latham M

ALP

30337

50.1

-11.3

Kammoun A

Ind

378

0.6

+0.6

Lynn C

LP

20466

33.8

+3.3

Spencer RM

AFI

4384

7.2

+7.2

Moon J

Ind

3199

5.3

+5.3

Keegel EL

Ind

188

0.3

+0.3

Corbett MR

Ind

458

0.8

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Latham M

ALP

35972

59.5

-6.3

Lynne C

LP

24500

40.5

+6.3

Exhausted

 

49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

60521

94.8

-1.2

Informal

 

3318

5.2

+1.2

Turnout

 

63839

85.6

-9.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

126. Fremantle (WA)

12.3.94

 

 

Enrolled 74721

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Conder RN

Ind

1506

2.4

+2.4

Hourn G

LP

23047

36.9

-1.8

Walker S

GWA

5215

8.3

+1.5

Lawrence C

ALP

32707

52.4

+2.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hourn G

LP

25715

41.2

-1.0

Lawrence C

ALP

36745

58.8

+1.0

Exhausted

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

62475

97.4

+0.4

Informal

 

1669

2.6

-0.4

Turnout

 

64144

85.8

-10.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

127. Bonython (SA)

19.3.94

 

 

Enrolled 77469

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McCormack D

AFI

4323

6.8

+6.8

Bell G

Gry

4659

7.4

+7.4

Evans M

ALP

29097

45.9

-9.7

Markwell A

LP

20398

32.2

+3.5

Webb J

Ind

923

1.5

+1.5

Newey P

Dem

3960

6.2

-3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Evans M

ALP

36013

56.9

-7.8

Markwell A

LP

27284

43.1

+7.8

Exhausted

 

63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

63360

94.5

-0.2

Informal

 

3722

5.5

+0.2

Turnout

 

67082

86.6

-8.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

128. Warringah (NSW)

26.3.94

 

 

Enrolled 78174

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

 

 

 

 

 

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Spencer RM

AFI

8446

13.5

+13.5

Abbott T

LP

34440

55.2

-0.9

Halnan J

Ind

9564

15.3

+15.3

Anderson T

Dem

9932

15.9

+11.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Abbott T

LP

41063

65.8

 

Anderson T

Dem

21311

34.2

 

Exhausted

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

62382

96.4

-1.2

Informal

 

2339

3.6

+1.2

Turnout

 

64721

82.8

-12.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

129. Mackellar (NSW)

26.3.94

 

 

Enrolled 78932

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McLeod FE

Grn

3940

5.9

+5.9

Consandine P

RPA

586

0.9

+0.9

Wells SR

Ind

2063

3.1

+3.1

Ellis B

Ind

15501

23.1

+23.1

Phillips J

AFI

5464

8.2

+8.2

Bigot G

 

582

0.9

+0.9

Johnson B

Dem

3851

5.7

-1.4

Bishop B

LP

34999

52.2

-4.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Ellis B

Ind

26587

39.7

 

Bishop B

LP

40328

60.3

 

Exhausted

 

71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

66986

96.8

-0.2

Informal

 

2181

3.2

+0.2

Turnout

 

69167

87.6

-8.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

130. Kooyong (Vic)

19.11.94

 

 

Enrolled 72441

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cotton Y

Ind

2004

3.5

+3.5

Tobias PF

Ind

518

0.9

+0.9

Boffa G

Ind

955

1.7

+1.7

Greagg DLJ

 

686

1.2

-0.2

Georgiou P

LP

32872

56.9

-4.2

Walker A

AFI

4573

7.9

+7.9

Singer P

Grn

16202

28.0

+28.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Georgiou P

LP

36964

64.0

 

Singer P

Grn

20766

36.0

 

Exhausted

 

80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

57810

96.4

-1.1

Informal

 

2166

3.6

+1.1

Turnout

 

59976

82.8

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

131. Canberra (ACT)

25.3.95

 

 

Enrolled 99295

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Clarke J

Ind

2274

2.7

+2.7

Robinson S

ALP

25689

30.5

-21.8

Cotta J

RPA

1003

1.2

+1.2

Spencer R

AFI

3515

4.2

+4.2

Warden J

Grn

10835

12.9

+12.9

Smyth B

LP

39021

46.3

+10.1

Gray-Grzeszkiewicz J

Ind

1956

2.3

+2.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Robinson S

ALP

36577

43.4

-16.1

Smyth B

LP

47672

56.6

+16.1

Exhausted

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

84293

96.5

-0.7

Informal

 

3095

3.5

+0.7

Turnout

 

87388

88.0

-9.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

132. Wentworth (NSW)

8.4.95

 

 

Enrolled 78880

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Matson A

Grn

15120

26.0

+26.0

Hooper J

 

1317

2.3

+2.3

Thomson A

LP

30677

52.8

+0.1

Wentworth WC

Ind

10945

18.9

+18.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Matson M

Grn

19793

34.1

 

Thomson A

LP

38252

65.9

 

Exhausted

 

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

58059

96.0

-1.1

Informal

 

2392

4.0

+1.1

Turnout

 

60451

76.6

-17.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

133. Blaxland (NSW)

15.6.96

 

 

Enrolled 79714

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hutchinson J

RARI

5771

9.0

+9.0

Baird N

Ind

1499

2.3

+2.3

Spencer A

 

499

0.8

+0.8

Pahme M

CTA

2782

4.3

+3.0

Reid B

Ind

750

1.2

+1.2

Kennedy M

 

388

0.6

+0.6

Kearney V

Grn

3148

4.9

+4.9

Aussie-Stone M

Ind

298

0.5

+0.1

Cogger L

NLP

224

0.3

+0.1

Sayegh P

Ind

2334

3.6

+2.6

Hatton M

ALP

37804

58.8

+0.1

Krumins P

AFI

8759

13.6

+10.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Hutchinson J

RARI

19800

30.9

 

