Chapter 4 Kakadu, Northern Territory
Several submissions to the inquiry identified the wetlands of Kakadu as
a nationally important ecosystem that the Committee should consider as a case
study for its inquiry. The Committee was told that, not only are these wetlands
iconic and of high biodiversity value nationally and internationally, they are
also at risk of significant damage due to future climate change.
Kakadu National Park (KNP) is listed by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a World Heritage Area for both
its cultural and natural values. It is located 200 kilometres east of Darwin in
the wet–dry tropics of the Alligator Rivers region, and covers an area of
19 798 square kilometres. The park has a high degree of connectivity with
adjacent areas—Arnhem Land (Indigenous land) to the east, Nitmiluk National
Park to the south, pastoral properties to the west, and the Arafura Sea to the
north. Landforms and habitats in the park include the sandstone plateau and
escarpment, extensive areas of savanna woodlands, open forest, floodplains,
mangroves, tidal mudflats, coastal areas, and monsoon forests.
KNP is jointly managed by its Traditional Owners and the Australian Government,
under the direction of a Board of Management, which has an Indigenous majority
representing the Traditional Owners. Day-to-day management of the park is
carried out by Parks Australia, a division of the federal government Department
of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.
Key issues canvassed during the Committee’s site inspections in KNP on
3 July 2012 included: existing threats to biodiversity; expected impacts
of climate change; the complexity of climate considerations in the Yellow Water
Wetlands; co-management of the park; the impact of biodiversity loss on human
communities; and research and monitoring needs in the region.
Kakadu National Park
The Committee was accompanied by, and received briefings from, the
following representatives from Kakadu National Park:
- Mr Michael Bangalang,
Traditional Owner, and Member, Kakadu National Park Board of Management;
- Ms Sarah Kerin, Park
- Mr Steve Winderlich, Manager,
Natural and Cultural Programs.
Throughout the visit, the Committee received the following documents:
- A shared vision
for tourism in Kakadu National Park, Kakadu Board of Management, 2005.
- Wetland tourism:
Australia—Kakadu Ramsar site, Ramsar secretariat, 2012.
- Kakadu National
Park: Climate change strategy 2010–15, Director of National Parks, 25 May
- Economic Activity
of Australia’s World Heritage Areas: Final report, Department of
Environment, Water, Heritage and Arts, July 2008.
Vulnerability to climate change impacts, Department of Climate Change and
Energy Efficiency, 2011.
- An-garregen: A
strategy for cultural heritage management in Kakadu National Park, Kakadu
Cultural Heritage Working Group, 2011—
1: The strategy.
- Kakadu National
Park management plan 2007–14, Director of National Parks, 2007.
- Kakadu National
Park visitor guide, Director of National Parks, 2008.
- The impacts of
climate change on Australian tourism destinations: Developing adaptation and
response strategies—A scoping study, Cooperative Research Centre for
Sustainable Tourism, 2009.
- The impacts of
climate change on Australian tourism destinations: Developing adaptation and
response strategies, Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism,
The Committee was briefed on issues relating to the management of KNP,
including existing threats to biodiversity and how these might be affected by changes
in climate, co-management of the park, and research and monitoring needs.
Yellow Water Wetlands
KNP’s landscapes comprise coastal ecosystems to the north, stone country
to the south, and extensive wetlands. In response to submissions to the
inquiry, the focus of the Committee’s site inspection was the wetlands.
The Yellow Water Wetlands include Yellow Water Billabong and Yellow
Water Floodplains. During the dry season, the area consists of a series of
large billabongs, which become connected during the wet season, becoming a
free-flowing system. Yellow Water Billabong is located at the end of Jim Jim Creek,
a tributary of the South Alligator River. The river system, which is the
largest in Kakadu, contains extensive wetlands that include river channels,
floodplains and backwater swamps.
Accompanied by the KNP representatives listed above, the Committee inspected
parts of the Yellow Water Wetlands and received detailed briefings from local
guides. The briefings centred on the biodiversity and complexity of the
wetlands system, and the potential consequences of climate-induced biodiversity
loss for human communities dependent on the wetlands.
