Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        New South Wales Department of Families and Community Services, Adoption, http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/parents_carers_and_families/fostering_and_adoption/adoption.html (accessed 21 November 2011).

[2]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adoptions Australia 2009–10, AIHW, Canberra, December 2010, p. 44.

[3]        For example, Uniting Care Wesley Adelaide Inc and Uniting Church of South Australia, Submission 376.

[4]        NSW Law Reform Commission, Review of the Adoption of Children Act 1965, Issues Paper No. 9, 1993, para 2.1.

[5]        Though there was one submission from a married woman who was separated from her husband.

[6]        For example, Submission 32.

[7]        Mrs Barbara Maison, Submission 14.

[8]        VANISH Inc., Submission 160.

[9]        Ms Christine Cole, Submission 223.

[10]      Daryl Higgins, Impact of past adoption practices: Summary of key issues from Australian research: Final Report, March 2010, Australian Institute for Family Studies, citing K. Inglis, Living mistakes: Mothers who consented to adoption, Allen and Unwin, North Sydney, 1984.

[11]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Family Formations: Adoptions, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/c14cbc586a02bfd7ca2570ec001909fc!OpenDocument (accessed 18 March 2011).

[12]      In particular NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, draft letter to the Attorney-General, 11 July 1963, folio p. 49, digital p. 326; NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by the States, Number of Adoptions in Each State During Period 1951–60, folio p. 134, digital p. 91; State of Victoria: Summary of Adoption Orders made from 1939–1960, digital p. 59.

[13]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adoptions Australia 2004–2005, Child Welfare Series No. 37, 2005, Table 1, p. 5; Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adoptions Australia 2009–2010, Child Welfare Series No. 50, December 2010, Table A.1, p. 43.

[14]      Mace v Murray (1955) 92 CLR 370.

[15]      Submission 399, p. 4.

[16]      This dropped to 40 per cent in 1972 and 20 per cent in 1975. Janet McCalman, Sex and Suffering: Women's Health and a Women's Hospital, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1998, p. 342. See also Royal Women's Hospital, Submission 399, p. 83.

[17]      NSW Legislative Council, Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Releasing the Past—Adoption Practices 1950–1998—Final report, Parliamentary Paper Number 600, December 2000, pp 218, 220.

[18]      Royal Women's Hospital, Submission 399, pp 111–112.

[19]      SM Cretney, Principles of Family Law, 5th edition, Sweet & Maxwell, 1990, p. 657.

[20]      Section 122 of the Constitution. The Australian Government is however responsibility for intercountry adoptions under various constitutional heads of power. For example, the marriage power (section 51(xxi)), the immigration and emigration power (section 51(xxvii)) and the external affairs power (section 51(xxix)).

[21]      Adoption of Children Act 1896 (WA).

[22]      Adoption of Children Act 1920 (Tas); Child Welfare Act 1923 (NSW); Adoption of Children Act 1925 (SA); Adoption of Children Act 1928 (Vic); Adoption of Children Ordinance 1949 (NT); Adoption of Children Act 1935 (Qld) and Adoption of Children Ordinance 1938 (ACT).

[23]      Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (ACT); Adoption of Children Act 1965–66 (NSW); Adoption of Children Ordinance 1964–1967 (NT); Adoption of Children Acts 1964–1967 (Qld); Adoption of Children Act 1966–67 (SA); Adoption of Children Act 1968 (Tas); Adoption of Children Act 1964 (Vic); Adoption of Children Act 1896–62 (WA).

[24]       Adoption Act 1988 (Tas); Adoption Act 2000 (NSW); Adoption Act 1988 (SA); Adoption Act 1984 (Vic); Adoption of Children Act 1994 (NT); Adoption Act 2009 (Qld); Adoption Act 1993 (ACT) and Adoption Act 1994 (WA).

[25]      NSW Parliament,  Standing Committee on Social Issues, Releasing the Past, Adoption Practices 1950–1998, Report No. 22, Parliamentary Paper No. 600, December 2000 and Parliament of Tasmania, Joint Select Committee, 1999, Adoption and Related Services: 1958–1988.

[26]      NSW Parliament,  Standing Committee on Social Issues, Releasing the Past, Adoption Practices 1950–1998, Report No. 22, Parliamentary Paper No. 600, December 2000, p. iv.

[27]      Parliament of Tasmania, Legislative Council Votes & Proceedings, No. 42, 5 October 1999, item 3.

[28]      Parliament of Tasmania, Joint Select Committee, 1999, Adoption and Related Services: 1958–1988, p. 13.

[29]      Parliament of Tasmania, Joint Select Committee, 1999, Adoption and Related Services: 1958–1988, p. 11.

[30]      Kim Hames, WA Deputy Premier, Ministerial media statement, 7 September 2010, http://www.mediastatements.wa.gov.au/Pages/WACabinetMinistersSearch.aspx?ItemId=133968&minister=Hames&admin=Barnett (accessed 5 February 2012).

[31]      Amended April 2010.

[32]      Daryl Higgins, Impact of past adoption practices: Summary of key issues from Australian research, March 2010 (amended 30 April 2010), Australian Institute for Family Studies, p. 3.

[33]      Letter from Dr Stephen Ellis, Acting Director-General NAA to the committee, Ref 2011/3010, 19 October 2011.

[34]      Email from NAA to the secretary of the committee, 25 October 2011.

Chapter 2 - Attitudes towards adoption

[1]        John F. Fogarty, 'Some aspects of the early history of child protection in Australia', Family Matters, vol. 78 (2008), p. 54.

[2]        John F. Fogarty, 'Some aspects of the early history of child protection in Australia', Family Matters, vol. 78, 2008, p. 54; John Ramsland, Children of the Back Lanes: destitute and neglected children in colonial New South Wales, University of New South Wales Press, Kensington, 1986.

[3]        John F. Fogarty, 'Some aspects of the early history of child protection in Australia', Family Matters, vol. 78, 2008, p. 54.

[4]        John F. Fogarty, 'Some aspects of the early history of child protection in Australia', Family Matters, vol. 78, 2008, p. 57.

[5]        S. Swain and R. Howe, Single Mothers and their Children, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp 138, 140, 188.

[6]        Ida R. Parker, Fit and Proper?: A Study of Legal Adoption in Massachusetts, Church Home Society, Boston, 1927, pp 19–20, 69.

[7]        Henry H. Goddard, 'Wanted: A Child to Adopt', Survey 27, 1911, p. 1006.

[8]        R.J. Reid, 'Principles, values and assumptions underlying adoption practice,' Social Work, vol. 2, no. 1, 1957, p. 24.

[9]        S. Swain and R. Howe, Single Mothers and their Children, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, p. 132.

[10]      R.J. Reid, 'Principles, values and assumptions underlying adoption practice,' Social Work, vol. 2, no. 1 (1957), p. 25.

[11]      A. H. Stoneman, 'Adoption of Illegitimate Children: The Peril of Ignorance,' Child Welfare League of America Bulletin, vol. 5 (February 1926), p. 8.

[12]      However, the influence of eugenics prevailed to some extent into the 1950s. This was seen most strongly in the resistance to adopting 'mixed-race' children and the brutality experienced by the Stolen Generation.

[13]      There were numerous articles discussing the increased incidents of babies being surrendered by families who could not afford to buy a house, cf. 'Housing crisis "Forces Adoptions"', The Sydney Morning Herald, 27 August 1951, p. 3; '"No houses, so they sell their babies," she says', The Argus, 27 August 1951, p. 1. These theories have collectively become known as 'family romances'.

[14]      Ironically, the same theories held that infertility signalled, among other characteristics, neurosis. 'Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)', The Adoption History Project, University of Oregon, available online at: http://pages.uoregon.edu/adoption/people/SigmundFreud.htm (accessed 10 September 2011).

[15]      K. Inglis, Living Mistakes: Mothers Who Consented to Adoption, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1984, pp 6–9.

[16]      C. Jones, 'Adoption—a study of post-war child removal in New South Wales', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 86, no. 1 (2000), p. 51. For more information on statistics cf. A Report Prepared for the Board of Directors by the Department of Social Work, the University of Sydney, Sydney 1961, Burnside Presbyterian Homes for Children Archives, Report no. 2, BRC1/145, Appendix I, p. 2.

[17]      C. Jones, 'Adoption—a study of post-war child removal in New South Wales', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 86, no. 1, 2000, p. 51.

[18]      K. Inglis, Living Mistakes: Mothers Who Consented to Adoption, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1984, p. 4.

[19]      For a definition of this idealised family, cf. R.L. Harris, 'Medical Aspects of Adoption', Proceedings of a Seminar held on Friday, 3rd February, 1967, Department of Child Welfare and Social Welfare, Sydney, p. 15. For tensions between the ideal family unit and the actual structure of family, cf. C.V. Baldock, Australia and Social Change Theory, Novack Publishing, Sydney, 1978, pp 108–110.

[20]      'Should unwed mother give up her child' in The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 July 1953, p. 9; 'Vote on Baby Adoption' in The Sun Herald, 29 November 1953, p. 9. On the importance of a good environment, see also D.F. Lawson, 'The Anxieties of Pregnancy', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, no. 5, 1960, p. 166.

[21]      'Babies for the Brave', Western Mail, 25 November 1954, pp 4–5. See also various articles on this topic in Australian Journal of Social Work, vol. 20, no. 1: Aspects of Adoption, 1967, pp 16–24.

[22]      S. Swain and R. Howe, Single Mothers and their Children, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, p. 140.

[23]      F. Grunseit, 'The adoption of infants and the role of an adoption advisory clinic in New South Wales', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1 (1973), p. 854.

[24]      Dr Lawson gave the 1959 R.D. Fetherston Memorial Lecture entitled, 'Why be morbid? Paths of progress in the control of obstetric infection, 1931 to 1960'. Medical Journal of Australia, vol. II, No. 5 (1960), pp 165–166.

[25]      'Letters from our readers: Unmarried mothers', The Australian Women's Weekly, October 1955, p. 10.

[26]      C. Jones, 'Adoption—a study of post-war child removal in New South Wales', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 86, no. 1, 2000, p. 51 and S. Swain, 'Adoption: Was it Ever Thus?' in Phillip and Shurlee Swain (eds), To Search for Self: the experience of access to adoption information, Federation Press, Sydney, 1992, p. 2.

[27]      For more information on John Bowlby and his influence on adoption practices, cf. R. Bowlby and P. King, Fifty Years of Attachment Theory: Recollections of Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby, Karnac Books, London, 2004; I. Bretherton, 'The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth', Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, no. 5 (1992), pp 759–775.

[28]      J. Bowlby, Maternal Care and Mental Health: a report prepared on behalf of the World Health Organization as a contribution to the United Nations programme for the welfare of homeless children, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1952.

[29]      I. Bretherton, 'The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth', Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, no. 5 (1992), p 761.

[30]      J. Bowlby, Maternal Care and Mental Health: a report prepared on behalf of the World Health Organization as a contribution to the United Nations programme for the welfare of homeless children, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1952, p. 69.

[31]      'Brisbane Notes', Cairns Post, 2 October 1947, p. 7.