Hatton M

ALP

44188

69.1

 

Exhausted

 

268

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

64256

92.7

-0.7

Informal

 

5092

7.3

+0.7

Turnout

 

69348

87.0

-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

134. Lindsay (NSW)

19.10.96

 

 

Enrolled 81659

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Grigg B

CTA

1254

1.8

-0.4

Kelly J

LP

34840

49.2

+6.7

Franich R

ASP

2042

2.9

+2.9

Free R

ALP

23758

33.6

-6.8

Townsend V

Ind

4224

6.0

+3.2

Grim-Reaper S

Ind

270

0.4

+0.4

Peacey R

Ind

156

0.2

+0.2

Vella K

Ind

933

1.3

+1.3

Archibald D

FLR

150

0.2

+0.2

Aird V

Ind

488

0.7

+0.7

Lear S

Dem

1182

1.7

-4.9

Edwards L

Grn

1502

2.1

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Kelly J

LP

39941

56.6

+5.0

Free R

ALP

30684

43.4

-5.0

Exhausted

 

174

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

70799

96.4

-0.1

Informal

 

2678

3.6

+0.1

Turnout

 

73477

90.0

-6.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

135. Fraser (ACT)

1.2.97

 

 

Enrolled 65687

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Chu A

Ind

4135

7.8

+7.8

von Behrens D

Grn

5584

10.6

+0.7

Walker A

AFI

1870

3.5

+3.5

Dargavel S

ALP

25867

49.1

-1.4

Hill C

Ind

9642

18.3

+18.3

Bernard J

Ind

189

0.4

+0.4

Miller J

CTA

1766

3.4

+3.4

Hutchinson J

RARI

1228

2.3

+2.3

Connor K

AAP

490

0.9

+0.9

Clarke J

Ind

455

0.9

+0.9

Thompson D

Ind

1456

2.8

+2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Dargavel S

ALP

34279

65.2

 

Hill C

Ind

18261

34.8

 

Exhausted

 

142

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

52682

94.1

-2.7

Informal

 

3313

5.9

+2.7

Turnout

 

55995

85.2

-11.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

136. Holt (Vic)

6.11.99

 

 

Enrolled 84725

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mulholland J

DLP

5404

7.3

+7.3

Scoullar D

Grn

4701

6.4

+6.4

Dickson L

CTA

4399

6.0

+4.2

Morgan P

Dem

10896

14.7

+8.7

Byrne A

ALP

48499

65.6

+5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Morgan

Dem

20650

27.9

 

Byrne A

ALP

53249

72.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

73899

92.8

-2.7

Informal

 

5727

7.2

+2.7

Turnout

 

79626

94.0

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

137. Isaacs (Vic)

12.8.00

 

 

Enrolled 81329

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Brook P

FST

3270

5.4

+4.9

Fletcher H

Dem

10540

17.3

+11.4

Hutchison M

Grn

5539

9.1

+7.0

King G

DLP

1832

3.0

+3.0

Wesley C

Ind

5329

8.7

+8.7

Corcoran A

ALP

34483

56.5

+8.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Fletcher H

Dem

20715

34.0

 

Corcoran A

ALP

40278

66.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

60993

91.8

-4.6

Informal

 

5420

8.2

+4.6

Turnout

 

66413

81.7

-14.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

138. Ryan (Qld)

17.3.01

 

 

Enrolled 87634

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Short L

ALP

29173

38.7

+8.3

Stagg W

Ind

440

0.6

+0.6

Hyland T

Ind

822

1.1

+1.1

Moore J

Ind

1351

1.8

+1.8

Hassall A

CTA

955

1.3

+1.3

Stasse M

Grn

4608

6.1

+2.3

Tucker B

LP

32571

43.2

-7.2

Freemarijuana N

HMP

1685

2.2

+2.2

Dengate L

Dem

3808

5.0

-2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Short L

ALP

37834

50.2

+9.7

Tucker B

LP

37579

49.8

-9.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

75413

97.0

-0.7

Informal

 

2304

3.0

+0.7

Turnout

 

77717

88.7

-5.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

139. Aston (Vic)

14.07.01

 

 

Enrolled 89159

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

O'Loughlin P

Ind

1160

1.5

+1.5

Pearce C

LP

31640

40.7

-7.8

Ward M

Ind

126

0.2

+0.2

Sloan M

NGST

618

0.8

+0.8

Kir M

Grn

1877

2.4

+2.4

Raskovy S

Ind

227

0.3

+0.3

Mitchell D

CEC

334

0.4

+0.4

Chamberlain L

LFF

680

0.9

+0.9

Harcourt P

Dem

6271

8.1

+0.5

Scott J

HAN

1369

1.8

-1.1

Scates G

Ind

3401

4.4

+4.4

Cox J

Ind

328

0.4

+0.4

Petherbridge T

HPA

232

0.3

+0.3

Dunstan G

HMP

711

0.9

+0.9

Boland K

ALP

28716

37.0

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two-Party Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Pearce C

LP

39299

50.6

-3.7

Boland K

ALP

38391

49.4

+3.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

77690

94.2

-3.0

Informal

 

4819

5.8

+3.0

Turnout

 

82509

92.5

-4.1

140. Cunningham (NSW)

19.10.02

 

 