Figure 4.1 Yellow Water Wetlands, with floodplains and
melaleuca woodlands in the distance
courtesy of committee secretariat
Issues explored in Kakadu
Inspections of the Yellow Water Wetlands raised issues relating to the
complexity of the system and how it might be affected by future climate change,
and the impacts of biodiversity loss for human communities that rely on healthy
ecosystems. Discussions during the Committee’s visit also addressed broader
issues of park management in a changing climate, co-management and engagement
with Indigenous communities, and research and monitoring needs in the region.
Key threats to biodiversity in Kakadu National Park
The Committee was informed that KNP has been progressively inscribed as
a national park since 1979. The park is locally, nationally and internationally
significant with respect to its biodiversity. It is home to approximately 2000
plant species, 271 bird species (over one third of Australia’s bird species),
77 mammal species (about one quarter of Australia’s land mammals), 132 reptile
species, 27 frog species and 246 fish species. The Committee heard that
the southern parts of KNP, especially the highlands, have particularly high
levels of endemism, with many species being unique to the area and not found
anywhere else in the world. This was suggested to be due to the highly
fractured landscape, which has created ecological niches for species.
Losses in biodiversity have occurred for various reasons. For example, the
Committee heard about a dramatic decline in species of small mammals, although
the cause is unclear. The pattern of decline has been consistent with disease,
although the fact that some species have not been affected suggests there may
be an alternative explanation. Fire regimes, predation, and off-park grazing have
been identified as other possible causes.
More broadly, the Committee heard that there was some resilience in the
landscape, due to it being subject to wet-dry seasonality and periodic
disturbances from extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones. However,
the resilience of Kakadu’s ecosystems to future climate change could be
improved through the effective management of feral animals, weeds, and fire. The
Committee heard about some of these existing threats to biodiversity, as well
as the possible effects of climate change. These are discussed below.
Feral and pest animals
The Committee heard that feral and pest animals have had a detrimental
impact on the ecosystems of KNP. These animals include Asian water buffalo,
cattle, pigs, horses, donkeys, dogs, cats, European bees, cane toads, and
The Committee was briefed on the history of ecological damage from Asian
water buffalo in KNP. Water buffalo had been introduced to the Northern
Territory from Indonesia in the 1800s. Over many years, feral
populations had damaged floodplains and eroded the banks of freshwater river
systems. This had facilitated saltwater intrusion and resulted in the death of
trees and other vegetation that provided habitat for naturally and culturally
important animal species. The activity of buffalo had also exacerbated the
spread of weeds.
The Committee heard that the Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign
of the 1990s removed most buffalo from KNP, allowing damaged areas to recover
over time. However, buffalo numbers have since increased gradually. Strategies
now used to manage many feral animals, including water buffalo, consist mainly
of aerial shooting, although some opportunistic shooting also takes place,
often in conjunction with weed and other land management activities.
The Committee was interested to hear about the presence of cane toads in
KNP. Cane toads started to colonise the park in the 1990s and quickly became a
threat to lizards, goannas, and quolls. These species have continued to do well
in the stone country, where cane toads have not been as pervasive. The
Committee heard that efforts to eradicate cane toads are usually inefficient
and ineffective, and such programs are therefore generally not pursued. The
Committee was interested to note, however, that early results from a University
of Sydney program to train quoll young to avoid cane toads suggested some
success in adaptive learning.
The difficulty of isolating the impact of invasive species was noted.
For example, quoll populations in KNP were declining before the arrival of the
cane toad, but the presence of the cane toad had certainly exacerbated existing
threats, leading to a more rapid decline in quoll numbers.
The Committee was briefed on the management of weeds in KNP. Mimosa
pigra is an aggressive floodplain weed with a very long period of seed
viability: germination is possible for up to 25 years for each seed. Once a
seed germinates, growth is very rapid. The Committee was pleased to hear that,
as a result of significant, early investment in weed management, KNP was
largely free from Mimosa pigra. However, in view of the weed’s long
period of seed viability, management is an ongoing challenge.
The Committee heard about two other floodplain weeds that are
significant in KNP: olive hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis) and salvinia
(Salvinia molesta). Olive hymenachne is a prolific seeder, and seeds are
spread by water, including during flooding events, and through mud by animals.
Feral animals and more frequent extreme weather events due to climate change
may therefore result in greater adverse impacts in the Kakadu wetlands.
