The export of live sheep from Australia

The export of live sheep from Australia

Tabled 1985

© Commonwealth of Australia 1985

ISBN 0 644 03800 4

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View the report as a single document - (PDF format) - [5,259 KB]

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

PREFACE - (PDF format)
Membership of the Committee
List of Tables
Abbreviations and Acronyms
General Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION - (PDF format)
Appointment of Committee
Evidence Presented to the Committee

CHAPTER 2 - HISTORY OF THE EXPORT OF LIVE SHEEP FROM AUSTRALIA - (PDF format)
The Early Carriage of Live Sheep by Ship
The Origins of the Present Trade in Live Sheep
Opposition to the Trade
Recent Developments

CHAPTER 3 - STRUCTURE OF THE LIVE SHEEP TRADE - (PDF format)
Introduction
Size of the Trade
Industry Structure
Purchase and Assembly Sector
Sea Transport Sector
Middle East Sector
Investment Base of the Industry
Government Investment in the Trade and
Plutocratic Influence
Vertical Integration n the Industry
Co-ordination and Regulation of the Trade

CHAPTER 4 - THE PURCHASE AND SELECTION OF EXPORT SHEEP - (PDF format)
District of Origin
Sex and Age Groups
Condition
Breeds of Export Sheep
Shearing of Export Sheep
'Rubbish' Sheep
Export Contracts

CHAPTER 5 - ROAD AND RAIL TRANSPORT TO FEEDLOT - (PDF format)
Duration of Journey
Road Transport Versus Rail
Transport Design and Improvements
Livestock Mortalities during Transport Phase from Farm to Feedlot
Rejection of Livestock at the Feedlot

CHAPTER 6 - FEEDLOTS - (PDF format)
Duration of Feedlotting Period
Feedlot Facilities
Feed Troughing
Length of Feed Troughs
Feeding Regime
Covered Feed Troughs
Water
Feedlot Layout and Capacity
Dust and Drainage
Shelter
Feedlot Management
Industry Feedlot Statistics
On Farm Feedlots and Specialisation

CHAPTER 7 - NUTRITION AND FEED FOR LIVE SHEEP EXPORTS - (PDF format)
Feed Quality
Dusting, Powdering and Crumbling of the Pellet
Digestibility
Low Protein, Low Energy, Insufficient Roughage in the Pellet
Feed Standards
Feed Pellets : Possible Alternatives and Modifications
The Handling and Administration of Fodder

CHAPTER 8 - EMBARKATION OF EXPORT SHEEP - (PDF format)
Dockside Facilities
Weather Conditions
Embarkation Management - Practices and Malpractices
Stocking Densities
Mortality Rates During Embarkation

CHAPTER 9 - CONDITIONS ABOARD SHEEP CARRIERS - (PDF format)
The Shipboard Environment
Veterinarians Accompanying Shipments
Animal and Human Health Considerations
Feed and Water
Ventilation
Livestock Carrier Design and Specification
Mortalities Aboard Sheep Carriers

CHAPTER 10 - CONDITIONS I N THE MIDDLE EAST - (PDF format)
Unloading at Middle Eastern Ports
Road Transport
Feedlots in the Middle East
Feedlot Facilities
Feed
Feedlot Management
The Environment
Sheep Slaughtering Conditions in the Middle East
Halal Slaughter
Pre Stunning
Abattoir Conditions
Non Abattoir Slaughter

CHAPTER 11 - ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS - (PDF format)
Welfare and Profitability
Economic Value
Fact and value
Animal Welfare and Economic Considerations
Utility and Utilitarianism
Moral Values, Economic Values and Social Policy

CHAPTER 12 - THE BENEFITS, BENEFICIARIES AND COSTS OF THE LIVE SHEEP TRADE - (PDF format)
Perceived Benefits to Australian Sheepmeat Producers
The BAE Analysis of Returns t o Producers
The Degree of Substitution of Sheepmeats
Managed Demand and Substitution
Other Difficulties with the BAE Analysis
Other Benefits to the Australian Economy and Multiplier Effects
Profitability and Competition
Barriers to Entry
Middle East Investment in the Trade
Costs to the Meat Processing Industry
Abattoir Closures and Unemployment
Meat Processing Costs and Offshore Processing
Value Added Prior t o Export
The BAE Analysis of Employment Effects

CHAPTER 13 - THE MARKET FOR SHEEPMEAT I N THE MIDDLE EAST - (PDF format)
The Middle Eastern Concern for a Secure Food Supply
The Demand for Fresh Or 'Hot' Meat
Sheepmeat Subsidies in the Middle East
The Iranian Example of a Shift in Consumption Patterns
Promotion and Marketing of Sheepmeat in the Middle East
Advisory Committee to the AMLC for Market Development and Promotion of Sheepmeats
Difficulties of Sheepmeat Promotion
New Sheepmeat Marketing Developments
Competing Suppliers of Sheepmeat to the Middle East
Current and Potential Suppliers by Region
Eastern Europe
Turkey
Suppliers Within the Middle East Region
Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
North Africa
China
South America
South Africa
New Zealand

CHAPTER 14 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FAT TAIL SHEEP EXPORT INDUSTRY - (PDF format)
The Establishment of a Fat Tail Cross-Breed Industry
Objections to the Proposed Industry

CHAPTER 15 - RESEARCH - (PDF format)

CHAPTER 16 - FUTURE OF THE TRADE - (PDF format)
General Conclusions
Ban on Export during the Australian Winter
Reform of Administration, Legislation and Codes of
Practice for the Live Sheep Trade

REFERENCES - (PDF format)
APPENDIX - LIST OF WITNESSES

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