[32]      'Our legitimisation laws need drastic revision: innocent babies deserve a better chance in life', The Australian Women's Weekly, 8 March 1947, pp 19–21.

[33]      'Hundreds of parents are asking..."Is our baby safe?"', The Argus, 15 May 1964, p. 11.

[34]      '"People are different" (Social Work and Social Norms)' Australian Association of Social Workers Ninth National Conference Proceedings, Adelaide, August 1965, p. 112. Best practice was again highlighted by Sister Mary Borromeo in 'The Natural Parents', Australian Journal of Social Work, vol. 20, no. 1: Aspects of Adoption, 1967, p. 13.

[35]      '"People are different" (Social Work and Social Norms)' Australian Association of Social Workers Ninth National Conference Proceedings, Adelaide, August 1965, p. 112.

[36]      S. Gowrie-Smith, 'Guidelines for a happy adoption', National Times, 12–17 April 1971.

[37]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from NSW Social Welfare Under Secretary Thomas to AGD Secretary Yuill, 9 June 1961, folio pp 42–43, digital pp 27–28.

Chapter 3 - The experience of forced adoption

[1]        Ms Charlotte Smith, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 118.

[2]        Dr Trevor Jordan, Jigsaw Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 53.

[3]        Ms Leonie Horin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 110.

[4]        Mrs Lily Arthur, Origins SPSA Inc, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 29.

[5]        Mrs Bernadette Wallman, Submission 175, p. 1.

[6]        Cited in Janet McCalman, Sex and Suffering: Women's Health and a Women's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne 1856–1996, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1998, p. 278.

[7]        Ms Brenda Coughlan, Submission 19, p. 84.

[8]        June Smith, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 33–34.

[9]        Ms Barbara Maison, Submission 14, attachment 4, p. 1.

[10]      Ms Robin Turner, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 14.

[11]      Name withheld, Submission 256, p. 9.

[12]      Ms Barbara Maison, Submission14, pp 3–4.

[13]      Ms Marilyn Murphy, Submission 150, p. 2.

[14]      Mrs Colleen Ewen, Submission 40, p. 1.

[15]      Mrs Beverley Redlich, Submission 112, p. 1.

[16]      Ms Christen Coralive, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p .9.

[17]      Ms Judith McPherson (read by Ms Jennie Burrows), Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 53.

[18]      Anne Burrows, Submission 138, p. 1.

[19]      Ms E. Mittermayer, Submission 221, p. 1.

[20]      Name Withheld, Submission 114, p. 1.

[21]      Ms Margaret Bishop, Submission 358, p. 1.

[22]      Ms Robin Turner, Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 56.

[23]      Submission 235, p. 1.

[24]      Ms Evelyn Mundy, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 43.

[25]      Name withheld, Submission 95, p. 1.

[26]      Ms Ann Allpike, Submission 157, p. 1.

[27]      Name withheld, Submission 250, p. 2.

[28]      Ms Joy Goode, Submission 241, p. 2.

[29]      Ms Kate Howarth, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 58.

[30]      Name withheld, Submission 248, p.8.

[31]      Mrs Lizzy Brew, Origins SPSA Inc, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 31.

[32]      Ms Judith Burkin, Submission 116, p. 2.

[33]      Ms Helen Walker-Mcready, Submission 246, pp 1–2.

[34]      Anne Burrows, Submission 138, p. 2.

[35]      Mrs Margaret McGrath, Submission 190, p. 4.

[36]      Ms Therese Pearson, Origins Newcastle, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 57.

[37]      Ms Marie Coleman PSM, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 1.

[38]      Mrs Louise Greenup, Submission 101, p. 2.

[39]      Ms Spring Blossom, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 121–122.

[40]      Name withheld, Submission 114, p. 1.

[41]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 13.

[42]      Mr Roy Legro, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 188.

[43]      Ms Angela Brown, Submission 402, p. 1.

[44]      Name withheld, Submission 142, p. 1.

[45]      Name withheld, Submission 255, p. 1.

[46]      Kaye, Submission 167, p. 1.

[47]      Name withheld, Submission 195, p. 2.

[48]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 16.

[49]      Submission 109, p. 2.

[50]      Ms Christen Coralive, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, pp 9, 11.

[51]      Name withheld, Supplementary Submission 202, p. 1.

[52]      Mrs Margaret McGrath, Submission 190, pp 6–7.

[53]      Ms Judith Hendriksen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 9.

[54]      Ms Darelle Duncan, Submission 192, p. 2.

[55]      Ms Barbara Maison, Submission 14, p. 1.

[56]      Ms Christine Cole, Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 41.

[57]      Ms Robin Turner (assisted by Ms Christine Cole), Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, pp 43–44.

[58]      Ms Linda Eve, Submission 159, p. 4.

[59]      Ms Jan Stewart, Submission 316, p. 1.

[60]      Mrs Julie Noble, Submission 362, p. 1.

[61]      Ms Rosemary Harbison, Submission 92, p. 1.

[62]      Ms Margaret Nonas, Submission 1, p. 3.

[63]      Ms Linda Eve, Submission 159, p. 1.

[64]      Ms Joy Goode, Submission 241, pp 1–2.

[65]      Ms Margaret Nonas, Submission 1, p. 3.

[66]      Ms Sandra Parker, Submission 322, p. 1.

[67]      Name Withheld, Submission 365, p. 1.

[68]      Mrs Madeleine Schwer, Submission 642, p. 1.

[69]      Ms Jan Kashin, Submission 93, p. 8.

[70]      Ms Allison Bosley, Submission 63, p. 4.

[71]      Ms Kate Howarth, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 58.

[72]      Ms Suzanne MacDonald, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 43.

[73]      Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Diethylstilbeostrol_DES_Exposure in Utero (C-Gen 8) College Statement, Current: March 2010 (hereafter 'RANZCOG DES statement 2010'). http://www.ranzcog.edu.au/womens-health/statements-a-guidelines/college-statements/491-diethylstilboestrol-des-exposure-in-utero-c-gen-8-.html (accessed 14 February 2012).

[74]      RANZCOG DES statement 2010.

[75]      RANZCOG DES statement 2010.

[76]      See RANZCOG DES statement 2010.

[77]      Ms Margaret Nonas, Submission 1, p. 3.

[78]      Name withheld, Submission 413, p. 2.

[79]      Submission 20, pp 8–9.

[80]      Ms Robin Turner (assisted by Ms Christine Cole), Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, pp 42–44.

[81]      Ms Carmel Ipock, ARMS Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 48.

[82]      Ms Brenda Coughlan, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 85.

[83]      Ms Linda Bryant, Origins Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, pp 40, 46.

[84]      Ms Linda Bryant, Origins Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 46.

[85]      Ms Linda Ngata, Submission 17, p. 1.

[86]      Ms Suzanne MacDonald, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 36.

[87]      Ms Rosemary Harbison, Submission 92, p. 2.

[88]      Mrs Audrey Allitt, Submission 412, p. 2.

[89]      Ms Annie Florence, Submission 36, p. 1.

[90]      Ms Judith Hendriksen, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 9.

[91]      June Smith, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 34.

[92]      Ms Robyn Cohen, Submission 91, p. 3.

[93]      Name withheld, Submission 404, p. 2.

[94]      Name withheld, Submission 340, p. 1.

[95]      Ms Judith Hendriksen, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 9.

[96]      Ms Barbara Maison, Submission 14, p. 1.

[97]      Ms Susan Treweek, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 45.

[98]      Mrs Glenys Campbell, Submission 249, p. 2.

[99]      Ms Christen Coralive, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 9.

[100]    Mrs Hannah Spanswick, Submission 2, p. 2.

[101]    Ms Linda Bryant, Origins Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 46.

[102]    Ms Margaret Nonas, Submission 1, p. 3.

[103]    Mrs Janette Lord, Submission 29, pp 2–3.

[104]    Ms Janice Konstantinidis, Submission 90, p. 11.

[105]    Name withheld, Submission 313, p. 2.

[106]    Ms Carmel Ipock, ARMS Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 48.

[107]    Ms Rosemary Harbison, Submission 92, p. 1.

[108]    Ms Linda Bryant, Origins Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 46.

[109]    Ms Janice Konstantinidis, Submission 90, p. 9.

[110]    Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 13.

[111]    Ms Ann Allpike, Submission 157, p. 1.

[112]    Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 29–30.

[113]    Ms Jacalin Sherman, Submission 74, p. 1.

[114]    Ms Margaret Nonas, Submission 1, p. 3.

[115]    Mrs Elizabeth Edwards, Submission 124, p. 2.

[116]    Ms Kate Howarth, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 58.

[117]    Ms Rosemary Harbison, Submission 92, p. 1.

[118]    Ms Linda Ngata, Submission 17, p. 1.

[119]    Ms Lynne Devine, ARMS Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 45–46.

[120]    Ms Margaret Whalan, Submission 16, p. 2.

[121]    Ms Darelle Duncan, Submission 192, p. 2.

[122]    Ms Patricia Large, Adoption Loss Adult Support, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 27.

[123]    Mrs Janette Lord, Submission 29, pp 2–3.

[124]    Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 29–30.

[125]    Ms Christen Coralive, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, pp 9, 11.

[126]    Ms Christine Cole, Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 41.

[127]    Dr Trevor Jordan, Jigsaw Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 57.

[128]    Ms Brenda Coughlin, Submission 19, p. 3.

[129]    Ms Brenda Coughlin, Submission 19, pp 96–97.

[130]    See Chapters 7–8.

[131]    Ms Barbara Maison, Submission14, pp 3-4.

[132]    Ms Shirley (Esme) Moulds, ARMS Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 52.

[133]    Ms Christine Cole, Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, pp 39–40.

[134]    Ms Janette Mills, Submission 60, p. 1.

[135]    Ms Janet Kaye, Submission 51, p. 1.

[136]    Ms Aleisha Woodward, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 66.

[137]    Mrs Janette Lord, Submission 29, pp 2–3.

[138]    Ms Patricia Large, Adoption Loss Adult Support, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 32.

[139]    Ms Janice Konstantinidis, Submission 90, p. 14.

[140]    Ms Cassandra Cooke (assisted by Ms Christine Cole), Apology Alliance Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 40.

[141]    Ms Valerie Linlow, Submission 15, pp 1–2.

[142]    Ms Leonie Pope, Stolen Generations Alliance Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 23.

[143]    Mrs Pru Murphy, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 124–125.

[144]    Ms Marilyn Murphy, Submission 150, p. 4.

[145]    Ms Jenny Glare, MacKillop Family Services, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 81–82.

[146]    Ms Fay Roberts, Submission 382, pp 1, 3.

[147]    Ms Susan Treweek, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, pp 45–46.

[148]    Ms Kathryn Rendell, National Council for Single Mothers and their Children, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 21.

[149]    Name withheld, Submission 344, p. 1.

[150]    Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 33–34.

[151]    Ms Kim Taylor, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 67.

[152]    Origins SPSA Inc., Supplementary submission 170 (k), p. 111.

Chapter 4 - Effects of forced adoption

[1]        Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 13.

[2]        Mr John Rutherford, Submission 136, pp 1–2.

[3]        Ms Margaret Watson, Submission 98, p. 6.