Salvinia, which is a free-floating, mat-forming fern that has invaded
KNP’s wetlands, reproduces by fragmentation and is characterised by very
prolific growth. The Committee had an opportunity to view parts of the Yellow
Water Wetlands covered in salvinia during its site inspection. Management of
the weed has been a major undertaking in KNP, and the Committee was pleased to
hear that the salvinia weevil had provided some control over the spread of the
plant under certain conditions.
The Committee was also briefed about two types of grassy weed, Para
grass (Urochloa mutica) and Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion),
which are native to the African tropics and were introduced to Australia to be
trialled as pasture grasses. However, both species
have since established themselves in the Northern Territory as invasive weeds. The
Committee was informed that these weeds tend to quickly dominate and create
monocultures in the ecosystems they invade, and have the potential to significantly
alter fire regimes due to the resultant increased fuel loads.
Figure 4.2 Salvinia (foreground) at the edges of the Yellow Water Wetlands
courtesy of committee secretariat
The Committee heard that fire is a significant issue in KNP, the
landscape having adapted in the presence of fire over many thousands of years.
The approach taken by park management is based on Indigenous methods, where
burning was traditionally carried out to increase hunting opportunities,
improve access to the land, and to facilitate communication.
In KNP, a program of burning is undertaken annually, although the fire
interval varies according to ecosystem type. In the early fire season, patch or
mosaic burning is carried out at low intensities, which reduces the risk of
wildfires caused by lightning strikes later in the season. The Committee heard
that the shift from late, highly destructive wildfires, to early, cooler season
fires had introduced greater biodiversity into KNP’s ecosystems by allowing a
diversity of plant species to flourish.
In addition to the traditional reasons for burning and modern hazard
reduction purposes, fire is currently also used to manage specific species. For
example, Leichhardt’s grasshopper is a species found in only three places in
the world, including Kakadu. It is also important in Indigenous mythology. The
grasshopper relies almost exclusively on one type of plant (pityrodia)
throughout most parts of its life cycle. Any loss of pityrodia is therefore
likely to be accompanied by declines of Leichhardt’s grasshopper. Understanding
these interrelationships enables fire regimes to be used to protect the habitat
of species that are important for ecological and cultural reasons.
The Committee was informed that, in the context of geological
timeframes, the region had adapted to many changes. For example, the freshwater
floodplains in the region were estimated to be 4000 years old. Prior to that,
the area was completely inundated with saltwater. The biodiversity of the area
has therefore adapted over time to significantly different landscapes. However,
climate change is likely to demand more rapid adaptation than may be possible.
This was therefore one of the challenges in managing the park to ensure
resilience to relatively rapid changes in climate.
As the Committee heard during this site inspection, and previously
throughout the inquiry, one of the most effective ways of building resilience
to climate change is by managing existing threats, such as those discussed
above. However, it is also necessary for land managers to be aware of the
possible impacts of climate change in order to anticipate how these might
affect system dynamics in a given ecosystem.
The predicted effects of climate change in Kakadu include sea level
rise, temperature rises, variation in the amount and pattern of rainfall, and
changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. The related
threats to KNP’s biodiversity are discussed below.
Saltwater intrusion into freshwater ecosystems may transform landscapes,
particularly in the wetlands where even very small rises in sea level could
have significant consequences. The Committee heard that, although there had
been some suggestion that the effects of rising sea levels had already been
observed in some places, it was unclear whether there were other causes, such
as past damage by water buffalo.
Predicted temperature rises could have direct impacts on the viability
of crocodiles and other reptile species with temperature-dependent sex
determination. Sex ratios could be altered, resulting in nesting failure and
species decline. Temperature rises are also predicted to result in changes to
fire regimes, which could transform ecosystems.
The frequency and severity of extreme weather events is expected to have
detrimental impacts on the biodiversity of KNP. More intense storms are likely
to contribute to the changes in fire regimes discussed above, particularly due
to more frequent lightning strikes. The Committee viewed photographs
illustrating the devastating effects of tropical cyclones in the region, and
heard about the increased risk of invasive species being spread during severe
Aside from the direct impacts, climate change is likely to exacerbate
existing threats to biodiversity in Kakadu. For example, the Committee was
advised that predicted changes to a number of aspects of climate, including
temperature and precipitation patterns, would provide more favourable
conditions for weeds. The Committee heard that grasses ordinarily make up
approximately six to eight per cent of woodland ecosystems in the region.
