Victorian Election 1999

 Research Paper 19 1999-2000

Scott Bennett
Politics and Public Administration Group
Gerard Newman
Statistics Group
11 April 2000

Contents


Symbols and Abbreviations
Victoria-Some History
Victoria Goes to the Polls, 1999
The Standing of the Kennett Government
The Labor Challenge
The Campaign Battle
The Outcome-Legislative Assembly
The Outcome-Legislative Council
Electorates of interest

Brighton
Frankston East
Geelong
Gippsland East
Gippsland West
Gisborne
Mildura
Mitcham
Niddrie
Swan Hill
Warrnambool

The Frankston East Supplementary Election
A New Government
The Verdict
Government Performance

A Radical Conservative Government
The Premier and Governmental Style
Services

The Urban-Rural Divide
The impact of preferential voting
A Protest Vote?
The Election that Would not Die
End of the Coalition
The Kennett Resignation and the Burwood By-election
The Resignation of Pat McNamara
The State of the Parties
The Labor Party
The Liberal Party
The National Party

Three-cornered Contests

Conclusion
A matter of timing?
Implications?
Endnotes
Table 1 Legislative Assembly, State Summary
Table 2a Legislative Assembly: District Summary
Table 2b Legislative Assembly: District Summary
Table 3 Legislative Assembly: District Details
Table 4 Legislative Assembly: Two Party Preferred Vote
Table 5 Legislative Assembly: Electoral Pendulum
Table 6 Legislative Council, State Summary
Table 7 Legislative Council, Composition After 1999 Election
Table 8 Legislative Council: Province Summary
Table 9 Legislative Council, Province Details
Table 10 Legislative Council: Two Party Preferred Vote
Table 11 Legislative Council: Electoral Pendulum
Table 12 Legislative Assembly By-elections 1996 to 1999
Table 13 Legislative Council By-elections 1996 to 1999
Table 14 Legislative Assembly Elections 1950-1999

Symbols and Abbreviations

ACS

Abolish Child Support

AD

Australian Democrats

AG

Australian Greens

ALP

Australian Labor Party

ARP

Australian Reform Party

CDP

Christian Democratic Party

DLP

Democratic Labor Party

HP

Hope Party

IND

Independent

LP

Liberal Party

NLP

Natural Law Party

NP

National Party

PHON

Pauline Hanson's One Nation

SP

Shooters Party

*

sitting member

#

party holding seat

Introduction

The 1999 Victorian election was one of the most remarkable State elections of the last 50 years. It removed the apparently impregnable Liberal-National Coalition Government, it produced the retirement of two of the three party leaders, and it pitchforked into office a party that was remarkably unprepared-a number of its new ministers were sworn into executive office before being sworn in as parliamentarians. It was also an election that was unusually prolonged.

This paper gives a brief assessment of the major parties prior to polling day. It concludes that there were signs of the Kennett Government being in some danger but that these were largely ignored by the media. They, and many politicians, seemed to be influenced by particular opinion polls that suggested the Coalition Government was certain of victory. One intriguing aspect of the election result was the question of whether this was due to a protest vote against the Kennett team. The results of the election are described as are particular seats of more than usual interest. Major factors in the outcome are analysed, with the conclusion that it was a shift of votes in rural and regional electorates that was largely responsible for the narrow Labor victory. This was a reminder of the important impact that the rural-urban divide has long had upon our politics. Finally, the paper takes the story well past polling day to the Frankston supplementary election, the Burwood by- election, the end of the Coalition Government and the resignation of the National Party leader. Victorian election 1999 was later described as the election that would not end.

Victoria-Some History

Prior to the mid-1950s Victorian politics was the most unsettled in the country. This was brought about largely by a distribution of electorates which heavily favoured rural areas but produced a party balance in Parliament that made it very difficult for any party to gain a parliamentary majority. A chronically unstable parliamentary situation was made more uncertain by the presence of a strong Country Party, which was able to govern as a minority government on occasion, sometimes with the support of the ALP. The Country Party had generally poor relations with the main non-Labor party, making coalitions generally unwelcome. Coalitions were in fact barred for a time by the Liberal Party.(1) All of this was combined with the presence of the electorally-weakest of all Labor branches. The first Labor Government to last more than four months did not emerge until May 1927 and the first majority Labor Government came to power only in December 1952.