[4]        Ms Josephine Yeats, Submission 168, p. 2.

[5]        Name withheld, Submission 314, p. 2.

[6]        Ms Laurie Watkins, Submission 356, p. 1.

[7]        Ms Kerri Saint, White Australian Stolen Heritage, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 37.

[8]        Ms Vikki Lewis, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 59.

[9]        Mr Dan Lancaster, Submission 295, p. 1.

[10]      Mr Wayne Lewis, Submission 408, p. 3.

[11]      Ms Leanna Brennan, Submission 209, p. 3.

[12]      Ms Isabell Collins, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 104–105.

[13]      Angela, Submission 50, p. 4.

[14]      Mrs Pru Murphy, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 124–125.

[15]      Name withheld, Submission 287, p. 1.

[16]      Name withheld, Submission 237, p. 1.

[17]      Miss Gabrielle Mittermayer, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 56.

[18]      Mrs Pru Murphy, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 124–125.

[19]      Mr Michael Bamfield, Care Leavers Australia Network, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 48–54.

[20]      Mr Michael O'Meara, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, pp 49–52.

[21]      Ms Susan Bryce, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 122.

[22]      Mrs Elizabeth Hughes, Submission 59, p. 2.

[23]      Ms Angela Barra, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, pp 59–60.

[24]      Ms Gemma Dore, Submission 267, p. 2.

[25]      Mr Phil Evans, Submission 277, p. 1.

[26]      Name withheld, Submission 201, p. 1.

[27]      In camera Committee Hansard, 2011, extract published by agreement of the committee.

[28]      Mr Erik Spinney, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 2.

[29]      Ms Charlotte Smith, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 118.

[30]      Mr Thomas Graham, Submission 148, p. 1.

[31]      Name withheld, Submission 346, p. 1.

[32]      Name withheld, Submission 231, p. 1.

[33]      Name withheld, Submission 338, p. 5.

[34]      Mr Murray Legro, Submission 81, p. 1.

[35]      Mr Erik Spinney, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 2.

[36]      Ms Vikki Lewis, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 59.

[37]      Mrs Rosemary Rennie, Link-Up Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 14.

[38]      Ms Heather Shearer, Stolen Generations Alliance, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, pp 14, 29.

[39]      Mrs Jenny Marshall, Submission 379, p. 1.

[40]      Mrs Ruth Orr, Submission 394, pp 1–2.

[41]      Name withheld, Submission 397, pp 5–6.

[42]      Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 29.

[43]      Ms Therese Pearson, Origins Newcastle, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 57.

[44]      Ms Lynette Kinghorn, Submission 8, p. 1.

[45]      Ms Cherry Blaskett, Submission 353, p. 4.

[46]      Name withheld, Submission 265, p. 2.

[47]      Ms Maureen Melville, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 64.

[48]      Ms Kathryn Rendell, Submission 184, p. 2.

[49]      Ms Jenny Glare, MacKillop Family Services, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 84.

[50]      Ms Charlotte Smith, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 117.

[51]      Ms Linda Eve, Submission 159, p. 4.

[52]      Ms Betty Mills, Submission 366, p. 2.

[53]      Ms JB (nee Williams) Submission 373, p. 1.

[54]      Ms Juliette Clough, Submission 12, p. 1.

[55]      Ms Judy M., Submission 205, p. 9.

[56]      Ms Deborah Snelson, Submission 292, p. 2.

[57]      Mrs Louise Greenup, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 69.

[58]      Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 29.

[59]      June Smith, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 33–34.

[60]      Mrs Gabrielle McGuire, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 6.

[61]      Ms Valerie Linlow, Origins SPSA Inc., Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 27.

[62]      Ms Juanita Ellis, Submission 259, p. 2.

[63]      Name withheld, Submission 352, p. 2.

[64]      Name withheld, Submission 208, p. 2.

[65]      Ms Linda Graham, Submission 258, pp 21­–22.

[66]      Ms Carolyn Brown, Submission 238, p. 4.

[67]      Ms Margaret Collins, Submission 269, p. 2.

[68]      Name withheld, Submission 18, p. 2.

[69]      Ms Margaret Singline, Submission 355, p. 2.

[70]      Mrs Lorraine Hassett, Private Capacity, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 25.

[71]      Teresa, Submission 11, p. 2.

[72]      Ms Teri Hay, Submission 263, pp 1–4.

[73]      Ms Kim Lawrence, Submission 268, pp 3­–4.

[74]      Ms Janet McHugh, Submission 265, p. 3.

[75]      Ms Thelma Adams, Submission 393, p. 1.

[76]      Mrs Susan Evans, Submission 270, p. 2.

[77]      Name withheld, Submission 256, pp 9–10.

[78]      Mr John Hughes, Submission 104, p. 2.

[79]      Mr Dallas McDermott, Submission 163, p. 1.

[80]      Mr Cameron Horn, in Origins SPSA Inc, Supplementary Submission 170 (j), pp 4–5.

[81]      Mr Gary Coles, Submission 143, pp 1–2.

[82]      For example, Ms Jennie Burrows, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, pp 60–61.

[83]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption—from the Welfare Viewpoint, WA briefing paper, folio pp. 8–10, digital pp. 243–245.

[84]      Ms Emily Wolfinger, Submission 78, p. 1.

[85]      Mr Steve Deliloucas, Submission 384, p. 5.

[86]      Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 30.

[87]      Name withheld, Submission 194, pp 2–3.

[88]      Name withheld, Submission 283, p. 2.

Chapter 5 - Commonwealth role: social security and benefits system

[1]        Monash University, Submission 37, p. 2.

[2]        Section 51(xxiii) of Australia's Constitution.

[3]        Attorney-General (Vic); (ex rel Dale) v Commonwealth (1945) 71 CLR 237.

[4]        Australian Electoral Commission, Referendum dates and results 1906–present, http://www.aec.gov.au/Elections/referendums/Referendum_Dates_and_Results.htm (accessed 24 March 2011).

[5]        Available under the Unemployment and Sickness Benefits Act 1944.

[6]        Maternity Allowance Act 1912, ss. 5(1).

[7]        Vamplew, W., LAB 116-123, Minimum Weekly Wage of Male Adults, Colonies and States, 1891-1984, Australia's Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon Associates, p. 155.

[8]        The Hon. Andrew Fisher PC, Prime Minister and Treasurer, House of Representatives Hansard, 24 September 1912, p. 3323.

[9]        However, the maternity allowance (as well as child endowment, the widows' pension and supporting mother's benefit) was not payable to all women. Exclusions initially included 'Asiatics and Aboriginal natives of Australia, Papua or the islands of the Pacific'. See Maternity Allowance Act 1912, ss. 6(1)(2).

[10]      The Hon. Andrew Fisher PC, Prime Minister and Treasurer, House of Representatives Hansard, 24 September 1912, p. 3322.

[11]      Financial Emergency Act 1931 (No. 10 of 1931) and Maternity Allowance Act 1943 (No. 16 of 1943), respectively.

[12]      Social Services Amendment Act 1978 (No. 128 of 1978). The allowance was re–introduced on 1 February 1996 albeit in a different form.

[13]      The Hon. Harold Holt MP, Minister for Labour and National Service, House of Representatives Hansard, 27 March 1941, pp 340–341.

[14]      The Hon. Harold Holt MP, Minister for Labour and National Service, House of Representatives Hansard, 27 March 1941, p. 342.

[15]      The Hon. Harold Holt MP, Minister for Labour and National Service, House of Representatives Hansard, 27 March 1941, p. 338.

[16]      Social Services Consolidation Act 1950

[17]      Social Services Legislation Amendment Act 1982

[18]      Joint Committee on Social Services, Interim Report, 24 September 1941, p. 8.

[19]      There is a useful table depicting increases in the widows' pension from July 1942 to November 1982 at http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/about/publicationsarticles/research/occasional/Documents/op12/sec8.htm#tbl14 (accessed 3 February 2012).

[20]      The Hon. Mr Edward Holloway MP, Minister for Social Services and Minister for Health, House of Representatives Hansard, 14 May 1942, pp 1239–1240. Note that not all women were eligible for a pension: 'aliens' and certain 'Aboriginal natives' were excluded.

[21]      The Hon. Mr William Wentworth MP, Minister for Social Services, House of Representatives Hansard, 2 May 1968, p. 1060.

[22]      The Hon. Mr William Wentworth MP, Minister for Social Services, House of Representatives Hansard, 2 May 1968, pp 1060–1061.

[23]      Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library, Social Policy Group, Social Security Payments for People Caring for Children, 1912 to 2006, 5 July 2006. http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/online/special_partb.htm (accessed 16 February 2012).

[24]      Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), p. 2.

[25]      Commonwealth Social Services booklet, March 1961, p. 10.

[26]      Bill payment for all carers of aged or disabled was introduced by the Commonwealth Government in November 1985.

[27]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), p. 2.

[28]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), p. 2.

[29]      The Hon. William Hayden MP, Minister for Social Security, House of Representatives Hansard, 22 May 1973, p. 2382.

[30]      Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Occasional Paper No. 12, Family Income Supplement: http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/about/publicationsarticles/research/occasional/Documents/op12/sec8.htm#tbl14 (accessed 24 March 2011).

[31]      The Hon. William Hayden MP, Minister for Social Security, House of Representatives Hansard, 22 May 1973, p. 2383.

[32]      The Hon. William Hayden MP, Minister for Social Security, House of Representatives, 22 May 1973, p. 2383.

[33]      Benevolent Society, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 17.

[34]      Ms Robyn Cohen, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 17.

[35]      Ms Margaret Singline, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 20.

[36]      Origins Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 17–18.

[37]      Origins SPSA Inc., Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 25.

[38]      Ms Kate Howarth, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, pp 58–59.

[39]      Ms Laraine Murray, Submission No. 77.

[40]      Ms Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 33.

[41]      University of Melbourne Archives, 86/123, Report – Child Endowment, item 8/3,  p. 21.

[42]      NSW Legislative Council, Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Releasing the Past—Adoption Practices 1950–1998—Final report, Report No. 22, Parliamentary Paper No. 600, December 2000, p. 35, para 3.63.

[43]      ABS, Average weekly earnings, Australia, 1941 to 1990, cat. no. 6350.0

[44]      See for example, June Smith, Submission 83, as well as the statistics provided by DEEWR in their answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), Attachment E, discussed in the next paragraph.

[45]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), Attachment E.

[46]      The category 'woman caring for sick parent, relative or child' could have included a single mother caring for a sick child, but this would not be relevant to the discussion here, as it would only have been available while a child was ill.

[47]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011, Supplementary Information: Department of Social Services, Instructions for Unemployment, Sickness and Special Benefit, October 1958, Issue no. 8 (1965), 2/J/8, p. 66.

[48]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), Attachment E.

[49]      Submission 83, p. 7.

[50]      University of Melbourne Archives, 86/123, Extract of Director General's [of Commonwealth Department of Social Services Social Welfare Branch?] memo to Public Service Board, 1957, file 7/16.

[51]      University of Melbourne Archives, 86/123, Notes for South Australia, p. 2, file 8/6, highlighting in original.

