This Digest was prepared for debate. It reflects the legislation as
introduced and does not canvass subsequent amendments. This Digest
does not have any official legal status. Other sources should be
consulted to determine the subsequent official status of the
Contact Officer & Copyright Details
Parliamentary Service Bill
Date Introduced: 28 June 1999
House: House of Representatives
Portfolio: The Parliament
Commencement: Immediately after the
commencement of the Public Service Act 1999
The Parliamentary Service Bill 1999 ('the
- revives a proposal to establish a separate legal framework
covering staff employed by the five Parliamentary Departments.
- substantially replicates the terms of the Public Service Bill
1999 that proposes significant changes to employment arrangements
in the broader Australian Public Service (APS).
- provides for minor amendments to the Parliamentary Service
(Consequential Amendments) Act 1997.
In 1997, the Government introduced a package of
four Bills to recast the legislation underpinning employment in the
APS including those parliamentary staff engaged under sections
9-9AB of the Public Service Act 1922 (the Principal Act or
the 1922 Act).
The 1997 package provided for the creation of a
separate Parliamentary Service distinct from the APS and for the
maintenance of mobility rights between the two Services.
The House of Representatives and the Senate
twice failed to agree on three of the four Bills and on 6 April
1998, the House formerly laid aside the Public Service Bill 1997,
the Parliamentary Service Bill 1997 and the Public Employment
(Consequential and Transitional) Bill 1997. The ongoing
disagreement between the Houses constituted a deadlock for the
purposes of section 57 of the Constitution, thus giving the Prime
Minister the option of seeking the simultaneous dissolution of the
Senate and the House of Representatives.
A fourth Bill - the Parliamentary Service
(Consequential Amendments) Bill 1997 - passed both Houses and
subsequently received Royal Assent on 7 December 1997. This Act
cannot, however, come into effect until the passage of the
Parliamentary Service Bill.
On 30 March 1999, the Government introduced the
Public Service Bill 1999 and the Public Employment (Consequential
and Transitional) Amendment Bill 1999. These are the same as the
Bills of the same name introduced by the Government in the last
Bills Digests for the two 1999 Public
Service Bills were prepared and distributed in May 1999.(1) These
Bills are yet to be debated.
The Parliamentary Service Bill 1999 is also
drafted in terms substantially similar to the previous Bills of the
As noted by the Speaker in his Second Reading
Speech, the present Bill is, apart from four changes, the same as
the Parliamentary Service Bill passed by the House in October
The first change relates to a drafting oversight
which may have inadvertently extended the coverage of the Privacy
Act to the parliamentary administration.
The second change is that some citations and
dates have been altered to reflect the passage of time.
The third change is that a schedule of
amendments to the Parliamentary Service (Consequential Amendments)
Act 1997 has been added to update references in that act to this
The fourth change is to the setting of
remuneration for the clerks of each House. Under this bill their
remuneration will be set in the same way as for other secretaries
to parliamentary departments-that is, by the Presiding Officers
after consideration of a report from the Parliamentary Service
Commissioner. In the case of the Clerk of the House of
Representatives, the Speaker will make the determination. In the
case of the Clerk of the Senate, the President will make the
These arrangements are similar to those proposed
in the Public Service Bill 1999 for secretaries to departments in
the wider Australian Public Service.(2)
Other provisions in the Bill are discussed in
the Main Provisions section to this Digest.
Since the early years of federation, the
Parliamentary Departments have been staffed under the common
service-wide arrangements provided by the Public Service
The Public Service Act 1922 provides
that the administration of the Parliament is conducted through five
Parliamentary Departments: the Department of the House of
Representatives, the Department of the Senate, the Department of
the Parliamentary Library, the Department of the Parliamentary
Reporting Staff and the Joint House Department.
The Department of the House of Representatives
and the Department of the Senate are responsible for the provision
of procedural, information and administrative services to Members
and Senators respectively. The Department of the Parliamentary
Library is responsible for the provision of library, reference and
research services to Members and Senators. The Department of the
Parliamentary Reporting Staff (DPRS) provides reporting,
information technology, telecommunications and broadcasting
services to the Parliament. The Joint House Department performs
building management, maintenance and catering functions associated
with Parliament House.
The Presiding Officers (the Speaker of the House
of Representatives and the President of the Senate) singly and
jointly constitute the 'employing authorities' for the Parliament.
In effect, the Speaker is the 'minister' for the House of
Representatives and the President is the 'minister' for the Senate.