Enrolled 81521

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Nanelli O

CDP

2566

3.8

+1.3

Wilson P

Ind

7107

10.6

+10.6

Johnson H

CEC

120

0.2

+0.2

Organ M

Grn

15505

23.0

+16.4

Bird S

ALP

25671

38.1

-6.1

Flanagan J

NCPP

556

0.8

+0.8

Crocker G

HAN

2696

4.0

-0.6

Hughes D

AFI

889

1.3

+1.3

Keene J

Ind

483

0.7

+0.7

Sampson M

Ind

671

1.0

+1.0

Moulds D

Ind

9147

13.6

+13.6

Chapman L

Dem

1514

2.2

-4.9

Williams C

SA

399

0.6

+0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

 

 

 

 

Organ M

Grn

35160

52.2

 

Bird S

ALP

32164

47.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

67324

92.3

-2.9

Informal

 

5647

7.7

+2.9

Turnout

 

72971

89.5

-5.9

Appendix 3: Notes on Commonwealth by-elections

  1. Darling Downs 1901-The first by-election, which followed the death of W. H. Groom, was won by his son, L. E. Groom.

  2. Tasmania 1902-This was caused by the death of Frederick Piesse. This has been the only by-election held at-large, due to the first Tasmanian members being elected from the State as a whole rather than from individual electorates.

  3. East Sydney 1903-The sitting member, Sir George Reid, resigned in protest against the proposals for the redistribution of New South Wales divisions, forcing the by-election. Reid won the resulting by-election.

  4. Wilmot 1904-Former Tasmanian Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Edward Braddon, remains the oldest person elected to the House of Representatives. He was 74 when he died, forcing this by-election.

  5. Melbourne 1904-By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.

  6. Riverina 1904-By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.

  7. Echuca 1907-By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials. The Opposition did not contest the seat.

  8. Adelaide 1908-Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Charles Cameron Kingston.

  9. Wakefield 1909-Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Frederick Holder.

  10. Kooyong 1910-The winner of this by-election, Sir Robert Best, had been a Senator during the first decade until his defeat in 1910.

  11. Batman 1911-Well-known lawyer, Frank Brennan, won this seat for the Labor Party.

  12. North Sydney 1911-Major-General Sir Granville Ryrie, who had seen military service in South Africa, at Gallipoli and in Egypt, won this seat for the Liberal Party.

  13. Boothby 1911-The Fisher Labor Government lost this seat to the Liberal Party, but regained it at the 1913 general election.

  14. Werriwa 1912-D. R. Hall resigned to take up an appointment to the New South Wales Legislative Council.

  15. Kalgoorlie 1913-The first by-election for which there was just a single nomination.

  16. Adelaide 1914-The winner of this by-election, George Yates, soon left Australia to serve in the World War, though he retained his seat while he did so.

  17. Bendigo 1915-This by-election was caused by the death of the Minister for External Affairs, John Arthur.

  18. Grampians 1915-Sir Charles Carty Salmon, second Speaker of the House of Representatives (1909-10) returned to the Parliament at this by-election.

  19. Dalley 1915-The death of Robert Howe, first secretary of the Labor Federation of Australia caused this by-election. Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.

  20. Wide Bay 1915-Former Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, resigned to take up an appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain. The Labor Party lost the seat, which it did not win back until 1961.

  21. Darwin 1917-Former Tasmanian MHA, C. R. Howroyd, died five days after winning the seat at the 1917 general election.

  22. Grampians 1917-Sir Charles Carty Salmon's death caused this by-election. He was replaced by Edmund Jowett, later elected first deputy leader of the Country Party.

  23. Flinders 1918-Upon the appointment of Sir William Irvine as Chief Justice of the Victorian Supreme Court, the by-election for his seat saw the victory of future Prime Minister S. M. Bruce.

  24. Swan 1918-By-election caused by the death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir John Forrest. The Nationalist Party failed to hold the seat, though it won it back at the 1919 general election.

  25. Corangamite 1918-This by-election saw the first use of preferential voting for a House election of any type. The Victorian Farmers' Union won the seat from the Nationalists. The defeated Labor candidate was future Prime Minister, James Scullin.

  26. Echuca 1919-This seat was also won by the Victorian Farmers' Union from the Nationalists. Not contested by the Opposition.

  27. Ballaarat 1920-In the 1919 general election, Edwin Kerby had defeated sitting member David McGrath by a single vote. Upon challenge, a Court of Disputed Returns declared void the general election result on the ground of irregularities by electoral officials. McGrath won the resulting by-election.

  28. Kalgoorlie 1920-Labor's Hugh Mahon remains the only Member or Senator to be expelled. The Labor Party failed to hold the seat in this by-election, though it won it back at the 1922 general election.

  29. Maranoa 1921-The Country Party won its first by-election taking the seat from the Labor Party.

  30. West Sydney 1921-Former Queensland Premier, T. J. Ryan, had been invited by the ALP Conference to contest this New South Wales division at the 1919 general election. Less than two years later he died causing this by-election.

  31. Parramatta 1921-Former Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Cook caused the by-election by accepting appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.

  32. Yarra 1922-By-election caused by the death of the Labor Leader of the Opposition, Frank Tudor. The by-election was won by future Prime Minister, James Scullin.

  33. Eden-Monaro 1926-This by-election was caused by the death of Sir Austin Chapman, former Minister for Defence, Postmaster-General and Minister for Trade and Customs.

  34. Dalley 1927-By-election won by former Queensland Premier, E. G. Theodore.

  35. Warringah 1927-By-election caused by the resignation of Sir Granville Ryrie to accept the position of Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.

  36. Martin 1928-Frederick Pratten replaced his uncle, the late Herbert Pratten, in this by-election.

  37. Wide Bay 1928-By-election in which Bernard Corser (CP) replaced his father Edward Corser (Nat). Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.

  38. Balaclava 1929-By-election to replace W. A. Watt, former Victorian Premier, Commonwealth Treasurer and Speaker. His replacement was (Sir) Thomas White, son-in-law of Alfred Deakin and later a Menzies Government minister. Not contested by the Opposition.