[52]      University of Melbourne Archives, 86/123, Notes for Queensland, p. 2, file 8/6, highlighting in original.

[53]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), p. 2.

[54]      DEEWR, answer to question on notice, 26 October 2011 (received 9 December 2011), p. 2.

[55]      Adoption Jigsaw, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 19.

[56]      Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, Perth, 1 April 2011, p. 29.

[58]      R. Kiely, 'Disadvantages of the Present Scheme for Assisting Single Mothers,' in The Council for the Single Mother and her Child (Vic) pamphlet, Melbourne, c.1972, Kiely's emphasis, cited in The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 399, p. 13. 

[59]      Kathy MacDermott, Rights of Relinquishing mothers to Access to Information Concerning their Adopted Children, Human Rights Commission, Canberra, July 1984, p. 3.

[60]      NSW Legislative Council, Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Releasing the Past – Adoption Practices 1950-1998 – Final report, Report No. 22, Parliamentary Paper No. 600, December 2000, p. 33, para 3.54.

[61]      NSW Legislative Council, Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Releasing the Past – Adoption Practices 1950-1998 – Final report, Report No. 22, Parliamentary Paper No. 600, December 2000, p. 33, para 3.55.  

[62]      The Australian Women's Weekly , 'Should she surrender her baby?', 8 September 1954, p. 26, viewed 20 September 2011, http://nla.gov.au/nla.newsarticle46448400, cited in Origins SPSA Inc., Supplementary Submission 170 (h), p. 54.

[63]      Summary of Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of Administrators of Child Welfare held in Canberra in 1968, provided by Origins SPSA Inc., Supplementary Submission 170 (h), Fourth attachment, p. 28.

[64]      Summary of Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of Administrators of Child Welfare held in Canberra in 1968, provided by Origins SPSA Inc, Submission 170, Part Four. p. 28. 

[65]      Australian Association of Social Workers, Australian Journal of Social Work, May 1967, p. 21.

[66]      Australian Association of Social Workers, Australian Journal of Social Work, May 1967, p. 21.

Chapter 6 - Commonwealth role: development of model legislation

[1]        Audrey Marshall and Margaret McDonald, The Many-Sided Triangle, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2001, p. 19.

[2]        The relevant ordinances in other Commonwealth territories were: Adoption of Children Ordinance 1932–1936 (Cth) to apply to Norfolk Island, and Adoption of Children Ordinance 1951–1959 (Cth) to apply to Papua New Guinea.

[3]        Adoption of Children Act 1896 (WA), s. 7.

[4]        Adoption of Children Act 1935 (Qld), ss. 8(1).

[5]        However, it is difficult to contemplate many situations in which adopted persons would have actually inherited property from an intestate natural parent, especially if the adopted person was unaware of the identity of his or her natural parents.

[6]        For example, Adoption of Children Ordinance 1938 (Cth), s. 2.

[7]        The only specified caveat is that property rights are not affected where a person has died intestate before the enactment of the legislation.

[8]        Adoption of Children Act (Vic), ss. 8(1)(d).

[9]        Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 283.

[10]      Ms Kerri-Ann Smith, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 3.

[11]      Adoption of Children Ordinance 1938 (Cth), ss. 7f(1).

[12]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from the WA Registrar General to the Commonwealth Registrar General, 6 March 1940, folio p. 1, digital p. 96.

[13]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Commonwealth Registrar General to WA Registrar-General, 26 September 1940, digital p. 93.

[14]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Prime Minister to premiers in all states, 27 December 1940, digital p. 74.

[15]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children,  letter from Prime Minister to premiers in all states, 27 December 1940, digital p. 74.

[16]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from WA Premier to Prime Minister, 10 February 1941, digital p. 69.

[17]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children: letter from SA Premier Playford to Secretary, Department of the Interior, 11 March 1941, digital p. 66; letter from Victorian Acting Premier Lind to Prime Minister, 12 February 1941, digital p. 71; letter from Tas Premier Cosgrove to Prime Minister, 23 January 1941, digital p. 72.

[18]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Tasmanian Premier Cosgrove to Prime Minister, 23 January 1941, digital p. 72. Later in the same file, a subsequent letter from the Tasmanian Premier indicated that Tasmania could actually make such arrangements by amending its adoption regulations (letter from Premier Cosgrove to Prime Minister, 7 July 1941, digital p. 52.).

[19]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Victorian Acting Premier Lind to Prime Minister, 12 February 1941, digital p. 71.

[20]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from SA Premier Playford to Secretary, Department of the Interior, 11 March 1941, digital p. 66.

[21]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Prime Minister to SA Premier, 2 January 1942, folio p. 89.

[22]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, Department of the Interior Brief to the Assistant Secretary, Civic Administration, Adoption of Children Ordinance 1938–40—Adoption Orders, 22 December 1941, digital p. 32.

[23]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Queensland Acting Premier to AGD, 18 June 1941, digital p. 55.

[24]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from SA Premier Playford to Prime Minister, 14 January 1942, digital p. 21.

[25]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, brief from AGD Secretary Knowles to Secretary, Department of the Interior, 26 August 1941, digital p. 47, brief from NSW Director of Child Welfare to the (Commonwealth) Department of the Interior, 12 November 1943, digital p. 11.

[26]      For example, see NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from the Registrar-General to NSW the Director, Child Welfare Department, 24 September 1941, digital pp 45, 47.

[27]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from AGD Secretary Knowles to Secretary of the Department of the Interior, 15 June 1942, digital p. 16.

[28]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Sgd Leila Palmer, State President, Qld Country Women's Association, to the Hon. John Curtin, Prime Minister, 17 August 1944, digital p. 6.

[29]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, Department of the Interior Memorandum to the Secretary, Prime Minister's Department, digital p. 4.

[30]      NAA, A431/1 1949/1537, Country Women's Association, Queensland. Uniformity in Australian Laws for the Adoption of Children, letter from Tas Premier Cosgrove to Prime Minister, 14 November 1944, digital p. 3; letter on behalf of NSW Premier to Deputy Prime Minister, 22 November 1944, digital p. 2.

[31]      Mace v Murray (1955) 92 CLR 370.

[32]      NSW Law Report, 'Re Murray', vol. 55, pp 88–107.

[33]      For example, a brief to the Commonwealth Attorney-General refers to the case as 'the Mace case' without further explanation. The committee therefore assumes that AGD was familiar with the case. NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—material prepared for Conference, AGD Minute paper 61/2241, 8 June 1961, folio pp 71–72.

[34]      Pedley-Smith v. Pedley Smith (1953) 88 CLR 177.

[35]      NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, AGD Minute paper 61/2176: Uniform Adoption Legislation – powers of appointment, digital p. 355.

[36]      Bairstow v. Queensland Industries Pty. Ltd. (1955) St. R.Q. 335.

[37]      NAA, A432 1960/2471, Adoption of Children Ordinance ACT (1938),Memorandum for the Under Secretary, Justice Department, 14 December 1955, folio pp 58–59.

[38]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Victorian Solicitor General to Attorney-General Barwick, 17 November 1960, and attached copy of Judgement of Dean, J. Delivered 22 September 1960, Re: An Infant, digital pp 201–209.

[39]      See for example, NAA, A432 1958/3087, Possibility of Commonwealth legislation re uniform processes of adoption, letter from a constituent to the Hon. Hugh Roberton MP, 8 April 1958, digital pp 39–40.

[40]      NAA, A432 1958/3087, Possibility of Commonwealth legislation re uniform processes of adoption, letter from Attorney-General Sir Garfield Barwick, 14 December 1959, digital p. 18.

[41]      NAA, A432 1958/3087, Possibility of Commonwealth legislation re uniform processes of adoption, 20 September 1960, digital p. 7.

[42]      Sir William (Billy) Sneddon MP, House of Representatives Hansard, 19 April 1963, p. 792.

[43]      It is now called the Standing Council on Law and Justice (SCLJ). Attorney-General's Department, Standing Council on Law and Justice, http://www.scag.gov.au/ October 2011, (accessed 14 January 2012).

[44]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Attorney-General Barwick to Qld Minister for State Children Dr Noble, 9 November 1942, folio p. 12, digital p. 69.

[45]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, Uniform Adoption Legislation, to then new Attorney-General Sir William (Billy) Snedden, 17 March 1964, folio pp –138, digital pp 7–10.

[46]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Attorney-General Barwick to Prime Minister Menzies, 13 December 1960, folio p. 50, digital p. 198.

[47]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter to Prime Minister to all premiers, 22 December 1960, folio p. 53, digital p. 194.

[48]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from WA Acting Premier to Prime Minister Menzies, 8 February 1961, digital p. 172.

[49]      At the first meeting of Child Welfare Directors in May 1961, the secretary of AGD noted that the Commonwealth Attorney-General was prepared to introduce Commonwealth legislation on adoption if the states wanted, i.e., if the states wished to refer their power to do so. However, Directors considered that their own systems and legislation were preferable, and were willing to seek points of agreement for the purpose of amending their own acts. NAA, A432 1961/2241, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation: Interstate Conference held at Sydney, New South Wales from 29th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 178, digital p. 44.

[50]      NAA, A431 1949/1537, Possibility of Commonwealth legislation re uniform processes of adoption, letter from Prime Minister to SA Premier, 2 January 1942, folio p. 89.

[51]      For example, see NAA, A432 1958/3087, Possibility of Commonwealth legislation re uniform processes of adoption, letter from Attorney-General Barwick to Mrs Power, 15 September 1960, digital p. 8.

[52]      According to an Administrative Arrangements Order dated 16 February 1962, the Department of the Interior administered the Seat of Government (Administration) Act 1910 and associated legislation relating to the ACT while the Department of Territories administered the NT legislation as well as legislation for the external territories.

[53]      For example, NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation: letter from AGD Secretary Yuill to Vic Assistant Parliamentary Draftsman and those with equivalent responsibilities in NSW, SA, Qld, WA and Tas, 21 November 1963, digital pp 305–06.

[54]      For example, NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from WA Child Welfare Department to Secretary Yuill, folio p. 87, digital p. 147.

[55]      For example, NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation: letter from AGD to WA, digital p. 218; NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation - Material prepared by States, letter from AGD to Qld, folio p. 124, digital p. 103.

[56]      See for example, NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Qld Private Secretary, Office of the Minister for Justice to Attorney-General Barwick, 27 December 1962, folio p. 57, digital p. 167.

[57]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Memorandum for Secretary, Department of Territories from AGD Secretary Yuill, 19 May 1961, folio p. 96, digital p. 116.

[58]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Memorandum for Secretary, Department of Territories from AGD Secretary Yuill, 7 June 1961, folio p. 107, digital p. 103.

[59]      NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation - Material prepared by States, letter from Vic Attorney-General Rylah to Qld Minister for Health and Home Affairs, folio p. 54, digital p. 187.

[60]      For example, see NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from AGD Secretary Yuill to Secretary, Children's Welfare Department, 2 May 1961, folio p. 26, digital p. 225. For state responses, see letter from Secretary, SA Children's Welfare and Public Relief Department to AGD Secretary Yuill, 19 May 1961, folio p. 93, digital p. 141.