The Speaker and the President have joint responsibility for the
Joint House Department, the Department of the Parliamentary Library
and for DPRS. Some powers presently exercised by the Public Service
Commissioner are also exercised by the Presiding Officers.(4)
Basic appropriations for the five Parliamentary
Departments for 1999-2000 are in the order of $159 million.(5)
The proposed Parliamentary Service, based on
present average staffing levels (ASL) across all Departments, will
comprise about 1220 employees.(6) This compares with the projected
numbers for all agencies in the general government sector of about
Since 1982, the appropriations for the
Parliamentary Departments have been by a separate Bill. This
followed the Fraser Government's consideration of the report of the
Senate Select Committee on Parliament's Appropriations and
Staffing tabled on 18 August 1981. The Government agreed to a
separate Appropriation Bill for Parliamentary Departments and
further agreed that an Appropriation Bill of this kind would not be
treated as a Bill for the ordinary annual services of the
Government. However, under existing arrangements, the Executive
Government retains control over the content of the Bill as
The Parliamentary Departments are subject to
standard APS financial accounting and reporting measures including
audit legislation effective from on 1 January 1998 and to the
Government's full accrual accounting and reporting regimen. (8)
The Parliamentary Departments are also subject
to the Workplace Relations Act 1996. All Parliamentary
Departments have negotiated certified agreements under this
Separate legislation - a
As with the development of a separate
Appropriation Bill for Parliament, the present proposal represents
a significant symbolic break with the past.
To again quote Mr Speaker:
Establishing a separate Parliamentary Service
with its own legislation will publicly restate the principles that
the legislative arm of government is separate from the executive
arm and that its staff are responsible to the Australian parliament
rather than to the government of the day.
That is not to say that the underlying
philosophy and framework of these two services need as a matter of
course be different. Indeed, there is great value to both in having
arrangements sufficiently similar to foster mobility between them
so that both can learn from each other.(9)
Towards a Bill
The proposal to create a separate Parliamentary
Service under separate legislation has a relatively short
In December 1994, the Report of the Public
Service Act Review Group (the McLeod Report) agreed with the then
Presiding Officers that the Parliamentary Departments be covered in
a new Public Service Act, rather than by separate
The genesis of the present Bill is discussed in
a submission made by the Secretary of DPRS and Acting Parliamentary
Librarian (John Templeton) and the Secretary of the Joint House
Department (Michael Bolton) to the Joint Committee of Public
Accounts (JCPA) inquiry into the Public Service Bill 1997 and the
Public Employment (Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill
To reproduce that submission in part:
On 13 May 1997 the Prime Minister wrote to the
Speaker and the President advising that the government, when
considering the content of the legislation to replace the 1922 Act,
had decided that 'it would be more appropriate for the
parliamentary departments to be covered by their own legislation in
future'. The Prime Minister said this decision recognised 'the
unique position of the staff of the departments providing services
to the Parliament and the independence of the Presiding
On 18 May 1997 the then Minister Assisting the
Prime Minister for the Public Service, Mr Reith, released a
discussion paper 'the Public Service Act 1997: Accountability in a
Devolved Management Framework'. The discussion paper reiterated the
government's decision to remove the parliamentary departments from
the proposed Public Service Act 1997 and in respect of
future mobility between the APS and the Parliament said: 'APS
employees who wish to work in the parliamentary departments can
either resign from the APS or seek leave from their
The Public Service Bill 1997, introduced into
the House of Representatives on 26 June 1997, reflects that
The JCPA's Report supports the establishment of
the Parliamentary Service as a separate service.(13) Reflecting,
however, the importance of mobility between the two services, the
JCPA recommended that:
The Parliamentary Service Bill should provide
for reciprocal mobility arrangements between the Parliamentary
Service and the Australian Public Service which enable staff of
either service to compete on merit for jobs in the other service
and to carry over relevant entitlements.
If the Parliamentary Service Bill is not enacted
at the same time as the Public Service Bill 1997, relevant
provisions should be included in the Public Service Bill 1997 to
ensure this mobility.(14)
The Senate Finance and Public Administration
Legislation Committee reported on 2 October 1997 on the two Public
Service Bills and observed in relation to the proposed
Parliamentary Service Bill that:
It is desirable that the two services have
broadly similar structures to facilitate mobility between the two.