  39. Franklin 1929-By-election caused by death of the independent W. J. McWilliams, previously the first parliamentary leader of the Country Party. His replacement, Charles Frost, was later a minister under both Prime Ministers Curtin and Chifley.

  40. Parkes 1931-By-election caused by the appointment of Edward McTiernan to the High Court.

  41. East Sydney 1931-By-election won by E. J. Ward for the ALP. Ward lost the seat to J. Clasby (UAP) at the 1932 general election.

  42. East Sydney 1932-Sitting member John Clasby (UAP) died before taking his seat and former member E. J. Ward won the by-election, now as a Lang Labor candidate. Ward is the only person to win two by-elections.

  43. Flinders 1933-Former Prime Minister S. M. Bruce caused the by-election when he was appointed Resident Minister in England.

  44. Newcastle 1935-By-election at which David Oliver Watkins replaced his father, David Watkins.

  45. Fawkner 1935-By-election won by future Prime Minister, Harold Holt, for the UAP.

  46. Kennedy 1936-By-election at which David Riordan replaced his uncle, William Riordan.

  47. Darling Downs 1936-By-election won by future Prime Minister and Country Party leader, Arthur Fadden, for the Country Party.

  48. Gwydir 1937-By-election following the appointment of Charles Abbott to the position of Administrator of the Northern Territory. Three Country Party candidates nominated.

  49. Wakefield 1938-By-election at which the ALP won the seat from the UAP, following the death of Charles Hawker in a plane crash. The UAP retained the seat at the 1940 general election.

  50. Griffith 1939-By-election following death of Francis Baker.

  51. Wilmot 1939-By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister J. A. Lyons. The field included three UAP and two ALP candidates. The ALP won the seat from the UAP, but lost it in the 1940 general election.

  52. Corio 1940-J. J. Dedman (ALP) won this seat from the UAP after R. G. Casey was appointed Australian Ambassador to the United States of America.

  53. Kalgoorlie 1940-By-election caused by the death of former Minister for Defence Albert Green.

  54. Swan 1940-By-election won by former Senator Thomas Marwick.

  55. Boothby 1941-By-election won by (Sir) Archie Grenfell Price, Master of St Mark's College, University of Adelaide, and noted Australian geographer.

  56. Fremantle 1945-By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister John Curtin. The by-election was won by Kim Beazley senior.

  57. Wimmera 1946-After a battle between seven contenders, including two from the Country Party and one described as 'Independent Country Party', (Sir) Winton Turnbull narrowly won this by-election.

  58. Henty 1946-By-election to replace Arther Coles, former managing director of G. J. Coles & Co., Lord Mayor of Melbourne and independent, who had shared the balance of power after the 1941 election with Alex Wilson. This was the first by-election won by the re-formed Liberal Party. It was won by Henry Gullett, son of Sir Henry who had held the seat between 1925 and 1940.

  59. Balaclava 1951-P. E. Joske retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of T. W. White as High Commissioner in London.

  60. Macquarie 1951-By-election held following the death of the former Prime Minister Ben Chifley. The ALP retained the seat despite a small (0.4 per cent) swing to the LP/CP Coalition Government.

  61. Lyne 1952-The Country Party, which stood two candidates in this by-election, retained the seat (Phil Lucock successful candidate) despite a large swing to the ALP (8.8 per cent).

  62. Flinders 1952-The Liberal Party lost the seat to the ALP as the result of a large (11.0 per cent) swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government. The successful candidate, Keith Ewert, lost the seat at the next general election.

  63. Werriwa 1952-The ALP achieved its largest by-election swing in the post-war period (12.4 per cent) at this by-election. The successful ALP candidate was future Prime Minister Gough Whitlam.

  64. Bradfield 1952-No ALP candidate contested this safe Liberal seat, previously held by former Prime Minister and longest serving member of the House of Representatives, W. M. Hughes.

  65. Dalley 1953-The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for the ALP by A. E. Greenup.

  66. Corangamite 1953-E. D. Mackinnon retained this seat for the Liberal Party despite a 6.5 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

  67. Lang 1953-F. E. Stewart retained this seat for the ALP following the death of D. Mulcahy.

  68. Gwydir 1953-Two Country Party candidates contested this by-election together with candidates from the ALP and Liberal Party. The seat was won by the Country Party's A. I. Allan.

  69. Cook 1955-The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for Labor by Jim Cope. Typically of inner-city electorates there was a low voter turnout (76.0 per cent) at this by-election.

  70. Cunningham 1956-V. D. Kearney retained this safe seat for the ALP, in the only uncontested by-election since the Second World War.

  71. Barker 1956-Following the death of long-term member and Speaker of the House of Representatives, A. G. Cameron, the Liberal Party retained this seat despite a 9.9 per cent swing against the government.

  72. Wentworth 1956-L. H. E. Bury retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of E. J. Harrison as High Commissioner in London.

  73. Richmond 1957-Four Country Party candidates contested this by-election, including the eventual winner, Doug Anthony, the son of the former member, H. L. Anthony.

  74. Parramatta 1958-Garfield Barwick retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of former member O. H. Beale as Ambassador to the United States of America.

  75. Hunter 1960-The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate for this safe ALP seat, formerly held by H. V. Evatt.

  76. La Trobe 1960-Seat retained for the Liberal Party by J. D. Jess following the resignation of the Minister for External Affairs, R. G. Casey.

  77. Balaclava 1960-P. E. Joske, resigned to become a Judge of the ACT Supreme Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by R. H. Whittorn.