[61]      See for example, NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation— Material prepared by States, letter from AGD Yuill to WA Child Welfare Department, 12 May 1961, digital pp 215–216.

[62]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio p. 150. Mr Harvey was a psychologist employed by AGD to develop standards for organisations providing marriage counselling under the Marriage Act 1961. (Rosemary McDonald and Peg Pearsall, 1996, The Australian Association of Marriage and Family Counsellors: Twenty years on. Journal of Family Studies 2(2), p 107). While a draft note on adoption apparently written by Mr Harvey appears on file (NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, digital p. 24), there is no evidence this draft note was ever distributed. There is also no evidence Mr Harvey contributed to any debate on child welfare aspects of adoption.

[63]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, AGD Minute Paper ref 61/2241, 'Uniform Adoption Legislation', 8 June 1961, folio p. 153.

[64]      Minutes of the Conference of the Standing Committee of Commonwealth and State Ministers upon Uniform Company Legislation. Hobart 15–16 February 1961; Minutes of the Meeting of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General of the States and the Commonwealth, Sydney, 10 November 1961; Minutes of the Meeting of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General of the States and the Commonwealth, Melbourne, 11 August 1961.

[65]      Minutes of the Conference of the Standing Committee of Commonwealth and State Ministers to Consider Uniform Law Proposals, Canberra, 27 July 1961; Minutes of the Meeting of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General of the States and the Commonwealth, Adelaide, 14th to 15th September 1961.

[66]      Minutes of the Conference of the Standing Committee of Commonwealth and State Ministers to Consider Uniform Law Proposals, Brisbane, 16 June 1961.

[67]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Brief from Principal Legal Officer Yuill to Solicitor–General, 4 April 1963, folio p. 32, digital p. 347.

[68]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Vic Attorney-General to Qld Minister for Home and Health Affairs, 2 November 1962, folio p. 24, digital p. 356.

[69]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by the States, AGD Minute Paper 61/2241, 8 June 1961, folio p. 152.

[70]      NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared for Conference, letter from Qld Assistant Parliamentary Draftsman to AGD Secretary Yuill, 14 December 1961, folio p. 280.

[71]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from WA Law Society to the Secretary, Law Council of Australia, 26 June 1961, digital pp 20–23.

[72]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from AGD to WA Women Justices Association, 4 March 1963, folio p. 29, digital p. 350.

[73]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, 17 March 1964, folio pp 138–141, digital pp 349–350.

[74]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from ACOSS to AGD, 6 November 1963, digital pp 317–325.

[75]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Attorney-General Barwick to ACOSS Chairman Dr J.G. Hunter, 4 February 1964, folio p. 93, digital p. 62.

[76]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from ACOSS to AGD, 24 February 1964, folio pp 127–128, digital pp 24–25.

[77]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, AGD Minute Paper from the Principal Legal Officer to the Solicitor General, 21 May 1963, folio p. 36, digital p. 343.

[78]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Brief from AGD First Assistant Secretary to Acting Parliamentary Draftsman, 25 July 1963, folio p. 57, digital p. 318.

[79]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Summary of Discussion at the Ministerial Conference on Adoption in Brisbane on 16th June 1961, folio p. 190, digital p. 10.

[80]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared for Conference, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, 12 September 1961, digital pp 427–434.

[81]      At this time the Solicitor-General was deputy to the Attorney-General.

[82]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Solicitor-General to Sir Zelman Cowen, 28 June 1961, digital p. 100.

[83]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Solicitor-General to Sir Zelman Cowen, 28 June 1961, digital pp 100–101.

[84]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared for Conference, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, 12 September 1961, digital pp 427–434.

[85]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared for Conference, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, 12 September 1961, digital pp 427–434.

[86]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, AGD Minute Paper 60/2241, Uniform Adoption Legislation, 12 September 1961, digital pp 427–234.

[87]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Minute paper 61/2176: Uniform Adoption Legislation – powers of appointment, digital p. 355.

[88]      Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 33, 34; Adoption of Children Act 1965 (NSW), ss. 35, 36.

[89]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, draft paper from AGD Secretary to the Attorney-General, digital pp 140–148.

[90]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from AGD Secretary Yuill to Secretary of the Department of the Interior, 20 December 1963, digital pp 181–182.

[91]      See for example, NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Memorandum for the Secretary, Department of the Interior, from AGD Secretary Yuill, 7 June 1961, digital p.104; NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, folio p. 73, digital p. 200.

[92]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from AGD Secretary Yuill to the Secretary, Department of Territories, 2 August 1961, folio p. 139, digital p. 70.

[93]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 p. 3.

[94]      NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Secretary, Department of the Interior, to Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, 17 January 1964, folio p. 74, digital p. 147.

[95]      See NAA, A432, 1966/2404 Part 2, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Internal AGD Minute Paper 60/2474 to the Assistant Secretary, 10 October 1963, folio p. 76, digital p. 197.

[96]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from NT Administrator to Secretary, Department of Territories, 20 December 1963, folio pp 59–60, digital pp 164–165.

[97]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Minister for Territories to Attorney-General, 13 February 1964, folio p. 107, digital p. 48.

Chapter 7 - Model adoption legislation: social welfare considerations

[1]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from NSW Under Secretary Hicks to AGD Secretary Yuill, 20 April 1961, folio p. 23, digital p. 228.

[2]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from NSW Under Secretary Hicks to AGD Secretary Yuill, 20 April 1961, folio p. 23, digital p. 228.

[3]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 22, digital p. 229.

[4]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 14, digital p. 232.

[5]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 22, digital p. 229.

[6]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 22, digital p. 229.

[7]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 17, digital p. 234.

[8]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 17, digital p. 234.

[9]        NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 16, digital p. 235.

[10]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 16, digital p. 235.

[11]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 15, digital p. 236.

[12]       NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio pp 11–12, digital pp 239–240.

[13]      NAA, A432, 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from AGD Secretary to Vic Children's Welfare Department Secretary, folio p. 26, digital page 225; State responses, for example, letter from SA Children's Welfare and Public Relief Department to AGD Secretary Yuill, folio p. 93, digital p. 141.

[14]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 282.

[15]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, letter from Children's Welfare Department to AGD Secretary Yuill, 24 May 1961, folio p. 107.

[16]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption—from the Welfare Viewpoint, WA briefing paper, folio pp 8–10, digital pp 243–245.

[17]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, Tas briefing paper, folio p. 45, digital p. 197.

[18]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption of Children in Victoria, Vic briefing paper, folio p. 116, digital p. 113.

[19]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States Adoption Section, Children's Welfare and Public Relief Department, Adelaide, SA briefing paper, folio p. 91, digital p. 143.

[20]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States Adoption—Queensland, Qld briefing paper, folio p. 120, digital p. 107.

[21]      Returning the child to the mother was not considered as an option on the assumption that she had lawfully consented to the adoption.

[22]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 283.

[23]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 318.

[24]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 316.

[25]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation,  letter from J.D. Dwyer, Parliamentary draftsman, Tas Attorney-General's Department to AGD Secretary Yuill, 26 November 1963, folio pp 14–15, digital pp 304–305.

[26]      See M. Iwanek, 1997. 'Healing History: The story of adoption in New Zealand', Social Work Now, vol. 8, pp 13–17.

[27]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, Tas briefing paper, folio p. 40, digital p. 199.

[28]      Report of the Departmental Committee on the Adoption of Children, Cmd 9248, para. 119, quoted in Professor David Hambly, Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts, Australian Law Review 1967–68 Volume 281, p. 318.

[29]      'Perth, Fair play', Letters to the Editor, Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday 26 September 1953, p. 2.

[30]      'Dover Heights, A mother', Letters to the Editor, Sydney Morning Herald Saturday 26 September 1953, p. 2.

[31]      Mr Keith Chilman, 'Baby Adoption Laws'. Letters to the Editor, Adelaide Advertiser, Wednesday 25 August 1954, p. 4.

[32]      'Sydney, H. Griffin', Letters to the Editor, Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday 26 September 1953, p.2.

[33]      The Australian Women's Weekly, Wednesday 7 October 1953, p. 18.

[34]      The Australian Women's Weekly, Wednesday 7 October 1953, p. 18.

[35]      The Australian Women's Weekly, Wednesday 7 October 1953, p. 18.

[36]      A Staff Correspondent, 'Should the Adoption Law be Changed?' Sydney Morning Herald, 1 October 1953, p. 2.

[37]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 283.

[38]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 291.

[39]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 305

[40]      Adoption of Children Act 1958 (Vic), ss. 5(b).

[41]      Child Welfare Act 1936 (NSW), Part XIX Adoption of Children, s. 167.

[42]      The South Australian law was the only one of these to set a minimum time requirement for the child to have lived with the adopting parents before consent could be dispensed with, ss 6(iv).

[43]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation: Interstate Conference held at Sydney, New South Wales from 29th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 178, digital p. 44.

[44]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, The Adoption of Children Bill, Tas comments, folio p. 83, digital p. 138.

[45]      Ms Jane Monaghan, Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 38.

[46]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, Tas briefing paper, folio 45, digital p. 197.

[47]       NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption—from the Welfare Viewpoint, WA briefing paper, folio p. 8, digital p. 245.

[48]      Transcript of SCAG meeting, 16 June 1961, p. 22.

[49]      Transcript of SCAG meeting, 16 June 1961, p. 22.

[50]      Transcript of SCAG meeting, 16 June 1961, pp 26–27.

[51]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio p. 144, digital p. 79.

[52]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption—from the Welfare Viewpoint, WA briefing paper, folio p. 7, digital p. 244.

[53]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, Tas briefing paper, folio p. 45, digital p. 197.

[54]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Memorandum: Uniform Adoption Legislation—Meeting of State Child Welfare Officers held in Sydney 19th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 158, digital p. 66.

[55]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, folio p. 145, digital p. 79.

[56]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Summary of Discussion at the Ministerial Conference on Adoption in Brisbane on 16th June 1961, folio p. 198, digital p. 11.

[57]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Department of Child Health Director, Brisbane Children's Hospital, to Dr. A. Johnson, National Health and Medical Research Council, folio p. 130, digital p. 22.

[58]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, letter from Department of Child Health Director, Brisbane Children's Hospital, to Dr. A. Johnson, National Health and Medical Research Council, folio p. 130, digital p. 22.

[59]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, draft Adoption of Children bill, 1964, digital p. 79. This is also substantially similar to ss. 26(2) of another version of the draft bill found at digital p. 119.

[60]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 99, digital p. 133.

[61]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 313.

[62]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 312.

[63]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation, St Joan's International Alliance letter to Attorney-General Barwick, 4 August 1962, folio pp 158–163, digital pp 40–45.

[64]      NSW originally omitted the clause, and later inserted an even wider ranging power for the court to dispense with consent.

[65]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 314.

[66]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Uniform Adoption Legislation: Report of Officers, Sydney 2–4 December 1963, folio pp. 20–21, digital pp. 222–233.

[67]      Adoption of Children Act 1968 (Tas), ss. 26(1)(b).

[68]      Adoption of Children Statutory Rules 1969 (Tas), Part IV s.15–19.