Thus concerns raised with regard to the parliamentary service are
broadly similar to those raised with regard to the new
Clause 26 of the present Bill
makes provision for reciprocal mobility between the two
The Senate Standing Committee on Appropriations
and Staffing considered the Bill its previous iteration and
commended it to the Senate.(16)
The substance of the Bill has been debated twice
previously, both in the House of Representatives and the
As already noted, the majority of the Bill's
substantive provisions are the same, or else reflect the same
philosophy, as the Public Service Bills re-introduced on 30 March
Accordingly, this Digest deals principally with
those provisions unique to the Parliamentary Service Bill.
Reference is made to previous debate to assist readers in
identifying possible points of interest or contention.(17)
of Clerk of the Senate and Clerk of the House of
Clause 54 continues the offices
of the Clerk of the Senate and Clerk of House of Representatives
Clause 57 deals with the
appointment of the Clerks. Each Clerk is to be appointed after the
relevant Presiding Officer has consulted members of the relevant
Chamber. The Bill does not stipulate the method or nature of such
Subclause 57(3) provides that
the maximum term of appointment for each Clerk is 10 years. It also
provides that a person may only serve one term as Clerk. Reflecting
the provisions of the Public Service Act 1922, the Clerks
of each House presently enjoy tenure subject to age retirement at
65 or early termination on grounds of incapacity. Clause
74 translates the Clerks to the structure created by the
present Bill and deems their term of office to have begun from the
date on which the new Bill commences. Hence the Bill will affect
the tenure of both the present Clerks but their previous service
will not count towards the maximum 10 year period for which they
may remain in office.
Senate amendments to clause 57
would have altered the method of appointment, providing that each
Presiding Officer must formally consult the relevant Chamber before
making a new appointment. The Senate also proposed a new
subsection 57(2A) that would require each House to
determine the form of consultation.(18)
between the Parliamentary Service and the Public Service
Clause 9 creates a separate
Australian Parliamentary Service.
The Parliamentary Service is to consist of all
persons employed by the (presently five) Parliamentary Departments,
including Departmental Secretaries, SES and non SES staff.
Clause 26 allows for the
movement of staff between the Public Service and the Parliamentary
Departments without a break in continuity of employment or loss of
accrued benefits. This appears to meet the substantive requirements
stipulated by the JCPA in Report No. 353 referred to
above. The clause does not specifically deal with movement of staff
between Parliamentary Departments. This matter is presumably to be
dealt with by another statutory instrument.
Clauses 76 and
77 deal with specific 'rights of return' for
employees who are working in non-APS Commonwealth agencies. The
provisions are the equivalent of those in the Public Employment
(Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill 1999.
In evidence to the 1997 JCPA Inquiry, the Clerk
of the Senate, Mr Evans observed in regard to mobility that:
There must be ready mobility between the Public
Service and the parliamentary service in the sense that public
servants should be able to come readily to the parliamentary
service and to bring with them the entitlements that they have as
public servants...I stress that we do not envisage parliamentary
staff taking with them all the entitlements that they have as
parliamentary staff, because some are peculiar and do not exist in
the Public Service...
Without ready mobility, the parliamentary
service will wither on the vine, because it relies for recruitment
on the Public Service very heavily. We rely on getting good people
coming from the Public Service and going back again. If they do not
feel that they can readily move to the parliamentary service and go
back again, we will not get the quality of staff that we have been
getting in the past. So that mobility is absolutely crucial. The
absence of it would so cripple the parliamentary departments that
it would cripple the parliament.(19)
When previously debated in November 1997, the
Senate amended Clause 26 to add a provision
dealing with compulsory moves between Parliamentary Departments and
between the proposed Parliamentary Service and the APS. The
amendment would have added subclause 26A empowering the
Parliamentary Service Commissioner (with the agreement of the
relevant Presiding Officer or Officers) to transfer excess
Parliamentary Service employees to another Parliamentary Department
or to the APS. This proposed amendment would have only applied to
staff engaged in the Parliamentary Departments under the Public
Service Act 1922 at the time that the new Act came into
The proposed amendment was designed to protect
the existing rights of current parliamentary staff. Rights, in
relation to redundancy and redeployment, are secured by the
Public Service Act 1922 and any relevant industrial
agreements. The Government opposed this amendment as first moved
and did not expand on its reasons for continuing its opposition to
proposed clause 26A in the form finally
The amendment was also moved during debate on
the re-presented Bill on 1 April 1998.(21)
Parliamentary Service Commissioner and
Parliamentary Service Values
The Parliamentary Service Commissioner
Clause 38 creates the position
of Parliamentary Service Commissioner (PARSC).