However, this proportion is two to three times greater in woodland ecosystems
that are invaded by grassy weeds such as para grass and mission grass. Should
this disparity be amplified by climate change, there is potential for dramatic
changes in ecosystem dynamics and the diversity of plant and animal life
supported by these ecosystems.
The Committee notes the range of threats currently facing the
biodiversity of Kakadu, including feral and pest animals and invasive weeds.
The Committee is also mindful of the need for careful management of fire
regimes in the Northern Territory in particular, where many landscapes have
evolved in the presence of fire over many thousands of years.
The Committee was pleased to hear that there is some resilience built
into the ecosystems of Kakadu, due to the landscapes having had to evolve over
long periods of time to starkly different conditions. However, the Committee
notes advice that current environmental management challenges are likely to be
exacerbated by climate change, as ecosystems may be transformed and conditions
may become more favourable for pest species. Of concern is the suggestion that
climate change may require much more rapid adaptation than will be possible for
The Committee was pleased to hear acknowledgment by park management that
threatening processes do not recognise arbitrary boundaries, and that KNP is therefore
managed at a landscape scale. The Committee was also pleased to find a culture
of constructive collaboration with Traditional Owners, allowing management to
benefit from the traditional knowledge of local Indigenous communities.
Complexity of the Yellow Water Wetlands ecosystem
As discussed earlier, the Yellow Water Wetlands are part of the South
Alligator River system, the vast size of which makes it a very important area
to monitor for climate change impacts, due to the far-reaching consequences of
any adverse impacts.
During its site inspection, the Committee received briefings on, among
other things, the biodiversity of Kakadu. Local wildlife includes saltwater
crocodiles, buffalo on the floodplains, snakes, and a range of endemic flora. Kakadu
is home to about one third of Australia’s bird species, and at least 60 species
are found in the wetlands.
The Committee was also briefed on the complex climatic conditions of
KNP. Kakadu’s climate is monsoonal, characterised by two main seasons: the dry
season (May to October) and the wet season (November to April). Local Indigenous
communities recognise six different seasons, as well as subtle variations that
signpost the transition from one season to another:
- Gudjewg: Monsoon
season, December to March;
Knock ‘em down storm season, April;
- Yegge: Cooler
but still humid season, May to June;
- Wurrgeng: Cold
weather season, June to August;
- Gurrung: Hot
dry weather, August to October; and
- Gunumeleng: Pre-monsoon
storm season, October to December.
The understanding of these six seasons informs expectations regarding
rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind and stormy conditions, abundance and
location of plant and animal life, the timing of life cycle events (phenology),
and the condition of wetlands. It provides guidance on how and when land
management practices such as burning should be carried out. In the past, it
also helped Traditional Owners determine when to move camp from the floodplains
to the stone country, to seek shelter from violent storms.
In addition to these seasonal variations, the Committee heard that KNP
is subject to other periodic climate patterns, such as the El Niño–Southern
Oscillation (ENSO), and episodic disturbances, such as tropical cyclones and
other extreme weather events. These longer-term and episodic variations have
meant that Kakadu’s ecosystems have a level of ecological resilience built into
them. For example, the wet–dry seasonality allows the floodplains to act as
refugia for animals during dry periods.
However, these complexities also make the management of KNP more
challenging. And, because climate change is an additional threat to
biodiversity while also interacting with the range of existing threats, all of
these variables make it more difficult to predict the effects that climate
change is likely to have in Kakadu.
The Committee notes the complexity of the wetlands ecosystems in Kakadu,
particularly in relation to reliably predicting the impacts of climate change
in the region. The Committee’s inspection of the Yellow Water Wetlands and
briefings from local experts highlighted the importance of land managers having
a thorough and nuanced understanding of the dynamics of the specific ecosystems
involved, supported by insights from traditional knowledge and scientific
research and monitoring.
Co-management of Kakadu National Park
The Indigenous people of Kakadu—the Bininj in the north and Mungguy in
the south—have leased their land to the Australian Government for the formation
of the national park. The Committee heard about
the approach taken to managing KNP and co-management structures, which combine
traditional culture and modern practice. The Committee was also
briefed on some of the benefits of working with Traditional Owners, as well as
some of the issues that need to be managed.