[69]      Adoption of Children Act 1968 (Tas), ss. 26(3)(4).

[70]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 307.

[71]      See for example, Adoption of Children Act 1968 (Tas), ss. 22(1)(2).

[72]      See WA suggestion of 14 day revocation period. NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Memorandum: Uniform Adoption Legislation—Meeting of State Child Welfare Officers held in Sydney 29th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 158, digital p. 66.

[73]      For example, Adoption of Children Act 1967 (SA), ss. 24(1).

[74]      For example, Adoption of Children Act 1896 (WA), ss. 3–4.

[75]      For example, Adoption of Children Ordinance 1938 (Cth), s. 4.

[76]      See for example, NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, Tas briefing paper, folio p. 45, digital p. 197; NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption—from the Welfare Viewpoint, WA briefing paper, folio p. 8, digital p. 245.

[77]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 99, digital p. 133.

[78]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio p. 146, digital p. 78.

[79]      Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 19(1).

[80]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 284.

[81]      For example, Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 38(3).

[82]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio pp 146–7, digital pp 145–146; letter from Qld Director of State Children Department Clark to AGD Secretary Yuill, 26 May 1961, folio p. 121, digital p. 106.

[83]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio 147, digital p. 77.

[84]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio 147, digital p. 77.

[85]      NAA, A 432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation: Interstate Conference held at Sydney, New South Wales from 29th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 171, digital p. 52.

[86]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 99, digital p. 133.

[87]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Australian Council of Social Service, Statement on Uniform Adoption Legislation, folio p. 9, digital p. 310.

[88]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, folio pp 198–199, digital pp 10–11.

[89]      Letter from Sir Barwick of 4 February 1964, quoted in NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, AGD Minute Paper 60/2474, digital p. 348.

[90]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Some notes on the Principles and Practices of Adoption—New South Wales, folio p. 14, digital p. 237.

[91]      NAA, A432 1966/2404 Part 3, Uniform Adoption Legislation, Transcript of a meeting of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, 23 January 1964, folio p. 86, folio p. 101.

[92]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 285.

[93]      Adoption of Children Act 1965 (NSW) Regulations 6–8; Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), p. 307.

[94]      Professor David Hambly, 'Adoption of Children: An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts', Australian Law Review, vol. 281 (1967–68), pp 283–289.

[95]      For example, Adoption of Children Act 1896 (WA), s. 12.

[96]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 96, digital p. 136. The other 'principal effect' is listed as 'his being deemed thereafter for all purposes a child of the adoptors and not of his natural parents'.

[97]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States,  Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 96, digital p. 136.

[98]       NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Memorandum: Uniform Adoption Legislation—Meeting of State Child Welfare Officers held in Sydney 29th  to 31st May 1961, folio p. 162, digital p. 62.

[99]      NSW Law Reform Commission, Report 69 (1992) – Review of the Adoption of Children Act 1990: Summary Report, 16 December 1991, http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/R69SUMCHP2 (accessed 22 February 2012).

[100]    Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), Regulation 11.

[101]    For example, to ensure two relatives did not marry. This was also the position under legislation in several jurisdictions prior to the 1960s. Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), Regulation 11(6).

[102]    Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth) s. 60.

[103]    NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, draft Report of the Officers' Conference on the Social Welfare Aspects of Adoption, 8 June 1961, folio p. 139, digital p. 86.

[104]    Adoption of Children Act 1935–52 (Qld), s. 14(1).

[105]    Adoption of Children Act 1958 (Vic), s. 8(4).

[106]    Adoption of Children Act 1935–52 (Qld), s. 22.

[107]    Children's Welfare Act 1958 (Vic), ss. 71(1).

[108]    NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Adoption of Children in Victoria, draft Victorian brief, folio p. 96, digital p. 136.

[109]    NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Memorandum: Uniform Adoption Legislation—Meeting of State Child Welfare Officers held in Sydney 19th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 156, digital p. 68.

[110]    Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 46–54.

[111]     Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 46–54.

[112]     Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965 (Cth), ss. 46–54.

[113]    Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act 1939–1946 (Qld), ss. 28, 32; Aborigines' and Torres Strait Islanders' Affairs Act 1965 (Qld), ss. 69(3).

[114]     NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation—Material prepared by States, Memorandum: Uniform Adoption Legislation—Meeting of State Child Welfare Officers held in Sydney 29th to 31st May 1961, folio p. 163, digital p. 61.

[115]    For example, see Ms A. Allitt, Submission 412, p. 3.

Chapter 8 - The need for a national framework

[1]        Child Care Act 1972 (Cth).  See, for example, FaHCSIA, Women in Australian Society—Milestones—1871–1983, http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/women/progserv/research/Pages/wia_milestones_1871_1983.aspx#1 (accessed 23 February 2012).

[2]        Kate Murphy, Marian Quartly and Denise Cuthbert, 'In the best interests of the child': mapping the emergence of pro-adoption politics in contemporary Australia, Australian Journal of Politics and History, June 2009.

[3]        Council of Single Mothers and their Children, History, http://www.csmc.org.au/?q=history (accessed 24 February 2012). See also, CSMC, Submission 303, p. 1.

[4]        Adoption Jigsaw, About Us, http://www.jigsaw.org.au/about-us/ (accessed 25 February 2012).

[5]        Jigsaw Queensland Inc, Submission 188, p. 1.

[6]        Anna Haebich, Many voices: reflections on experiences of Indigenous child separation, National Library Australia, 2002, pp 214–216. In addition, Ms Christine Cole cites a reference that implies single mothers 'barely rated a mention' at this conference. Supplementary Submission 223 (b), p. 14.

[7]        Anna Haebich, Many voices: reflections on experiences of Indigenous child separation, National Library Australia, 2002, p. 216.

[8]        Audrey Marshall and Margaret McDonald, The Many-Sided Triangle, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2001, p. 41.

[9]        Workshop Papers prepared by the Western Australian Group, Evaluation and Research, Second Australian Conference on Adoption, Melbourne, May 1978, p. 1.

[10]      ARMS Vic, Submission 196, p. 2.

[11]      ARMS SA, Transcript of speech given at the 8th Australian Adoption Conference, Adelaide April 2004, http://users.chariot.net.au/~jamiro/arms/paper2004.html (accessed 23 February 2012).

[12]      J Neville Turner, Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990 (NSW), July 1992, New South Wales Law Reform Commission Report No. 69. Dr Turner cites the amended acts in each jurisdiction: Adoption Act 1984 (Vic); Adoption Act 1991 (ACT); Adoption Information Act 1990 (NSW); Adoption of Children Act Amendment Act 1990 (NT); Adoption Legislation Amendment Act 1991 (Qld); Adoption Act 1988 (SA); Adoption Act 1988 (Tas); Adoption of Children Act 1896- 1991 (WA).

[13]      Dr Kathy MacDermott, Human Rights Commission, Rights of Relinquishing Mothers to Access to Information Concerning their Adopted Children, Discussion Paper No. 5, July 1984.

[14]      Dr Kathy MacDermott, Human Rights Commission, Rights of Relinquishing Mothers to Access to Information Concerning their Adopted Children, Discussion Paper No. 5, July 1984, pp 3–4.

[15]      Dr Kathy MacDermott, Human Rights Commission, Rights of Relinquishing Mothers to Access to Information Concerning their Adopted Children, Discussion Paper No. 5, July 1984, p. 45.

[16]      Dr Kathy MacDermott, Human Rights Commission, Rights of Relinquishing Mothers to Access to Information Concerning their Adopted Children, Discussion Paper No. 5, July 1984, p. 60.

[17]      Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989, entered into force 2 September 1990, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm (accessed 20 February 2012).

[18]      NAA, A432 1961/2241 Part 1, Uniform Adoption Legislation - Material prepared by States, WA briefing paper, Adoption – from the Welfare Viewpoint, folio p. 8, digital p. 243.

[19]      NSW Law Reform Commission, Issues Paper 7 (1992) – Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990, http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/IP7TOC (accessed 25 February 2012).

[20]      NSW Law Reform Commission, Issues Paper 7 (1992) – Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990, http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/IP7TOC (accessed 25 February 2012).

[21]      Mr Damon Martin, NSW Service Coordinator, International Social Service Australia (NSW Office), Inter country Adoption in Australia, January 2009 http://www.iss.org.au/publications/reports-papers-and-articles/ (accessed 24 February 2012).

[22]      House of Representatives Committee on Family and Human Services, Report on Overseas Adoption in Australia, 21 November 2005, p. 42.

[23]      Dr Albin Smrdel, Acting First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 1.

[24]      Dr Albin Smrdel, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, pp 1–2.

[25]      CSMAC, Membership, Intercountry adoption, http://www.csmac.gov.au/membership.aspx#other (accessed 25 February 2012).

[26]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, August 2004, pp 226–228.

[27]      Senate Community Affairs References Community, Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Revisited, June 2009, pp 33–34; Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Review of Government Compensation Payments, December 2010, pp 9–15.

[28]      Senate Community Affairs References Community, Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Revisited, June 2009, pp 37, 42–43.

[29]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Review of Government Compensation Payments, December 2010, pp 27–28.

[30]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Review of Government Compensation Payments, December 2010, p. 7.

[31]      Dr Albin Smrdel, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, p. 2.

Chapter 9 - A national framework: apologising for past wrongs

[1]        Ms Kathryn Rendell, Submission 184, p. 3.

[2]        National Council of Single Mothers and their Children, Submission 333, p. 12.

[3]        Origins Victoria, Submission 166, p. 101.

[4]        Name withheld, Submission 142, p. 5.

[5]        Ms Judith Newcombe, Submission 332, p. 3.

[6]        Ms Annie Florence, Submission 36, p. 2.

[7]        Uniting Care Wesley Adelaide Inc and Uniting Church of South Australia, Submission 376, p. 4.

[8]        Mr Martin Laverty, CEO, Catholic Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 September 2011, p. 45.

[9]        The Benevolent Society, Submission 191, p. 6.

[10]      National Council of Single Mothers and their Children, Submission 333, p. 13.

[11]      Mrs Julie Noble, Submission 362, p. 2.

[12]      Submission 160, p. 5.

[13]      Mrs Lily Arthur, Origins SPSA Inc., Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, pp 106–107.

[14]      Mrs Lily Arthur, Origins SPSA Inc., Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 28.

[15]      S. Alter, Apologising for Serious Wrongdoing: Social, Psychological and Legal Considerations, Law Commission of Canada, 1999 cited in Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care, August 2004, pp 192–193.

[16]      Legislative Assembly of Western Australia, Hansard, 19 October 2010, p. 7881a.

[17]      Submission 183, p. 4.

[18]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 17.

[19]      Ms Marilyn Murphy, Submission 150.

[20]      Cited in Barbara Maison, Supplementary Submission 14 (a), p. 3.

[21]      Submission 279, p. 2.

[22]      Submission 191, pp 1–3.

[23]      Benevolent Society, Statement of apology—Adoption at the Royal Hospital for Women and Scarba House, 30 October 2011, http://www.bensoc.org.au/director/newsandevents/news.cfm?item_id=47ABF826BCFCD9B81247C329F89E6577 (accessed 12 February 2012).

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 16 December 2012, p. 7.