Clause 42 provides that the
PARSC may be appointed for a period of up to 5 years. The
appointment is renewable and may (but need not) be held by the
person occupying the office of Public Service Commissioner.
The PARSC's functions are detailed in
clause 39 and are somewhat more limited than those
given to the Public Service Commissioner under the Public Service
Bill 1999. Subclause 39(1) of the present Bill
provides that the PARSC may give advice to the Presiding Officers
on management policies and practices. Where requested, the PARSC
may inquire into, and report on, matters relating to the
Parliamentary Service that are referred for investigation by the
By contrast, clause 41 of the Public Service
Bill 1999 empowers the Public Service Commissioner to initiate
inquiries into a wider and more detailed series of matters than are
to be given to the PARSC. The matters on which the Public Service
Commissioner (but not the PARSC) may instigate an inquiry include
the operation of the legislated Code of Conduct and core Service
Values provided for under the respective Bills.
Clause 40 of the present Bill
confers certain investigative powers on the PARSC. These include
powers identical to those that may be exercised under the
Auditor-General Act 1997. It is stated in the Explanatory
Memorandum that this clause is 'the equivalent' of clause 43 in the
Public Service Bill 1999. That is not to say that the provisions
are the same. Clause 43 of the Public Service Bill 1999 is
structured to provide separately for the Public Service Commission
to exercise additional powers in relation to the conduct of
'special inquiries'. Such 'special inquiries' may include
investigations into the adequacy of Agency procedures for ensuring
compliance with the Public Service Code of Conduct and the
incorporation of Service Values into agency operations.
Maintenance of Parliamentary Service Values
Clause 11 provides that the
PARSC may advise the Presiding Officers in relation to
implementation and scope for application of the Parliamentary
During debate on the 1997 Bill, the Senate
carried three amendments to this clause. Those amendments:
- made it mandatory for the PARSC to give advice to the Presiding
Officers on Parliamentary Service Values;
- required that the Presiding Officers issue written
determinations in relation to each of the Parliamentary Service
- provided that where an issued determination relating to
Parliamentary Service Values is contrary to advice given by the
PARSC, the Presiding Officers must inform each House of their
reasons for not accepting that advice.(22)
In substance, clause 11 is
similar to the equivalent provision in the Public Service Bill
1999. The relationship between the PARSC and the Presiding Officers
is, however, unique. Whereas the Public Service Commissioner can
issue directions, the PARSC can only give advice. Senate amendments
to clause 11 when previously debated were inspired
by this key difference.
Like the Public Service Bill, the proposed
legislation to create the parliamentary service contains measures
which may shore up the position of those whose job it is to provide
policy advice to 'government' in its wider sense, ie not simply the
Early discussion within the parliamentary
precincts on the Bill as initially drafted centred on the question
of staff mobility with the APS (discussed above) and proposed
changes to the tenure of the Clerk of the Senate and the Clerk of
the House of Representatives. The present Bill reflects a
compromise between reducing the tenure of the Clerks to five years
and the 'life tenure' presently allowed.
Clause 19 affords the Clerks
limited protection from political direction. Clause
10 contains a statement of Parliamentary Service Values
and it and the Code of Conduct arguably provide some protection
from unwarranted political interference to all staff.
Subclause 20(4) also limits the powers of the
Presiding Officers to direct Secretaries in relation particular
Proposals to further rationalise the
parliamentary administration are not dealt with directly in the
present Bill. The Bill makes such a rationalisation marginally less
difficult [subclause 53(1)] as only the
Departments of the Senate and the House of Representatives are
created by force of law. Other Departments are established by
resolutions passed by each House. Clause 73
provides for the continued existence of all five parliamentary
departments but the three non Chamber Departments are deemed to
have come into existence as if created by a resolution of each
House under proposed subsection 53(2). A
department established under proposed subsection 53(2) may, under
proposed subsection 53(4), be abolished by a
resolution of each House. Legislation passed by both Houses would
no longer be required.
Officers' determinations on SES matters
SES employees are senior managers and
specialists in each of the Parliamentary Departments. Like their
equivalents in the APS, they are to be treated under the proposed
Act as employees rather than holders of a particular office. As at
June 1998, Parliament had 22 SES officers, the rest of the APS had
Clause 34 outlines the role of
the SES in the Parliamentary Service.