In May 1955 Victorian politics stabilised with the election of a majority Liberal and Country Party(2) Government led by Henry Bolte. Aided by a redistribution that greatly benefited the Liberals while seriously weakening the Country Party, Bolte won six elections from 1955 to 1970. Apart from his final victory in 1970, when Labor won 4.7 per cent more of the vote than the Government, Sir Henry (he was knighted in 1966) was rarely put under any real pressure from the Labor Opposition which suffered a great deal of infighting and unrest.(3) The period of stable Liberal government continued under Dick Hamer, with victories in three elections during the 1970s. Hamer was replaced by Lindsay Thompson in 1981.

Government changed hands in 1982 when a reformed and newly-disciplined Labor Party took office from Thompson. John Cain led his party to its first majority victory since that of his father nearly thirty years before, forming only the second majority Labor Victorian government since the party's creation. The stability of the Liberals was now replaced by that of Labor which won elections in 1982, 1985 and 1988. Cain's successor, Joan Kirner, was defeated in the election of 1992, when 'the unprecedented sequence of financial crises sent the government's popular appeal into freefall'.(4)

By the time the Kennett Government came to power, the old animosities between the Liberal and National Parties had been put aside and a coalition formed, due largely to the fact that a one-vote-one-value redistribution appeared to make it difficult for the Liberal Party to win enough seats to govern on its own-something that was not borne out in the event. Winning office in 1992 with a very healthy combined first preference vote, the Kennett-McNamara team showed little sign of losing popular support in the following election. Polls suggested that the Government had maintained its support due to its strong leadership, its restoration of confidence in the Victorian economy and the continuing 'Guilty Party' stigma attached to the Labor Party. Indeed, the Coalition's 1996 election tactic was basically one of reinforcing in voters' minds the perception that Labor was responsible for any economic problems being suffered by the State. Kennett and his team therefore continued the stability that had been a mark of Victorian politics since the advent of Henry Bolte's first government and which had seen just the two changes of government in over forty years.(5) Most observers expected this stability to be maintained whenever Premier Kennett chose to call the 1999 election.

Victoria Goes to the Polls, 1999

On 24 August, Kennett announced that the 1999 Victorian election would be held on the 18 September. The election was for 88 Legislative Assembly seats and half (22) of the Legislative Council seats. There had been no redistribution since the previous election. Three Legislative Council by-elections, for the provinces of Ballarat, Melbourne and Melbourne North were to be held concurrently with the general election. Some observers wondered if the Premier had chosen the date so as to have the campaigning lost in Victoria's annual dose of football fever. It would be, said the Herald Sun, a '25-day footy finals campaign'.(6)

The Standing of the Kennett Government

In its first term, the Kennett Government caught public attention with its radical approach to many aspects of government. Taking full advantage of its control of both houses of Parliament, the Government began a massive downsizing of the public sector, as well as an extensive privatising of government resources. It created controversy over the establishment of the Grand Prix track and its relationship with Crown Casino, and a lot of rural unrest was brought about by the suddenness and extent of local government changes. The important question in the 1996 Victorian election, therefore, was whether the Premier's preparedness to advance controversial policies was likely to see his government lose support at the ballot box. In the Commonwealth election of 2 March that saw the Howard Government come to power, the Liberal Party vote actually fell in Victoria, causing some observers to wonder if this were due to a backlash against the Kennett Government.(7)

If this was so, then there was no indication of this influencing voters in the Victorian State election held four weeks after the Commonwealth poll. In 1992 the Coalition first preference vote had been 52 per cent; four years later this had barely moved to 50.7 per cent. It was a quite remarkable stabilising of the vote, considering the many controversies surrounding the Government. This seemed to be recognised by the Premier, who described the 1996 victory as 'probably the most profound electoral result in any state or federally in this country in the last 50 years'.(8)

Dominating Victorian politics between 1992 and 1999, Premier Kennett was the latest in a long line of strong leaders to hold the top job at the State level. With his strong self-belief, his preparedness to ignore convention in his determination to push the State in a certain direction, and his refusal to be deflected by criticism, Kennett not only dominated his State's politics, but he had the highest national profile of contemporary Premiers. He was very much in the mould of the strong, autocratic leader who has played such an important role in government and politics of the States in this country:

Premiers with powerful personalities exerting tight control over their state domains are ... a characteristic of state politics. ... They have not been content to be first among equals; they have developed a presidential-like status, with their cabinets and governments relegated to supporting roles. They bestride the politics of their states.(9)

According to Professor Brian Costar, this most recent of boss-Premiers had elevated the practice of executive dominance 'to an art form'.(10) With this type of Premier, there is always the chance that the very dominance of the leader may become an election issue, but it clearly had not done so to any great extent in 1996. Few expected 1999 to be any different.