  78. Bendigo 1960-This marginal seat was retained for the ALP by N. L. Beaton following the death of sitting member P. J. Clarey.

  79. Calare 1960-Seat won by J. A. England for the Country Party from the Liberal Party. This has been the only occasion when the Country Party has won a seat from the Liberal Party at a by-election.

  80. Higinbotham 1960-Don Chipp just retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the death of T. F. Timson.

  81. Batman 1962-Captain Sam Benson retained this safe seat for the Labor Party following the death of sitting member, A. C. Bird. Benson subsequently retained Batman as an Independent at the 1966 general election

  82. Grey 1963-Retained for the ALP by J. Mortimer following the death of E. H. D. Russell.

  83. East Sydney 1963-This by-election resulted in the second lowest voter turnout (71.9 per cent) since the introduction of compulsory voting. The ALP retained the seat. The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate.

  84. Denison 1964-Athol Townley was re-elected at the 1963 general election but died before the opening of the Parliament. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by A. Gibson.

  85. Angas 1964-Alexander Downer senior resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by G. O'H. Giles.

  86. Parramatta 1964-Garfield Barwick resigned to become Chief Justice of the High Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Nigel Bowen.

  87. Robertson 1964-Roger Dean resigned to become Administrator of the Northern Territory. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by C. W. Bridges-Maxwell.

  88. Riverina 1965-Hugh Roberton resigned to become Ambassador to Ireland. The seat was retained for the Country Party by A. A. Armstrong.

  89. Dawson 1966-The ALP candidate, Rex Patterson, achieved a large swing (11.9 per cent) against the LP/CP Coalition Government to win the seat from the Country Party.

  90. Kooyong 1966-The Liberal Party candidate, Andrew Peacock, retained this safe Liberal seat in the by-election following the resignation of Prime Minister Robert Menzies.

  91. Corio 1967-A large swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government (11.1 per cent) resulted in the ALP candidate, Gordon Scholes, winning the seat from the Liberal Party, following the retirement of popular sporting personality, Hubert Opperman.

  92. Capricornia 1967-Following the death of sitting member G. W. Shaw, this seat was retained by the ALP by Doug Everingham.

  93. Higgins 1968-This by-election was held following the presumed death of Prime Minister Harold Holt. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by new Prime Minister (and ex-Senator) John Gorton.

  94. Curtin 1969-The sitting member, Minister for External Affairs, Paul Hasluck, resigned to become Governor-General. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by R. Garland, despite a 7.1 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

  95. Bendigo 1969-Noel Beaton resigned because of ill health. The seat was retained for the ALP by David Kennedy.

  96. Gwydir 1969-Allan Armstrong resigned to become Secretary-General of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. The seat was retained for the Country Party by Ralph Hunt, despite a 7.7 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

  97. Australian Capital Territory 1970-Despite a large swing against it, the ALP retained this seat held for 18 years by popular member, Jim Fraser. The Australia Party candidate, Alan Fitzgerald, received 17.5 per cent of the first preference votes.

  98. Chisholm 1970-Tony Staley retained this seat for the Liberal Party. The ALP candidate was F. X. Costigan, later Royal Commissioner investigating the activities of the Federated Ship Painters' and Dockers' Union, and tax evasion matters.

  99. Murray 1971-Bruce Lloyd retained this seat for the Country Party following the resignation of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Trade and Industry John McEwen.

  100. Parramatta 1973-Nigel Bowen resigned to become a Judge of the NSW Court of Appeal. Philip Ruddock retained the seat for the Liberal Party. Twelve candidates contested the by-election, a record to that time.

  101. Bass 1975-The second largest swing recorded against any government to that time (14.6 per cent) occurred at this by-election held following the appointment of former Deputy Prime Minister, Lance Barnard, to be Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden. The Liberal Party candidate, Kevin Newman, won the seat from the ALP.

  102. Cunningham 1977-Following the death of sitting member, R. F. X. Connor, this seat was retained by the ALP by S. West.

  103. Werriwa 1978-The ALP candidate, John Kerin, achieved a large swing (11.3 per cent) against the LP/NP Coalition Government in this by-election, held following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.

  104. Grayndler 1979-Retained for the ALP by Leo McLeay following the death of Frank Stewart.

  105. Boothby 1981-Retained for the Liberal Party by Steele Hall, former Premier of South Australia and Senator, following the resignation of J. E. McLeay, who became Consul-General in Los Angeles.

  106. Curtin 1981-R. V. Garland resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by A. C. Rocher.

  107. McPherson 1981-The Liberal Party candidate, Peter White, achieved a swing to the LP/NP Coalition Government of 16.2 per cent, the largest swing to any government since 1949. The National Party candidate (future Senator Glen Sheil) outpolled the ALP candidate.

  108. Wentworth 1981-The former leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party, Peter Coleman, comfortably retained the seat despite a 6.2 per cent swing to the ALP candidate, Robert Tickner. The voter turnout (69.5 per cent) was the lowest since the introduction of compulsory voting in 1924.

  109. Lowe 1982-This marginal Liberal Party seat became vacant following the resignation of former Prime Minister Sir William McMahon. The ALP candidate, Michael Maher, won the seat from the Liberal Party with an 8.5 per cent swing.

  110. Flinders 1982-The Liberal Party retained this marginal seat despite a 3.3 per cent swing against the LP/NP Coalition Government. However, new member, Peter Reith, was unable to take up his seat in the House of Representatives as the Parliament was dissolved before he could be sworn in and he was defeated at the subsequent general election.

  111. Bruce 1983-The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by K. J. Aldred, following the resignation of sitting member, former Opposition Leader and Speaker B. M. Snedden.

  112. Wannon 1983-The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by D. P. M Hawker, following the resignation of sitting member, former Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser.

