Through a Glass, Darkly

Through a Glass, Darkly

Evaluation in Australian Health and Welfare Services

Canberra 1979

© Commonwealth of Australia 1979

ISBN 0 642 04203 9

N.B. All files are in PDF format. To view or print the report, you will require the Acrobat PDF reader®, which can be downloaded free of charge from Adobe.

View the report as a single document - (PDF format) - 4 988 KB

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

TABLE OF CONTENTS - (PDF format)

An Overview - (PDF format)

PART 1: THE RATIONALE OF THE REPORT - (PDF format)

Chapter 1: Why Evaluate?
What is evaluation
Evaluation and accountability
Inadequacies in the health and welfare system
Expenditure on health and welfare
Benefits of evaluation
Consequences of not evaluating
Summary and conclusions

PART 2: EVALUATION IN THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT

Chapter 2: History of Evaluation in Australia - (PDF format)
Evaluation activity from 1901 to 1972
Evaluation activity from 1973 to 1978

Chapter 3: Current Models of Evaluation Within Parliamentary and Government Processes - (PDF format)
Role of Parliament in evaluation
Evaluation in the legislative process
Future use of evaluation in Parliament
Centralised control and evaluation in the Commonwealth Public Service
Recommendations

PART 3: THE PROCESS OF EVALUATION AND ITS COMPONENTS

Chapter 4: Need - (PDF format)
Concept of need as part of the evaluation process
Concept of demand
Concept of need
Importance of measuring need
Measurement of current need in Australia
Recommendations

Chapter 5: Goals and Objectives - (PDF format)
Definitions
Importance of setting goals and objectives
Goals and objectives to assist in planning of services at government level
Goals and objectives to serve as guidelines at service level
Importance of objectives to evaluation
Flexible goals and objectives
Current situation regarding goals and objectives in Australia
Summary and conclusions
Recommendations

Chapter 6: Standards - (PDF Format)
Definition of standards
Importance of standards to the health and welfare system
Importance of standards to evaluation
Standards used to specify the dimensions of evaluation
Standards used as a measure of assessment
Current situation in standard setting in Australia
Summary and conclusions
Recommendations

Chapter 7: Data - (PDF format)
Need for data
Locked-in data
Types of data needed
Positive developments
Social indicators
Problems of cost, resources and priorities
Conclusions
Recommendations

Chapter 8: Models and Prospects for Future Evaluation - (PDF format)
Some evaluation models
Conclusions
Recommendations

PART 4: THE CHALLENGE OF EVALUATION FOR AUSTRALIA IN THE FUTURE

Chapter 9: Constraints and Opportunities - (PDF format)
Evaluation is threatening
Lack of national goals
Lack of data
Lack of standards
Present system of funding
Present functioning of Parliament
Resources required for evaluation
Evaluation has not been seen as necessary
No tradition of evaluation in Australia
Difficulties in converting theory into practice
Positive developments in evaluation
Summary, conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 10: Evaluation in the Future - the Pivotal Activities - (PDF format)
Development of accountability criteria
Developing forward-planning and evaluation capacity
Establishment of social need
Standards in evaluation
Priorities for program evaluation in health and welfare agencies
Priorities for program evaluation within management
Conclusions

PART 5: THE INQUIRY

Chapter 11: Background and Conduct of the Inquiry - (PDF format)
Terms of reference and initiation of the inquiry
Interruption of the inquiry
Gathering of evidence
Other activities
Expert adviser
Acknowledgements

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Estimates of government and private expenditures on health, and of government expenditures on social security and welfare , Australia - 1970-71 to 1977-78 - (PDF format)

Appendix 2: Extracts from legislation prescribing responsibilities and functions of the Australian Bureau of Statistics - (PDF format)

Appendix 3: Witnesses - (PDF format)

Appendix 4: Submissions - (PDF format)

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