The Kennett Government thus entered the campaign extremely confident of its chances, despite the loss of six Ministers who did not recontest their seats: Alan Stockdale (LP, Treasurer), Phil Gude (LP, Deputy Leader, Education), Marie Tehan (LP, Conservation), Jan Wade (LP, Attorney-General), Tom Reynolds (LP, Sport) and Bill McGrath (NP, Police). A sign of the Premier's confidence came at the opening of the campaign, when he ruled out a debate with the Leader of the Opposition describing such an event as 'irrelevant' to the final result.(11)

The Labor Challenge

The 1996 election had re-confirmed the domination of the lower house by the Coalition, with the Liberals (49) and the Nationals (9) winning 58 of the 88 Assembly seats (65.9%). Labor, which had failed to win even 40 per cent of the vote when losing office in 1992, increased its vote by over 4 per cent to 43.1 per cent. This still left it well behind the Coalition, for it only managed to win back two seats, and the Labor total of 29 left it 16 short of control of the Legislative Assembly.

According to Graham Hudson of the University of Melbourne, Labor's performance since its 1992 defeat had done little to inspire confidence that it would be soon back on the government benches.(12) Its leaders were ineffectual in withstanding the Kennett onslaught, and none had produced electorally-popular policies. The Victorian branch of the ALP has had a long history of internal problems, which have tended to divert the leadership from either the job of government or opposition, and this tendency could be seen during
1992-99. This was particularly difficult for John Brumby, leader between 1993 and 1999, and played a part in his eventual departure from the leadership. Brumby had not helped his cause, however, by seeming to be unable to control the factional wars. Brumby had also frustrated some Labor members with his apparently defeatist approach to the party's 1996 chances. As he explained it, 'gaining six seats would be good, 12 would be fantastic, and 18 exceptional'. Such an attitude, however realistic, seemed to suggest the impossibility of denting the Coalition's position in the Parliament.(13)

Despite all of this, during 1996-99 there were some signs that Labor might enter the next election with rather more confidence than in 1996:

  • As noted above, there had been an increase in its vote of 4.7 per cent at the 1996 election, and its first preference vote of 43.1 per cent placed it within reach of the Coalition.
  • In addition, the largest swings to Labor in 1996 tended to be in safe Coalition seats making many of them marginal. The Coalition was therefore more vulnerable in 1999 than it had been in 1996.
  • The Government had come under a lot of criticism from rural communities for what were described as its 'Melbourne-centric' policies.(14) As a measure of this, the independent candidate, Russell Savage, surprised by winning the safe Liberal rural seat of Mildura in 1996. Savage had gained barely one-third of the vote, but won with the help of ALP preferences.
  • When former Liberal leader Alan Brown resigned his seat of Gippsland West to assume the position of Victorian Agent-General in London, the Liberals lost the seat to the independent, Susan Davies, in a by-election in February 1997. The Liberal first preference vote fell by 16.3 per cent.
  • In December 1997 a by-election for the Melbourne seat of Mitcham was brought about by the resignation of Liberal sitting member Roger Pescott. In a rare example of dissension in Coalition ranks, Pescott's 'open letter' to the Premier accused Kennett of authoritarian leadership, and pointed to various examples of what Pescott called 'bad government', including Kennett's high-handed treatment of the Auditor-General's office.(15) The Mitcham by-election attracted 17 candidates, saw the Liberal vote fall by 23.5 per cent, Labor's first preference vote climb by 5.8 per cent, and a 16 per cent two-party-preferred swing against the Government, with loss of the seat. Observers wondered if this by-election signalled the end of the potency of the 'Guilty Party' slogan used to such great effect in the 1992 and 1996 general elections.(16)
  • Peter McLellan, Liberal MLA for Frankston East, left the party in July 1998, also making a strong criticism of the leadership of Kennett as he did so. Unlike Pescott, however, on this occasion the dissident remained in Parliament, sitting on the cross-benches as an independent.(17)
  • During 1998 opinion polls began to suggest that Labor might have a better chance in the next State election than most observers were prepared to concede. AgePolls for May-June and July-August, for instance, suggested that the ALP was actually ahead of the Government in two-party-preferred terms.(18)
  • Labor's preselections had produced some younger, seemingly well-qualified candidates, including former ABC presenter, Mary Delahunty (who had won Northcote in a 1998 by- election), former mayor, Richard Wynne, the lawyers, Stuart Moss and Jenny Mikakos, Candy Broad, former ALP assistant national secretary, and Justin Madden, Australian Football League (AFL) footballer and former President of the AFL Players' Association.