  113. Moreton 19833/4 The Liberal Party retained this marginal Liberal seat with a small swing in its favour. The successful candidate, Don Cameron, had lost the neighbouring seat of Fadden at the previous general election.

  114. Corangamite 1984-The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by F. S. McArthur. Labor candidate G. M. O'Connor subsequently became member for Corio.

  115. Hughes 1984-The seat was retained for ALP by Robert Tickner, following the resignation of L. R. Johnson, who became High Commissioner to New Zealand.

  116. Richmond 1984-The seat was retained for the National Party by Charles Blunt, following the resignation of former Deputy Prime Minister, Doug Anthony.

  117. Scullin 1986-The seat was retained for ALP by H. A. Jenkins who succeeded his father H. A. Jenkins.

  118. Adelaide 1988-The ALP lost this seat with a swing of 8.4 per cent against the ALP Government. The successful Liberal Party candidate, Michael Pratt, lost the seat at the next general election.

  119. Port Adelaide 1988-An 11.1 per cent swing against the ALP Government was insufficient for the Liberal Party to win the seat. The ALP's Rod Sawford was the winning candidate.

  120. Groom 1988-The Liberal Party candidate, Bill Taylor, won the seat previously held by the National Party.

  121. Oxley 1988-The prospective appointment of Bill Hayden as Governor-General caused the vacancy in this safe ALP seat. The ALP candidate, Les Scott, was successful despite an 11.8 per cent swing against the ALP Government.

  122. Gwydir 1989-John Anderson retained this seat for the National Party following the resignation of sitting member Ralph Hunt. Anderson defeated two independent candidates to win the seat.

  123. Menzies 1991-Kevin Andrews retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the resignation of sitting member Neil Brown.

  124. Wills 1992-A record 22 candidates contested this ALP seat vacated by the former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke. Prominent local identity, Phil Cleary, won the seat to become the only independent candidate to win a Commonwealth by-election. The by-election result was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. A subsequent by-election was not held because of the impending general election.

  125. Werriwa 1994-The ALP retained this safe seat despite a swing against the ALP Government of 6.3 per cent. The successful candidate was Mark Latham.

  126. Fremantle 1994-Former Western Australian Premier, Carmen Lawrence, retained this seat for the ALP with a swing of 1.0 per cent to the government.

  127. Bonython 1994-Despite a swing of 7.8 per cent against the ALP, Martyn Evans retained this seat for the government.

  128. Warringah 1994-The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Tony Abbott.

  129. Mackellar 19943/4 Liberal candidate, ex-Senator Bronwyn Bishop, easily retained this safe Liberal Party seat. Prominent writer, Bob Ellis (Ind), received 23.1 per cent of the first preference vote in the absence of a Labor Party candidate.

  130. Kooyong 1994-The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Petro Georgiou, following the resignation of sitting member and former Leader of the Opposition Andrew Peacock. In the absence of an ALP candidate the Greens candidate, Peter Singer, received 28.0 per cent of the vote.

  131. Canberra 1995-After initially considering not to contest this fairly safe ALP seat, the LP ultimately decided to enter the race and won the seat from the government with a record swing of 16.1 per cent. The successful candidate, Brendan Smyth, lost the seat at the following general election.

  132. Wentworth 1995-Despite being classified as a marginal Liberal seat the ALP did not contest this by-election caused by former Leader of the Opposition, John Hewson. The winning Liberal candidate was Andrew Thomson.

  133. Blaxland 1996-The seat was retained for the ALP by Michael Hatton, following the resignation of former Prime Minister Paul Keating.

  134. Lindsay 1996-The 1996 general election result for Lindsay was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. At the by-election the successful Liberal candidate at the general election, Jackie Kelly, won with a swing of 5.0 per cent to the Government.

  135. Fraser 1997-The seat was retained for the ALP by Steve Dargavel, following the resignation of sitting member John Langmore. At the subsequent general election, the ACT's representation in the House of Representatives was reduced to two seats. Dargavel did not contest ALP pre-selection so that Bob McMullan, member for Canberra, could contest Fraser.

  136. Holt 1999-The seat was retained for the ALP by Anthony Byrne, following the resignation of sitting member Gareth Evans.

  137. Isaacs 2000-This was the first by-election since McPherson 1981 which was caused by the death of the sitting member. The LP did not contest this fairly safe Labor seat. Retained for the ALP by Ann Corcoran.

  138. Ryan 2001-The ALP candidate, Leonie Short, won this fairly safe Liberal seat following the retirement of John Moore. The swing of 9.7 per cent against the government was just sufficient for the ALP to win the seat. Short lost the seat in the following general election.

  139. Aston 2001-The second highest number of candidates (15) to contest a by-election stood in this marginal government seat. It was retained for the Liberal Party by Chris Pearce, following the death of sitting member Peter Nugent.

  140. Cunningham 2002-Greens candidate, Michael Organ, won this safe Labor seat following the resignation of sitting member Stephen Martin. For the first time since Maranoa in 1921 an Opposition-held seat was lost in a by-election. The winning candidate received 23.0 per cent of the vote, the lowest winning vote first preference of any Commonwealth by-election. This was the first by-election victory by a minor party cand-idate since Echuca in 1919.