[25]      Submission 399.

[26]      Submission 399, pp 1–2.

[27]      Correspondence to the committee from Mr Martin Laverty, Catholic Health Australia, 20 October 2011, p. 5.

[28]      Submission 191, pp 6–7.

[29]      Submission 191, p. 7.

[30]      Name withheld, Submission 28, p. 1.

[31]      Ms Marigold Halyer, Submission 32, p. 1.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 33.

[33]      June Smith, Submission 83, p. 10.

[34]      Submission 8, p. 1.

[35]      Submission 151, pp 1–2.

[36]      Submission 118, pp 6–7.

[37]      Ms Christen Coralive, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 9.

[38]      Ms Annie Florence, Submission 36, p. 1.

[39]      Human Rights Commission, Review of the ACT Adoption of Children Ordinance 1965, Canberra, 1986, pp 3–4.

[40]      Submission 191, pp 6–7.

[41]      Transcript of SCAG meeting, 16 June 1961, pp 26–27.

[42]      Ms Annie Florence, Submission 36, p. 2.

[43]      Legislative Assembly of Western Australia, Hansard, 19 October 2010, p. 7881a.

[44]      Benevolent Society, Statement of apology—Adoption at the Royal Hospital for Women and Scarba House, 30 October 2011, http://www.bensoc.org.au/director/newsandevents/news.cfm?item_id=47ABF826BCFCD9B81247C329F89E6577 (accessed 12 February 2012).

[45]      Submission 399, pp 1–2.

[46]      Donald McLean, Children in Need, Government Printer, Sydney, 1956, p. 53. See also Department of Child Welfare and Social Welfare, Child Welfare in New South Wales, undated (estimated 1958); 'Adoption in New South Wales', Journal of the Department of Child Welfare, vol. 3, no. 2 (1964), pp 15–16.

[47]      Mary Lewis, 'Unmarried mothers', Australian Association of Social Workers Ninth National Conference Proceedings, Adelaide, August 1965, p. 112.

[48]      Sister Mary Borromeo RSM, 'The Natural Parents', Australian Journal of Social Work, vol. 20, no. 1 (1967), p.11.

[49]      N. Mills, 'Who is the Unadoptable Child?' Australian Journal of Social Work, vol. 20, no. 1 (1967), p. 20.

[50]      Ms Pamela Roberts, 'The hospital's responsibility to the unmarried mother and her child', Hopsital Administration, vol. 16, no. 12, p. 12.

[51]      Medical Journal of Australia, vol. II, no. 5 (1960), pp 165–166.

[52]      Janet McCalman, Sex and Suffering: Women's Health and a Women's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne 1856–1996, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1998, p. 276.

[53]      For example, VANISH Inc., Submission 160, p. 5, calls for intercountry adoption to be phased out.

[54]      Benevolent Society, Statement of apology—Adoption at the Royal Hospital for Women and Scarba House, 30 October 2011, http://www.bensoc.org.au/director/newsandevents/news.cfm?item_id=47ABF826BCFCD9B81247C329F89E6577 (accessed 12 February 2012).

[55]      National Council of Single Mothers and their Children, Submission 333, p. 13.

[56]      For example, Mrs Julie Noble, Submission 362, p. 2.

Chapter 10 - A national framework: counselling and support services

[1]        Ms Josephine Yeats, Submission 168, p. 3. See also, Ms Robyn Webb, Submission 243, p. 3.

[2]        International Social Service Australia, Submission 181, p. 1.

[3]        Dr Daryl Higgins, Submission 85, pp 4–6.

[4]        R. Winkler and M. van Keppel, Relinquishing Mothers in Adoption: Their long–term adjustment, Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, 1984, p. 7.

[5]        R. Winkler and M. van Keppel, Relinquishing Mothers in Adoption: Their long–term adjustment, Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, 1984, pp 7–13.

[6]        VANISH Inc. Submission 160, p. 2.

[7]        Mrs Lisa McDonald, Adoption Research and Counselling Service, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 30–31.

[8]        Ms Irene Kalves, Submission 271, pp 1–2, 5.

[9]        Name withheld, Submission 38, p. 1.

[10]      Ms Rosemary Harbison, Submission 92, p. 3.

[11]      Mrs Lisa McDonald, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 31.

[12]      Name withheld, Submission 67, p. 2.

[13]      Mrs Elizabeth Hughes, Submission 59, p. 2.

[14]      Mr Eric Spinney, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 4.

[15]      WASH, Submission 172, p. 2.

[16]      Ms Kerri Saint, WASH, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 35.

[17]      VANISH Inc., Submission 160, p. 3.

[18]      VANISH Inc., Submission 160, p. 3.

[19]      Benevolent Society, Submission 191, p. 11.

[20]      V. Lindsay, 'Adoption Trauma Syndrome­: Honouring the Survivors', Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 242.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 28 Spetember 2011, p. 19.

[22]      VANISH Inc. Submission 160, p. 2.

[23]      For example, South Australia Department for Communities and Social Inclusion, Past adoption, http://www.dfc.sa.gov.au/pub/default.aspx?tabid=234 (accessed 16 February 2012).

[24]      The Benevolent Society, Post Adoption Resource Centre, Counselling, http://bensoc.org.au/postadoption/director/counselling.cfm (accessed 16 February 2012).

[25]      Ms Isobel Andrews, Coordinator, Adoption Jigsaw, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp. 19-20, 22.

[26]      Mr Neil Richards, Submission 59, p. 1.

[27]      Ms Susan Lunt, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 47.

[28]      See for example, Mrs Robyn Cohen, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 25.

[29]      Ms Sue MacDonald, Submission 129, p. 31.

[30]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 14.

[31]      Ms Judith Hendriksen, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 2.

[32]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 13. See also, Ms Kerri Saint, Submission 207, p. 5.

[33]      For example, see information about Better Access at Department of Health and Ageing, Better Access, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/mental-pubs-b-better (accessed 20 February 2012).

[34]      Dr Susan Gair, Submission 139, pp 1–2.

[35]      ALAS, Submission 226, p. 7.

[36]      Ms Cherry Blaskett, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 19.

[37]      Ms Orlaith Shield, Committee Hansard, 15 December 2011, p. 12.

[38]      R. Rawady, 'Partnership or Seeking Common Ground? Social Work and Self-help for Natural Mothers: Towards a process of reconciliation,' Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 391.

[39]      MacKillop Family Services, Submission 86, p. 4.

[40]      For more on this, cf. R. Rawady, 'Partnership or Seeking Common Ground? Social Work and Self-help for Natural Mothers: Towards a process of reconciliation,' Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 389.

[41]      June Smith, Committee Hansard, pp 33, 42.

[42]      S. Mead and C MacNeil, Peer Support: What Makes it Unique? (2004), http://www.mentalhealthpeers.com/pdfs/PeerSupportUnique.pdf (accessed 10 February 2012).

[43]      Ms Evelyn Robinson, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 14.

[44]      Ms Alexandra Bird, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 109.

[45]      V. Lindsay, 'Adoption Trauma Syndrome­: Honouring the Survivors', Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 241.

[46]      V. Lindsay, 'Adoption Trauma Syndrome: ­Honouring the Survivors', Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 241.

[47]      V. Lindsay, 'Adoption Trauma Syndrome­: Honouring the Survivors', Proceedings from the Sixth Australian Conference on Adoption: Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation, Brisbane, 1997, p. 242.

[48]      Mr David Anderson, Submission 61, pp 5–6.

[49]      Australian Relinquishing Mothers' Association, Submission 196, p. 4.

[50]      Ms Patricia Large, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 28.

[51]      Origins SPSA Inc., Submission 170, Supplementary Submission (1), pp 2–3.

[52]      VANISH Inc., Submission 160, p. 4.

[53]      Mrs Lisa McDonald, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 30.

[54]      Ms Christine Cole, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 44.

[55]      Ms Brenda Coughlan, Supplementary Submission 19, p. 54.

[56]      Committee Hansard, 15 December 2011, p. 5.

[57]      Shalev, Bonne and Eth note that despite the theoretical basis and widespread use of peer support groups to treat PTSD 'data concerning the efficacy of group therapy are mostly descriptive'. A Shalev, O Bonne and S Eth, 'Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review', Psychosomatic medicine, vol. 58, no. 2 (1996), p. 176, http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/58/2/165.full.pdf+html (accessed 30 January 2012).

[58]      Ms Anita Welsh, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 14.

Chapter 11 - Redress for former forced adoption policies and practices

[1]        Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004; Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, 25 June 2009; Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Revisited, 25 June 2009.

[2]        Mrs Roslyn Phillips, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 3.

[3]        Ms Carol Helmrich, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 65.

[4]        Ms Christine Burke, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 44.

[5]        Ms Marigold Hayler, Submission 32, p. 2.

[6]        Name Withheld, Submission 120, p. 6. See also Name Withheld, Submission 284, p. 1 and Name Withheld, Submission 341, p. 4.

[7]        Ms Susan Bryce, Submission 134, p. 2.

[8]        Ms Joy Goode, Submission 241, p. 4.

[9]        Ms Sharon Thornton, Submission 76, p. 10.

[10]      Name Withheld, Submission 258, p. 10.

[11]      June Smith, Submission 83, p. 9. Judy M, Submission 205, p. 4 also appealed to natural justice and asked for the involvement of the Human Rights Commission to prosecute individuals/institutions involved in forced adoptions.

[12]      Ms Beverley Redlich, Submission 112, p. 5.

[13]      Ms Jan Kashin, Submission 93, p. 17.

[14]      Name Withheld, Submission 201, p. 2.

[15]      Mr Michael Bamfield, Member, Care Leavers Australia Network, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 55.

[16]      Ms Linda Graham, Submission 258, p. 27.

[17]      Senate Community Affairs Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Prologue, p. xiii.

[18]      Senate Community Affairs Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, pp 203–204. 

[19]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004; Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, 25 June 2009.

[20]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, 25 June 2009, pp 212–213.

[21]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, 25 June 2009, pp 212–213.

[22]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, pp 228–229.

[23]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 230.

[24]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 230.

[25]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 231.

[26]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, pp 228–239.

[27]      Dr Coral Dow and Janet Phillips, ''Forgotten Australians' and 'Lost Innocents': child migrants and children in institutional care in Australia', Background Note, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 11 November 2009, pp 5–7.

[28]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, 25 June 2009, p. 34.

[29]      Mr Martin Laverty, Chief Executive Officer, Catholic Health Australia, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 28 September 2011, p. 45.

[30]      Catholic Archdiocese of Adelaide, Professional Standards Office, Principles of Towards Healing, available at: http://www.adelaide.catholic.org.au/sites/ProfessionalStandards/dealing-with-complaints-of-abuse/towards-healing/principles-of-towards-healing (accessed on 27 February 2012).

[31]      The Benevolent Society, Submission 191, p. 10.

[32]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 213.

[33]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, pp 207–208.

[34]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 15.

[35]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 205.

[36]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 205.

[37]      Stingel v Clark, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MULR/2008/18.html (accessed 2 December 2011).