There were signs, therefore, that the Government might be more vulnerable than many media observers believed, but within the Labor Party there developed a belief that any slip in the Kennett Government's standing had occurred in spite of Labor's efforts. There was a general disillusionment with Brumby's leadership, even within the leader's own faction, that produced a dangerous level of instability. Brumby finally conceded that a change was necessary, resigning in March 1999. He was replaced by Steve Bracks, MLA for Williamstown since 1994. It was a move that has been described as 'poll-driven'.(19)

Despite all of this, it was the common view of the media that the Government was certain of victory, probably by quite a wide margin. In fact, a February 1999 Newspoll that described the Coalition as 11 per cent ahead, had some observers wondering if the Labor Party might actually lose seats.(20) In addition, the polls showed a great deal of community ignorance of the Leader of the Opposition, though to one writer, 'the biggest problem for Labor was not so much their unknown leader, as the great popularity of the Premier'.(21) One journalist summed up the general media view that Bracks was:

Labor's sacrificial lamb, a good-looking guy in a suit who would inevitably be flattened by the Kennett steamroller.(22)

Such a view was echoed by former ALP federal secretary, Bob Hogg, who asserted in late August that it:

... stretches credibility too far for Bracks to look voters in the eye and say we can/will win this election.(23)

The Campaign Battle

In many State elections, the standing of the Premier is often central to the result. As head of the State's administration, as effective leader of the State branch of the governing party, as the State's 'ambassador' in relations with the Commonwealth, and as its roving 'trade commissioner' in the endless quest to bring capital to the State, the Premier is often seen as crucial to his or her party's electoral chances. When a government is performing well, the importance of the Premier can occasionally be spelled out in a campaign slogan: 'Hamer Makes it Happen', 'Wran's Our Man', and 'Now, more than ever, Queensland needs Joh and the Nationals', were slogans of our recent past that thrust the Premier firmly before the voters.

Despite this historical tendency, the Victorian Government campaign in 1999 was probably unprecedented in the intensity of its focus on the political head of government. In a move reminiscent of Queensland's Joh Bjelke-Petersen (NP, 1968-87) at the height of his powers, Premier Kennett worked to ensure that he, and only he, was the spokesperson for the Government, when he issued a blanket ban on campaign comments by all Ministers bar himself. This was not achieved, largely due to the presence of the Nationals' Deputy Premier, Pat McNamara, who was certainly not silenced, but it effectively kept all of the Liberal Ministers out of the mainstream media. Not since the criticism of the Greiner 'one- man band' in the 1991 New South Wales election, has there been as much adverse comment about the domination of a campaign by a Premier.

The Liberals went further, however, when they attracted a great deal of attention by their creation of a Web-site geared entirely to the personality of the Premier. This was shown clearly in the fact that its internet address featured just the Premier's forename: www.jeff.com.au. Apart from listing party policies, the site devoted much of its space to detailing the campaign activity of the Premier, and a sustained reading of the site would have suggested very much that the Victorian Government equalled Jeff Kennett. It even gave space to the Premier's dog. So unusual was the site as a campaigning tool, that it was seen as a probable pace-setter in campaigning throughout Australia. There was even a degree of adverse comment on the ordinariness of the Victorian Labor Party's site, which was concerned solely with policy matters, with no attention being paid to the leader.

Opinion polls showed Kennett so comfortably ahead of Bracks as 'preferred Premier', that the Labor leader and his advisers judged that there was no campaign mileage to be gained out of attacking the Premier. It was felt to be far more important to emphasise that Labor was now free of the baggage of the Cain-Kirner years.(24) The focus of Labor's campaign was therefore on policy questions and the promise of 'transparent' government. This featured three inter-related aspects:

  • Labor spoke at length about what it described as its new and attractive policies.
  • The Opposition did all it could to draw attention to weaknesses in the Government's administrative performance, with particular attention being paid to such matters as the Intergraph ambulance difficulties, school closures, hospital problems, police numbers, the reduction in the independence of the Auditor-General's office and the increased restrictions placed on freedom of information.
  • Alert to the general unhappiness of many rural communities concerning their 'neglect' by the Government, Labor did all it could to remind voters of closed schools, diminished rail services, movement of local government councils to distant towns and other major regional complaints. To symbolise its concern it opened its campaign in Ballarat, and pledged a $170 million infrastructure fund for regional Victoria.