Clause 35 requires the PARSC to
issue written guidelines relating to the employment of SES
In debating the 1997 Bill, the Senate amended
clause 35 obliging the Presiding Officers, on
receiving advice from the PARSC, to issue determinations in writing
about certain SES employment matters. A similar Senate amendment
was carried in relation to clause 36 of the Public Service Bill
1997. The amendment to the Bill as first presented provided that
the Presiding Officers must inform each House of their reasons for
not accepting the PARSC's advice in relation to the making of a
determination affecting SES terms of employment.(24)
Operation of Determinations under the 1922 Act
Part 9 of the Bill makes
provision for transition from the present arrangements under the
Public Service Act 1922 to the new legal framework.
Clause 78 provides for the
continued operation of determinations relating to pay and
conditions made under the Public Service Act 1922.
Under proposed section 24,
Secretaries of Parliamentary Departments may from time to time
determine in writing the remuneration and other terms and
conditions of employment of their employees.
Existing determinations continue to have effect
but may be revoked by the Secretaries in the same manner as
determinations made under proposed section 24 of the Public Service
Bill 1999. However, subclause 78(3) further
provides that all unrevoked determinations will cease to have
effect on the first anniversary of the new legislation coming into
When last debated, the Senate amended the
- preventing Secretaries amending or revoking a determination in
a way that diminishes any provisions in an award or certified
- extending the sunset provision in subclause
78(3) from 12 months to 3 years.(25)
A similar amendment was moved in relation to the
two Bills dealing with the APS. The amendment in that case was,
however, not to the main Bill but to clause 9 of the Public
Employment (Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill
Remuneration of Secretaries of
Parliamentary Departments (including the Clerks)
Under clause 62 of the present
Bill the remuneration of the Secretaries of all five parliamentary
departments are to be determined by relevant Presiding Officer(s)
after receiving a report from the PARSC.
The 1997 Bill provided for the remuneration of
the Clerk of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of
Representatives to be determined by the Remuneration Tribunal and
that of the other departmental heads to be set by the Presiding
Officers on receiving a PARSC report.
Neither the Explanatory Memorandum nor Mr
Speaker's Second Reading Speech provides a rationale for the change
of approach since 1997.
Parliamentary Service (Consequential
Amendments) Act 1997
Schedule 1 provides for technical amendments to
the Parliamentary Service (Consequential Amendments) Act
1997 replace references to the Parliamentary Service Act
1997 with references to the proposed 1999 Act.
As already noted, the Bill in large measure
replicates the present Government's public service reform agenda as
expounded in the Public Service Bill 1999 and the Public Employment
(Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill 1999.
As Speaker Halverson observed in his Second
Reading Speech to the 1997 Bill:
The Parliamentary Service Bill follows as much
as possible the philosophy, content and structure of the Public
Service Bill 1997, which changes significantly the structure of the
public service employment, with certain modifications necessary to
ensure the independence of Parliament from executive
Similar observations are to be found in Speaker
Andrew's Second Reading Speech of 28 June 1999, where he
The Parliamentary Service Bill 1999 follows as
far as possible the philosophy, content and structure of the Public
Service Bill 1999. That bill changes significantly the structure
and management of Public Service employment. It is less
prescriptive and centralised and places responsibility and
accountability more squarely with the operating agencies. To enable
this, it also provides greater flexibility to those agencies.
To this end, the Parliamentary Service Bill
provides for a Parliamentary Service code of conduct and for
Parliamentary Service values. These are similar in philosophy to
the code of conduct and values in the Public Service Bill 1999, but
differ in the recognition of the Parliamentary Service's
accountability to the parliament rather than to the
Maintaining a close connection between the two
pieces of legislation has advantages, for example, reducing
administrative costs and safeguarding staff mobility.
Debate on Parliamentary Service Bill 1997 did
not explore at length the desirability or likely impact of creating
a separate and independent parliamentary service or the need to
have it underpinned by separate legislation. The Parliamentary
Service concept itself (understandably) received less detailed
attention than specific provisions and matters of policy common to
both the Public Service and the Parliamentary Service Bills.
The present formula of treating the legislative
arrangements for employing parliamentary staff as a distinct
component in umbrella legislation automatically ensures a degree of
comity between the two Services which separate enactments (over
time) may not. There need be no harm in this but it would be
surprising if the combined costs of administering and maintaining
two sets of enactments were less than the cost of administering and
maintaining a single Act.
