House of Representatives Committees

| Parliamentary Joint Committee on Cyber-Safety

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High-Wire Act: Cyber-Safety and the Young

June 2011

© Commonwealth of Australia 2011
ISBN 978-0-642-79478-9 (Printed version)
ISBN 978-0-642-79479-6 (HTML version)

View the report as a single document - (PDF 6.9MB)

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

Preliminary pages - Foreword (PDF 196KB)
Chapter 1 Introduction (PDF 350KB)

The online environment
Defining the online environment
Access to the online environment
Adult responses to cyber-safety issues
Australian Government responsibilities
State and Territory responsibilities
Current Parliamentary inquiries
Previous Parliamentary reports
Australian Law Reform Commission Inquiry
Joint Select Committee on Cyber-Safety
Overview of this Report
Part 1: Introduction
Part 2: Cyber-safety
Part 3: Educational strategies
Part 4: Enforcement
Part 5: Australian and international responses
Part 6: Conclusions
Results of the Inquiry

Chapter 2 Young people in the online environment (PDF 217KB)

Real and virtual worlds
Entry to the online environment
Disadvantaged young people
Vulnerable young people
Young people with disabilities
Young Indigenous people in remote communities
Young people in regional areas
School libraries
Public libraries
Public libraries in NSW
Public libraries in the ACT
Consultation with young people
Youth Advisory Group
Committee’s consultations
Are you safe? Survey of Australian youth
Primary school visit
High school forum

Chapter 3 Cyber-bullying (PDF 574KB)

What conduct is cyber-bullying?
Nexus with ’traditional’ bullying
Some experiences
Causes and means
Impacts and implications
Coping strategies
Who do victims tell?
Committee comments

Chapter 4 Cyber-stalking, online grooming and sexting (PDF 263KB)

Genuineness of others online
Sanctions against cyber-stalking
Sexual grooming
Sanctions against sexual grooming
Sanctions against sexting
Illegal and inappropriate content

Chapter 5 Breaches of privacy and identity theft (PDF 318KB)

Privacy Act 1988 (Cth)
Privacy and young people
Privacy settings
Identity theft
Collection of unnecessary information

Chapter 6 Other significant cyber-safety complexities (PDF 125KB)

‘Technology addictions’
Online gambling
Online promotion of inappropriate behaviours
Online availability of alcohol
Online availability of drugs
Committee views

Chapter 7 The decision to post (PDF 579KB)

Information sharing, assessment of risk and the privacy of young people
The Internet and identity
Creating authentic identities online and offline
Exploring identity
What information do young people share?
Age or birthday
Telephone number
School attended
Bank account details
Holiday plans
Photos of others
Are young people aware of online risks?
Risk and anonymity
How and why do young people decide what content to share online?
Personality, identity and appreciation of risk
Critical thinking and rational deduction
Informal learning
Learning from experience
Sibling- and peer-based learning
Common sense
Learning by examples reported in media or featured in television shows
Formal learning
Limiting online networks
Disclosing information to expand networks
Digital footprints
Longevity of the life of posted content
Ownership of posted content
Inability to delete accounts/information posted etc
Targeted advertising as a result of interests and past activities
When fun isn’t fun anymore: examining the complexities of photo sharing
Requesting the removal of photos
Approaching friends
Submitting requests to site administrators

Chapter 8 Schools (PDF 191KB)

Early cyber-safety education
Roles of schools
Duty of care
National Safe Schools Framework
Curriculums and programs
Partnerships with the Australian Communications and Media Authority
Technological approaches
Committee views

Chapter 9 Teachers (PDF 128KB)

Professional development of teachers
Pre-service teacher education
Cyber-bullying of teachers
Mandatory reporting
Training accreditation

Chapter 10 Whole-of-school community (PDF 316KB)

Information for parents/carers
Available technologies
Household media rules
Involving parents/carers
Conditions of use agreements
Parent advisory body
Concluding comments

Chapter 11 Legislative basis (PDF 270KB)

Australian law and the online environment
Australian Government responsibilities
Australian Federal Police
State and Territory responsibilities
New South Wales
South Australia
Western Australia
Sanctions against cyber-bullying
Sanctions against cyber-stalking
Sanctions against sexual grooming
Sanctions against sexting
Sanctions against illegal or inappropriate content
Promotion of suicide
Breaches of privacy and identity theft
Information requests
Community education
Legal risks
National accredited training
Law enforcement
Role of industry
Concluding comments

Chapter 12 Policing (PDF 142KB)

Policing and justice
Criminalisation of online behaviour
Restorative justice programs
Intervention orders
Legal risks
Feedback from young people
Concluding comments

Chapter 13 An online ombudsman? (PDF 175KB)

Role of an ombudsman
Support for an online ombudsman
Those opposing the establishment of an ombudsman
Other options
Those undecided

Chapter 14 Australian responses to cyber-safety issues (PDF 265KB)

Australian Government responses
Australian Communications and Media Authority
Cybersmart programs
Cybersafety Help Button
Consultative Working Group on Cybersafety
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
Attorney-General’s Department
State and Territory Government responsibilities
New South Wales
South Australia
South Australian Office for Youth
Western Australia
Northern Territory
The Australian Capital Territory
Non-government and industry responses
Australian organisations
Aboriginal initiatives
Australian ICT industry bodies

Chapter 15 International Responses to Cyber-Threats (PDF 124KB)

United Kingdom
Task Force on Child Protection on the Internet
Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre and ThinkUKnow
United Kingdom Council for Child Internet Safety
Education programs
Childnet International
United States
NetCetera: Chatting with Kids About Being Online
Children’s Agenda for Digital Opportunity
OnGuard Online
Centre for Safe and Responsible Internet Use
Wired Safety resources
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
Cybercitizen Awareness Program
Internet 101
New Zealand
Leading international collaborations
Virtual Global Taskforce
Council of Europe Convention on Cyber-Crime
United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission
The Australian/European Research Training School
Australia New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency
Australia’s contributions

Chapter 16 New technologies (PDF 127KB)

Some solutions
Family Friendly Filter
Throttling bandwidth
Central monitoring of access
Australian Protected Network
Industry advances
Mobile phones
Young people and technology

Chapter 17 Proposal for a mandatory filtering system (PDF 98KB)

Support for the proposal
Concerns about the proposal
Other views
Feedback from young Australians

Chapter 18 Input from young people (PDF 331KB)

Getting the message right
Appropriate educational materials
Empower young people to better assist each other
Peer education
Crossing the inter-generational divide
Inverting the teaching relationship
Other suggestions
Site Administrators and Developers
Legislation and law enforcement
Tackling cyber-bullying
Education programs and awareness campaigns
Greater support networks
More actions by site administrators
Innovative suggestions
General comments

Chapter 19 Conclusions (PDF 230KB)

Centralised system
Central portal
National cyber-safety education program
Effectiveness of education programs
Educational resources
The role of the media
Media advertising campaign
Industry cooperation
Take down notices
Point of sale
Health and wellbeing
Prevention strategies
Input from young people
Seeking help online
Law enforcement
Timeliness of information
Costs for law enforcement agencies

Appendix A — Submissions (PDF 47KB)
Appendix B — Exhibits (PDF 56KB)
Appendix C — Witnesses (PDF 49KB)
Appendix D – Survey Methodology - Content (PDF 166KB)
Appendix E – Online Offences (PDF 178KB)

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