As with discussions in South Australia regarding co-management of
national parks with the Ngarrindjeri in the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray
Mouth region, the visit to KNP underscored the inseparability of nature and
culture for Indigenous communities and highlighted the relevance of this to the
way the park is managed.
Briefings were provided on KNP’s co-management structure, which involves
a Board of Management that includes Traditional Owner representatives, the
Director of National Parks, and nominees from the tourism and environmental
sectors. The Committee was informed that just under half of KNP is subject to
Indigenous land claims, but that the park is consciously managed as though all
of the park is Indigenous land. As a result, there would be little practical
impact on the way the park is managed should pending claims be successful. The
Committee heard that the resolution of land claims would, however, assist with
the co‑management of KNP by providing both management and Traditional
Owners with more clarity on the appropriate representatives for each part of
Briefings addressed the approach taken to managing KNP, which includes
the integration of natural and cultural resource management. The Committee was
told about cultural programs that included working with Traditional Owners out
on country to collect oral history, with the aim of sharing and recording some
of the customary knowledge of country. KNP representatives also discussed
clan-based projects that seek to link customary knowledge and traditional
practices on the one hand, with scientific information and modern methods on
the other. Through these cultural programs, the environmental knowledge of
Traditional Owners is able to be incorporated into management plans, while
scientific knowledge can enhance management approaches and on country
practices, particularly as climate change introduces uncertainty and
variability into ecosystem processes.
The Committee was also informed about KNP’s cultural heritage strategy, which
results, among other things, in park management benefiting from the knowledge
of Traditional Owners. Much of the cultural information held by Traditional
Owners also has ecological applications. For example, the Committee heard about
traditional knowledge that recognises phenologically linked relationships
between species, such as observed flowering of one plant species coinciding
with the nesting behaviour of a particular, otherwise unrelated, animal
One aspect of the KNP’s cultural heritage strategy includes the
establishment of a ‘cultural information management system’. The database
facilitates the collection, retention and retrieval of cultural information
relating to the park, with access restrictions to ensure information is
collected from and shared with only the appropriate people. The Committee heard
about the need to protect culturally sensitive information, while ensuring
effective knowledge transfer and reducing the risk of losing important cultural
KNP management also benefits from the knowledge of Traditional Owners
through consultation processes in relation to the management plan for the park,
as well as other specific plans. Community meetings are also held on an ongoing
basis, allowing further consultation with Traditional Owners on matters
directly relating to their immediate geographical area.
The Committee notes that there are some challenges associated with the co‑management
of national parks. This may be particularly true in the Northern Territory,
where the Committee heard there are social, economic and political dynamics
that need to be taken into account.
Nonetheless, the Committee sees value in the co-management of national
parks with Indigenous communities where appropriate, and considers that the
combination of traditional wisdom and modern approaches can provide real
ecological and cultural benefits for all stakeholders. The Committee commends
KNP’s governance bodies for their efforts towards collaboration, inclusion, and
the engagement of local Indigenous communities.
Biodiversity loss and its impact on humans
The Committee heard that KNP’s biodiversity has a direct impact on local
communities, particularly as many Traditional Owners rely on local plant and
animal species as food sources, for cultural activities, and to provide habitat
for totemic species. For example, the Committee heard about some of the important
food sources in the Yellow Water Wetlands, including lilies, melaleuca trees,
and magpie geese. The Committee also heard about some of the cultural
applications of the paperbark from melaleuca trees, including as an aid to food
preparation and fishing.
Apart from the intrinsic value of Kakadu’s iconic, nationally important
ecosystems, the Committee heard that many local communities are dependent on
the tourism industry for their livelihoods. In turn, the industry relies on the
unique biodiversity of the region in order to attract visitors.
Gagudju Dreaming, which is an Indigenous owned collection of Kakadu
cruises, tours, cultural experiences, and accommodation, is the largest
collection of facilities catering to tourism in Kakadu.
Among its goals is positive Indigenous outcomes, particularly for the Bininj
people of KNP. Principal stakeholders include the federal government’s
Indigenous Business Australia, and the Traditional Owners are represented
through Kakadu Tourism.