Creating a separate Parliamentary Service Act
also may affect the way in which future proposals affecting the
Parliamentary Service develop.
As it appears with the Bill, legislative
initiatives of this sort are presently the product of whole of
government approach with the Cabinet acting as something akin to a
legislative clearing house. Before a government Bill can come
before the Parliament, any divisions and differences between the
various sponsoring and affected agencies are 'arbitrated away' by
Should the present Bill be enacted, future
amendments to it, if claims of increased parliamentary independence
are accurate, will be less subject to the unifying effects of
government policy-making processes and are more likely to come from
within the institution of parliament. Cabinet's role will be
diminished and the Presiding Officers, neither of whom need
necessarily come from the government party are left to sponsor any
amending Bill and 'arbitrate away' any differences amongst the five
Parliamentary Departments. Again, there need be no necessary harm
in such a change, but it is a change arguably worth noting.
Again purely by way of observation, making two
Acts where there formerly was one will also present the courts with
a slightly different task in construing the legislation. Whereas
the parliamentary component of the Public Service Act 1922
would presently be construed by reference to the rest of that Act,
the task of interpreting difficult or ambiguous provisions in the
Parliamentary Service Act would not necessarily be aided by
referring to the statute governing employment in the APS.
- Elen Perdikogiannis and Bob Bennett, Information and Research
Services, Bills Digests Nos 177 and 182 of 1998-99, 12 May
- Hon Neil Andrew MP, Parliamentary Debates (House of
Representatives), 28 June 1999, pp 5907-5908.
- For more detail see Explanatory Memorandum, Public
Employment (Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill 1997, pp
- See principally sections 9-9C of the Public Service Act
- Budget paper No.4, 1999-2000, p 19.
- Budget Paper No.1, 1999-2000, pp 5-69 to 5-73.
- PSMPC, APS Staffing Statistics Report 1996, p 12 and
Budget Paper No.1, 1997-98, pp 4-5.
- Auditor-General Act 1997; Audit (Transitional and
Miscellaneous) Amendment Act 1997; Financial Management
and Accountability Act 1997; and Commonwealth Authorities
and Companies Act 1997.
- Hon Neil Andrew MP, House of Representatives, Parliamentary
Debates, op cit, pp 5907-5908.
- Report at pages, pp 128-129.
- Report No.353, September 1997.
- Submissions, volume 2, pp 186-187.
- ibid., p 137.
- ibid., p 137.
- Report, p 5.
- Report No. 28, 22 October 1997. The Report does not
record the Committee's reasoning.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997,
principally pp 9158-9187 and 1 April 1998, pp 1687-1692. It may be
noted that the 1997 debate is more detailed and therefore provides
more useful insights than the re-run of the Bill in April 1998.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997, pp
- Transcript of evidence, 7 August 1997, pp 126-127.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997, pp
9171-9173 and pp 9183-9185.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 1 April 1998, pp
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997, pp
9160-9161 and 1 April 1998, p 1688.
- PSMPC, APS Statistical Bulletin 1997-98, November
1998, p 34.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997, pp
9160-9161 and 1 April 1998, pp 1690-91.
- Senate, Parliamentary Debates, 19 November 1997, p
9161 and 1 April 1998, p 1691.
- Hon R.G.Halverson MP, Parliamentary Debates (House of
Representatives), 23 October 1997, pp 9686-9688.
- Hon Neil Andrew MP, House of Representatives, Parliamentary
Debates, op cit, p 5908.
1 August 1999
Bills Digest Service
Information and Research Services
This paper has been prepared for general distribution to
Senators and Members of the Australian Parliament. While great care
is taken to ensure that the paper is accurate and balanced, the
paper is written using information publicly available at the time
of production. The views expressed are those of the author and
should not be attributed to the Information and Research Services
(IRS). Advice on legislation or legal policy issues contained in
this paper is provided for use in parliamentary debate and for
related parliamentary purposes. This paper is not professional
legal opinion. Readers are reminded that the paper is not an
official parliamentary or Australian government document.
IRS staff are available to discuss the paper's contents with
Senators and Members
and their staff but not with members of the public.
© Commonwealth of Australia 1999
Except to the extent of the uses permitted under the
Copyright Act 1968, no part of this publication may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including
information storage and retrieval systems, without the prior
written consent of the Parliamentary Library, other than by Members
of the Australian Parliament in the course of their official
Published by the Department of the Parliamentary Library,
Back to top