Appendix 4: By-election timing

Division

Previous Election

Date Vacated

By-election date

Next Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to by-election

After previous election

Before next election

Darling Downs (Qld)

30.03.01

08.08.01

14.09.01

16.12.03

37

168

823

Died

Tasmania

29.03.01

06.02.02

26.03.02

16.12.03

48

362

630

Died

East Sydney (NSW)

29.03.01

18.08.03

04.09.03

16.12.03

17

889

103

Resigned

Wilmot (Tas)

16.12.03

02.02.04

26.02.04

12.12.06

24

72

1020

Died

Melbourne (Vic)

16.12.03

10.03.04

30.03.04

12.12.06

20

105

987

Election voided

Riverina (NSW)

16.12.03

13.04.04

18.05.04

12.12.06

35

154

938

Election voided

Echuca (Vic)

12.12.06

10.06.07

10.07.07

13.04.10

30

210

1008

Election voided

Adelaide (SA)

12.12.06

11.05.08

13.06.08

13.04.10

33

549

669

Died

Wakefield (SA)

12.12.06

23.07.09

28.08.09

13.04.10

36

990

228

Died

Kooyong (Vic)

13.04.10

26.07.10

24.08.10

31.05.13

29

133

1011

Resigned

Batman (Vic)

13.04.10

18.12.10

08.02.11

31.05.13

52

301

843

Died

North Sydney (NSW)

13.04.10

04.02.11

11.03.11

31.05.13

35

332

812

Died

Boothby (SA)

13.04.10

08.10.11

11.11.11

31.05.13

34

577

567

Died

Werriwa (NSW)

13.04.10

01.04.12

01.06.12

31.05.13

61

780

364

Resigned

Kalgoorlie (WA)

31.05.13

25.11.13

22.12.13

05.09.14

27

205

257

Died

Adelaide (SA)

31.05.13

02.12.13

10.01.14

05.09.14

39

224

238

Died

Bendigo (Vic)

05.09.14

09.12.14

06.02.15

05.05.17

59

154

819

Died

Grampians (Vic)

05.09.14

01.01.15

20.02.15

05.05.17

50

168

805

Died

Dalley (NSW)

05.09.14

02.04.15

06.05.15

05.05.17

33

243

880

Died

Wide Bay (Qld)

05.09.14

26.10.15

11.12.15

05.05.17

46

462

511

Resigned

Darwin (Tas)

05.05.17

10.05.17

30.06.17

13.12.19

51

56

896

Died

Grampians (Vic)

05.05.17

15.09.17

27.10.17

13.12.19

42

175

777

Died

Flinders (Vic)

05.05.17

05.04.18

11.05.18

13.12.19

36

371

581

Resigned

Swan (WA)

05.05.17

02.09.18

26.10.18

13.12.19

54

539

413

Died

Corangamite (Vic)

05.05.17

23.10.18

14.12.18

13.12.19

52

588

364

Died

Echuca (Vic)

05.05.17

14.08.19

20.09.19

13.12.19

37

868

84

Died

Ballaarat (Vic)

13.12.19

02.06.20

10.07.20

16.12.22

38

210

889

Election voided

Kalgoorlie (WA)

13.12.19

12.11.20

18.12.20

16.12.22

36

371

728

Expelled

Maranoa (Qld)

13.12.19

03.06.21

30.07.21

16.12.22

57

595

504

Died

West Sydney (NSW)

13.12.19

01.08.21

03.09.21

16.12.22

33

630

469

Died

Parramatta (NSW)

13.12.19

11.11.21

10.12.21

16.12.22

29

728

371

Resigned

Yarra (Vic)

13.12.19

10.01.22

18.02.22

16.12.22

39

798

301

Died

Eden-Monaro (NSW)

14.11.25

12.01.26

06.03.26

17.11.28

53

113

987

Died

Dalley (NSW)

14.11.25

18.01.27

26.02.27

17.11.28

39

469

630

Resigned

Warringah (NSW)

14.11.25

13.04.27

21.05.27

17.11.28

38

553

546

Resigned

Martin (NSW)

14.11.25

07.05.28

16.06.28

17.11.28

40

945

154

Died

Wide Bay (Qld)

14.11.25

31.07.28

03.09.28

17.11.28

34

1024

75

Died

Balaclava (Vic)

17.11.28

05.07.29

03.08.29

12.10.29

29

259

70

Resigned

Franklin (Tas)

12.10.29

22.10.29

14.12.29

19.12.31

53

63

735

Died

Parkes (NSW)

12.10.29

19.12.30

31.01.31

19.12.31

43

476

322

Resigned

East Sydney (NSW)

12.10.29

05.02.31

07.03.31

19.12.31

30

511

287

Died

East Sydney (NSW)

19.12.31

15.01.32

06.02.32

15.09.34

22

49

952

Died

Flinders (Vic)

19.12.31

06.10.33

11.11.33

15.09.34

36

693

308

Resigned

Newcastle (NSW)

15.09.34

08.04.35

01.06.35

23.10.37

54

259

875

Died

Fawkner (Vic)

15.09.34

25.06.35

17.08.35

23.10.37

53

336

798

Died

Division

Previous Election

Date Vacated

By-election date

Next Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to by-election

After previous election

Before next election

Kennedy (Qld)

15.09.34

15.10.36

12.12.36

23.10.37

58

819

315

Died

Darling Downs (Qld)

15.09.34

06.11.36

19.12.36

23.10.37

43

826

308

Died

Gwydir (NSW)

15.09.34

28.03.37

08.05.37

23.10.37

41

966

168

Resigned

Wakefield (SA)

23.10.37

25.10.38

10.12.38

21.09.40

46

413

651

Died

Griffith (Qld)

23.10.37

28.03.39

20.05.39

21.09.40

53

574

490

Died

Wilmot (Tas)

23.10.37

07.04.39

27.05.39

21.09.40

50

581

483

Died

Corio (Vic)

23.10.37

30.01.40

02.03.40

21.09.40

32

861

203

Resigned

Kalgoorlie (WA)

21.09.40

02.10.40

16.11.40

21.08.43

45

56

1008

Died

Swan (WA)