As part of the charter for the operation of Gagudju Dreaming, an
Indigenous Employment Program (IEP) exists to create opportunities for local
Bininj to train and interact with the tourism industry. The Committee notes
that part of KNP’s charter is to only develop tourism at a pace that is
comfortable for and set by the Traditional Owners of Kakadu.
The conservation of Kakadu’s rich biodiversity is both directly and
indirectly important for communities that rely on the landscape for cultural
and economic reasons. The loss of biodiversity due to climate change would
therefore have significant repercussions for the local Indigenous communities
The Committee notes that nature and culture are inseparable for Kakadu’s
Traditional Owners. Apart from the intrinsic value of KNP’s biodiversity, local
communities depend on healthy ecosystems for cultural as well as economic
reasons. The Committee therefore notes the significance of efforts to manage
and conserve biodiversity in KNP, particularly in a changing climate.
Research and monitoring
The Committee heard about the importance of research and monitoring in
Kakadu to provide land managers with adequate information about the impacts of
climate change on biodiversity. The Committee was informed of some of the current
research gaps, as well as some of the challenges associated with carrying out
research in KNP.
During the Committee’s inspection program, KNP representatives
identified the expansion of its research and monitoring program as one of the
park’s most pressing needs in responding to the threat of climate change. KNP
management emphasised the importance of collecting baseline data to ensure that
climate change impacts can be reliably assessed in future.
Although there had been an ongoing debate about the relevance of long‑term
biodiversity monitoring, its value has now become more apparent. With the
uncertainties associated with climate change impacts, and the move towards a
more adaptive approach to biodiversity management, there is an increasing need
for reliable, thorough, and long-term baseline data on the abundance,
distribution and conditions of species and ecosystems. This would enable land
managers to monitor changes closely, and would provide better guidance on the
type and timing of appropriate interventions.
The Committee heard that the size of Kakadu, its remote location, and
access to adequate resources posed challenges for the collection of such data. The
Committee was advised that KNP management is constrained to an extent regarding
the type and scope of research it can initiate on its own. For example, the
Committee heard that there had been varied reports of observed changes in the
timing of the seasons in Kakadu, such as earlier or later than usual flowering
of particular plants. The Committee heard that there would be benefit in
carrying out research into the timing of sightings of migratory birds in the
region, to determine whether climate changes are driving any systematic shifts
in arrival or departure times. However, there was no capacity for KNP
management to carry out this research internally.
KNP management has therefore adopted a cooperative approach to ensuring
adequate and appropriate research and monitoring is carried out in Kakadu. The
Committee was briefed on some of the mechanisms by which research is carried
out, including the roles of the Kakadu Research Advisory Committee (KRAC) and
the National Environmental Research Program (NERP) Northern Australia Hub. The
KRAC contributes to identifying research priorities, with research being
carried out by partner organisations. Research outcomes are then used to guide KNP
management decisions. The NERP Northern Australia Hub was established with federal
government funding and is hosted by Charles Darwin University. The Hub brings
together research partners from across the country to ‘improve biodiversity
conservation in northern Australia through sound planning, innovative policy
and strong partnerships’.
As with several other site inspections, briefings in KNP underscored the
importance of thorough research and long-term baseline environmental data to
help guide environmental management decisions. The Committee notes that such
data will play an even more significant role in biodiversity conservation as
the need to respond to climate change impacts becomes greater.
The Committee acknowledges the challenges facing KNP management in collecting
such data, due to the park’s size and location and the availability of
resources. The Committee therefore considers the collaborative approach taken
by KNP to be beneficial and appropriate given the circumstances.
The Committee appreciated the opportunity to inspect Kakadu’s iconic
ecosystems, including the wetlands identified by submissions as an example of
an ecosystem of national importance. The Committee also valued hearing about
some of the existing threats to Kakadu’s biodiversity and how these might be
affected by climate change. Valuable discussions were had regarding the
management of a national park in complex circumstances, and KNP
representatives’ insights about the need for research and monitoring were also
useful. By seeing parts of the Yellow Water Wetlands firsthand, the Committee gained
a more thorough understanding of the ecosystem’s complexity and the threats it
The Committee wishes to extend its thanks to Kakadu National Park
management for facilitating the visit and for making representatives available
to provide extensive briefings and supporting material during the site
inspection. The Committee is also grateful for the assistance and insights of
local guides who it met with during its inspection.