[38]      'Mixed Messages on Sexual Assault and the Statute of Limitations: Stingel v Clark, The IPP "Reforms" and an argument for change,' in The Melbourne University Law Review 18 (2008), pp 15–16, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MULR/2008/18.html (accessed 2 December 2011).

[39]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 30 August 2004, p. 208.

Chapter 12 - A national framework: access to information

[1]        For example, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, AIHW, Canberra, 2011, p. 1.

[2]        Ms Therese Hawken, Adoption Loss Adult Support, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 29.

[3]        Ms Mary Wood, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 41.

[4]        Dr Melisah Feeney, Link-Up Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 12.

[5]        Mr Ian (Gary) Coles, Vanish Inc., Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 2.

[6]        Ms Isabel Andrews, Adoption Jigsaw, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, pp 19–20.

[7]        Ms Lynnette Kinghorn, Origins Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 17.

[8]        Ms Kathryn Rendell, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 4.

[9]        Ms Elizabeth Edwards, Origins Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 26.

[10]      Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 8, part 2, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm#art8 (accessed 19 February 2012).

[11]      Miriam Mandryk, Adopted Persons' Access to and Use of their Original Birth Certificates: An Analysis of Australian Policy and Legislation, RMIT University, 2011, p. 12.

[12]      Origins Victoria, Submission 166, p. 59.

[13]      Ms Lynne Devine, ARMS WA, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 46.

[14]      AASW, cited in NSW Legislative Council's Standing Committee on Social Issues, Releasing the Past: adoption practices, 1950–1998, Sydney, 2000, p. 113, para 7.101.

[15]      NSW Legislative Council's Standing Committee on Social Issues, Releasing the Past: adoption practices, 1950–1998, Sydney, 2000, p. 113, para 7.102.

[16]      Ms Barbara Maison, Apology Alliance, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2011, p. 37.

[17]      K. Ingles, 'Living Mistakes: Mothers who consented to adoption', Allen & Unwin, North Sydney, 1984.

[18]      Jane Monaghan, Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services, Committee Hansard, 26 October 2011, p. 34.

[19]      Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmanian Government, answer to question on notice, 10 January 2012 (received 12 January 2012), p. 1.

[20]      Ms Judith Hendriksen, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 2.

[21]      Ms Jennie Burrows, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2011, p. 61.

[22]      MacKillop Family Services, Submission 86, p. 3.

[23]      Ms Shirley (Esme) Moulds, ARMS WA, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2011, p. 51.

[24]      Monash University, History of Adoption Project, http://arts.monash.edu.au/historyofadoption/records/western-australia.php, (accessed 15 February 2012).

[25]      Government of Western Australia, Department for Child Protection, Information about Adoption: Obtaining adoption information, http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/FOSTERINGANDADOPTION/Pages/PastAdoptionInfo.aspx (accessed 21 February 2012).

[26]      Miriam Mandryk, Adopted Persons' Access to and Use of their Original Birth Certificates: An Analysis of Australian Policy and Legislation, RMIT University, 2011, p. 53.

[27]      New South Wales Department of Family and Community Services, Adoption and Permanent Care Services, Past Adoption Information, http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/parents_carers_and_families/fostering_and_adoption/adoption/past_adoptions/pre_2010.html (accessed 16 February 2012).

[28]      New South Wales Department of Family and Community Services, Adoption and Permanent Care Services, Past Adoption Information, http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/parents_carers_and_families/fostering_and_adoption/adoption/past_adoptions/pre_2010.html (accessed 16 February 2012).

[29]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011. Adoptions Australia 2010–11. Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40. AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, pp 72-73.

[30]      New South Wales Department of Family and Community Services, Adoption and Permanent Care Services, Past Adoption Information, http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/parents_carers_and_families/fostering_and_adoption/adoption/past_adoptions/pre_2010.html (accessed 16 February 2012).

[31]      Victorian Department of Human Services, Adoption Records – Family Information Networks and Discovery, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/applying-for-documents-and-records/adoption-and-family-records/adoption-and-family-information-networks-and-discovery (accessed 16 February 2012).

[32]      Section 93 of the Adoption Act 1984 (Victoria).

[33]      Victorian Department of Human Services, Information for birth parents, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/applying-for-documents-and-records/adoption-and-family-records/adoption-and-family-information-networks-and-discovery (accessed 16 February 2012).

[34]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011. Adoptions Australia 2010–11. Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 73.

[35]      Victorian Department of Human Services, Information for birth parents, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/applying-for-documents-and-records/adoption-and-family-records/adoption-and-family-information-networks-and-discovery/information-for-birth-parents (accessed 16 February 2012).

[36]      Victorian Department of Human Services, Information for birth parents, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/applying-for-documents-and-records/adoption-and-family-records/adoption-and-family-information-networks-and-discovery (accessed 16 February 2012).

[37]      Victorian Government Department of Human Services, response to committee correspondence, received 3 January 2012, p. 2.

[38]      Queensland Government, Child Safety Services, Adoption Services, Access to identifying information before an adopted person is 18 years of age, http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/childsafety/adoption/past-adoptions/access-to-information/access-to-identifying-information-before-an-adopted-person-is-18-years-of-age (accessed 16 February 2012).

[39]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011. Adoptions Australia 2010–11. Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, pp 73-74.

[40]      Queensland Government, Child Safety Services, Adoption Services, Access to identifying information before an adopted person is 18 years of age, http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/childsafety/adoption/past-adoptions/access-to-information/access-to-identifying-information-before-an-adopted-person-is-18-years-of-age (accessed 16 February 2012).

[41]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011. Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 74.

[42]      Western Australian Department for Children Protection, Post Adoption Information and Services, http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/FOSTERINGANDADOPTION/Pages/PastAdoptionInfo.aspx (accessed at 16 February 2012).

[43]      Western Australian Department for Children Protection, Post Adoption Information and Services, http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/FOSTERINGANDADOPTION/Pages/PastAdoptionInfo.aspx#8 (accessed at 16 February 2012).

[44]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 75.

[45]      Government of South Australia, Adoption and Family Information Service (AIFS), Post Adoption, Restricting access to adoption information, http://www.dfc.sa.gov.au/pub/tabId/234/itemId/891/moduleId/871/Getting-adoption-information.aspx (accessed 20 February 2012).

[46]      Government of South Australia, Adoption and Family Information Service (AIFS), Post Adoption, Restricting access to adoption information, http://www.dfc.sa.gov.au/pub/tabId/234/itemId/891/moduleId/871/Getting-adoption-information.aspx (accessed 20 February 2012).

[47]      Government of South Australia, Adoption and Family Information Service (AIFS), Post Adoption, Restricting access to adoption information, http://www.dcsi.sa.gov.au/pub/tabid/234/itemid/869/default.aspx (accessed 20 February 2012).

[48]      Government of South Australia, Department for Education and Child Development, response to committee correspondence, received 4 January 2012, p. 1.

[49]      Government of South Australia, Department for Education and Child Development, response to committee correspondence, received 4 January 2012, p. 2.

[50]      Government of South Australia, Adoption and Family Information Service (AIFS), Searching for birth relatives, http://www.dcsi.sa.gov.au/pub/default.aspx?tabid=241 (accessed 16 February 2012).

[51]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 75.

[52]      Tasmanian Government, Department of Health and Human Services, Adoption and Permanency Services, http://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/service_information/services_files/adoption_and_information_service (accessed on 16 February 2012).

[53]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 76.

[54]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 76.

[55]      ACT Government, Department for Health and Community Services, Adoptions and Permanent Care Unit, Information on post order support services, http://www.dhcs.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/11704/DHC1628_adoptinfopostsupport.pdf (accessed at 16 February 2012). 

[56]      NT Government, Department of Children and Families, Adoption Services, http://www.childrenandfamilies.nt.gov.au/Adoption/ (accessed 16 February 2012).

[57]      NT Government, Department of Children and Families, Application for Indentifying Information, http://www.childrenandfamilies.nt.gov.au/Adoption/ (accessed 21 February 2012).

[58]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011, Adoptions Australia 2010–11, Child welfare series no. 52. cat. no. CWS 40, AIHW, Canberra, Appendix B.3, p. 77.

[59]      Origins Victoria, Submission 166, pp 42–43.

[60]      Although there is an option to see a court order to release the information.

[61]      The Victorian data reported on 94 cases in all. The committee's analysis excluded six that had not been concluded, two who had returned to the service for counselling, six who registered with the service but did  not then proceed, and ten who left contact details but appeared not to actively request information. This left 70 cases.

[62]      Correspondence from Victorian Department of Human Services, 23 December 2011, received 3 January 2012.

[63]      Correspondence from South Australian Department for Education and Child Development, 28 December 2011, received 4 January 2012.

[64]      Correspondence from Victorian Department of Human Services, 23 December 2011, received 3 January 2012.

[65]      Correspondence from South Australian Department for Education and Child Development, 28 December 2011, received 4 January 2012.

[66]      Ms Linda Bryant, Origins Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, pp 47–49; Dr Trevor Jordan, Jigsaw Queensland Inc., Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 55.

[67]      Mrs Rosemary Rennie, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 14.

[68]      Mrs Rosemary Rennie, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 14.

[69]      Ms Patricia Large, Adoption Loss Adult Support, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 27.

[70]      Major Graeme McLimont, The Salvation Army Tasmanian Division, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 10.

[71]      Major Graeme McLimont, The Salvation Army Tasmanian Division, Committee Hansard, 16 December 2011, p. 10.

[72]      Catholic Health Australia, Submission 279, p. 3.

[73]      The Benevolent Society, Submission 191, p. 3.

[74]      The Benevolent Society, Submission 191, pp 9–10.

[75]      Government of South Australia, Department for Communities and Social Inclusion, Historical information about homes or institutions (South Australia) http://www.dcsi.sa.gov.au/pub/tabid/234/itemid/884/default.aspx (accessed 2 February 2012).

[76]      See website homepage, Find and Connect Australia, http://www.findandconnect.gov.au/ (accessed 2 February 2012).

[77]      MacKillop Family Services, Submission 86, p. 3.

[78]      Dr Melisah Feeney, Link-Up Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 12.

[79]      Dr Melisah Feeney, Link-Up Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 April 2011, p. 12.

[80]      Adoption Jigsaw, Submission 146, p. 2.

Chapter 13 - Where to from here?

[1]        Mr Leigh Hubbard, Chair, VANISH, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 20 April 2011, p. 4.

[2]        Professor Denise Cuthbert, Professor of Sociology, Monash University, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 20 April 2011, p. 74.

[3]        Professor Denise Cuthbert, Professor of Sociology, Monash University, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 20 April 2011, p. 59.

[4]        Hague Conference on Private International Law, Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, 1 May 1995, http://www.hcch.net/upload/conventions/txt33en.pdf (accessed 24 March 2011).

[5]        The Family Law (Bilateral Arrangements—Intercountry Adoption) Regulations 1998 is also relevant.

[6]        FaHSCSIA, Reply to correspondence,  Information about the Enhancing Adoption as a Service for Children Working Group and the National Principles in Adoption, January 2012, p. 1. 

[7]        FaHSCSIA, Reply to correspondence,  Information about the Enhancing Adoption as a Service for Children Working Group and the National Principles in Adoption, January 2012, p. 1. 

Top