21.09.40

15.11.40

21.12.40

21.08.43

36

91

973

Died

Boothby (SA)

21.09.40

23.04.41

24.05.41

21.08.43

31

245

819

Died

Fremantle (WA)

21.08.43

5.07.45

18.08.45

28.09.46

44

728

406

Died

Wimmera (Vic)

21.08.43

31.12.45

09.02.46

28.09.46

40

903

231

Resigned

Henty (Vic)

21.08.43

11.02.46

30.03.46

28.09.46

47

952

182

Resigned

Balaclava (Vic)

28.04.51

20.06.51

28.07.51

29.05.54

38

53

1036

Resigned

Macquarie (NSW)

28.04.51

13.06.51

28.07.51

29.05.54

45

46

1036

Died

Lyne (NSW)

28.04.51

28.01.52

22.03.52

29.05.54

54

275

798

Died

Flinders (Vic)

28.04.51

26.08.52

18.10.52

29.05.54

53

486

588

Died

Werriwa (NSW)

28.04.51

01.10.52

29.11.52

29.05.54

59

522

546

Died

Bradfield (NSW)

28.04.51

28.10.52

20.12.52

29.05.54

53

549

525

Died

Dalley (NSW)

28.04.51

21.03.53

09.05.53

29.05.54

49

693

385

Died

Corangamite (Vic)

28.04.51

10.06.53

29.08.53

29.05.54

80

774

273

Died

Lang (NSW)

28.04.51

13.07.53

29.08.53

29.05.54

47

807

273

Died

Gwydir (NSW)

28.04.51

15.11.53

19.12.53

29.05.54

34

932

161

Died

Cook (NSW)

29.05.54

26.03.55

21.05.55

10.12.55

56

301

203

Died

Cunningham (NSW)

10.12.55

17.02.56

11.04.56

22.11.58

54

69

955

Died

Barker (SA)

10.12.55

09.08.56

13.10.56

22.11.58

65

243

770

Died

Wentworth (NSW)

10.12.55

17.10.56

08.12.56

22.11.58

52

312

714

Resigned

Richmond (NSW)

10.12.55

12.07.57

14.09.57

22.11.58

64

580

434

Died

Parramatta (NSW)

10.12.55

10.02.58

08.03.58

22.11.58

26

793

259

Resigned

Hunter (NSW)

22.11.58

10.02.60

09.04.60

09.12.61

59

445

609

Resigned

La Trobe (Vic)

22.11.58

10.02.60

09.04.60

09.12.61

59

445

609

Resigned

Balaclava (Vic)

22.11.58

02.06.60

16.07.60

09.12.61

44

558

511

Resigned

Bendigo (Vic)

22.11.58

01.05.60

16.07.60

09.12.61

76

526

511

Died

Calare (NSW)

22.11.58

28.09.60

05.11.60

09.12.61

38

676

399

Resigned

Higinbotham (Vic)

22.11.58

16.10.60

10.12.60

09.12.61

55

694

364

Died

Batman (Vic)

09.12.61

21.07.62

01.09.62

30.11.63

42

224

455

Died

Grey (SA)

09.12.61

31.03.63

01.06.63

30.11.63

62

477

182

Died

East Sydney (NSW)

09.12.61

31.07.63

28.09.63

30.11.63

59

599

63

Died

Denison (Tas)

30.11.63

24.12.63

15.02.64

26.11.66

53

24

1015

Died

Angas (SA)

30.11.63

23.04.64

20.06.64

26.11.66

58

145

889

Resigned

Parramatta (NSW)

30.11.63

24.04.64

20.06.64

26.11.66

57

146

889

Resigned

Robertson (NSW)

30.11.63

30.09.64

05.12.64

26.11.66

66

305

721

Resigned

Riverina (NSW)

30.11.63

21.01.65

27.02.65

26.11.66

37

418

637

Resigned

Dawson (Qld)

30.11.63

09.01.66

26.02.66

26.11.66

48

771

273

Died

Kooyong (Vic)

30.11.63

17.02.66

02.04.66

26.11.66

44

810

238

Resigned

Corio (Vic)

26.11.66

10.06.67

22.07.67

25.10.69

42

196

826

Resigned

Capricornia (Qld)

26.11.66

02.08.67

30.09.67

25.10.69

59

249

756

Died

Higgins (Vic)

26.11.66

19.12.67

24.02.68

25.10.69

67

388

609

Presumed dead

Division

Previous Election

Date Vacated

By-election date

Next Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to by-election

After previous election

Before next election

Curtin (WA)

26.11.66

10.02.69

19.04.69

25.10.69

68

807

189

Resigned

Bendigo (Vic)

26.11.66

09.04.69

07.06.69

25.10.69

59

865

140

Resigned

Gwydir (NSW)

26.11.66

30.04.69

07.06.69

25.10.69

38

886

140

Resigned

Aust Cap Territory (ACT)

25.10.69

01.04.70

30.05.70

02.12.72

59

158

917

Died

Chisholm (Vic)

25.10.69

31.07.70

19.09.70

02.12.72

50

279

805

Died

Murray (Vic)

25.10.69

01.02.71

20.03.71

02.12.72

47

464

623

Resigned

Parramatta (NSW)

02.12.72

11.07.73

22.09.73

18.05.74

73

221

238

Resigned

Bass (Tas)

18.05.74

02.06.75

28.06.75

13.12.75

26

380

168

Resigned

Cunningham (NSW)

13.12.75

22.08.77

15.10.77

10.12.77

54

618

56

Died

Werriwa (NSW)

10.12.77

31.07.78

23.09.78

18.10.80

54

233

756

Resigned

Grayndler (NSW)

10.12.77

16.04.79

23.06.79

18.10.80