Overriding this was Labor's promise of 'A new style of leadership', wherein Bracks promised to be both 'socially progressive' and 'financially conservative'. In an effort to convince voters of this, Labor had the independent firm, Access Economics, 'sign off on the challenging party's election promises. Labor also was keen to emphasise that its leader was 'a nice bloke'.(25)

By polling day the general view of observers seemed to be that the Kennett Government was certain of being elected. More seemed to believe the final AC Neilson Agepoll, which had the Government ahead by ten percentage points 50-40 per cent, than the final Newspoll result which suggested the Government and Opposition were locked together on first preferences, with Labor ahead on a two-party-preferred basis.

The Outcome-Legislative Assembly

The Opposition (30 seats) entered the election needing 15 seats to gain control of the Legislative Assembly. The Coalition (Liberal 46 seats, National 9) seemed impregnable, despite the Liberal loss of Mildura, West Gippsland, and Mitcham since 1996. Even Malcolm Mackerras, almost the only commentator prepared to tip an increase in Labor seats-he spoke of seven being picked up-still asserted that no one expected Labor to be in government after the election.(26)

The seats that changed hands were as follows:

Liberal losses to Labor

Ballarat East, Ballarat West, Bendigo East, Carrum, Geelong, Gisborne, Narracan, Oakleigh, Ripon, Seymour, Tullamarine

Independent loss to Labor

Frankston East

National loss to Liberal

Warrnambool

National loss to independent

Gippsland East

The Labor Party contested all 88 seats, with its vote of 45.5% being 2.4 per cent higher than in 1996. It gained 11 seats (excluding Frankston East), its total of 41 being four short of an absolute majority.

The Liberal Party won 36 of the 81 seats it contested. It lost 11 to Labor and won a seat from the National Party. Its first preference vote of 42.2 per cent was a fall of just 1.8 per cent, though it did contest three fewer seats than in 1996.

The National Party contested 12 seats, winning seven, a nett loss of two seats, one to the Liberal Party and one to an independent. Its share of the vote fell 1.8 per cent to 4.9 per cent, despite its contesting two more seats in 1999.

Independent candidates won three seats. (For more details see Table 1)

Of the other parties and groups, the Australian Democrats won fewer votes in 6 electorates than Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party (PHON) did in 4. The average PHON vote was 6.9 per cent, a reminder of the party's potential to cause trouble to the big three when it has a higher electoral profile than on this occasion. In the rural seat of Rodney, Dorothy Hutton, a PHON candidate for an outer-Sydney seat in the March 1999 New South Wales election, managed 10.8 per cent.

The Outcome-Legislative Council

There are 44 Members of the Victorian Legislative Council. The Members represent 22 electoral provinces with two Legislative Councillors representing each province. Each province is made up of four Legislative Assembly electorates. Legislative Councillors serve for two terms of the Legislative Assembly. At any general election half of the Legislative Council provinces fall vacant; the other half falling vacant at the next general election. The voting method is preferential voting.

The normal half-Council election saw Labor (42.2%) win eight of the 20 provinces it contested. The party won three Liberal seats: Ballarat, Chelsea and Geelong. The Liberal Party (39.7%) won 11 of 19 provinces it contested, and the National Party (7.3%) won the three provinces it contested. The Labor and Liberal vote was lower than in the Assembly election. Many of these lost votes may well have been gathered by the Australian Democrats, whose Statewide vote of 6.8 per cent indicated that the party seems to be seen by voters primarily as an upper house player, even in an election where preferential voting is used.

In the three by-elections, Labor won Ballarat from the Liberal Party and retained Melbourne and Melbourne North.

The party balance after the election was, therefore, Liberal 24 seats (a loss of four seats on 1996), Labor 14 seats (+4) and the National Party 6 seats (no change).

Electorates of interest

Brighton

Brighton had been held by the retiring Treasurer, Alan Stockdale. With such a safe Liberal seat becoming vacant, the party's preselection was likely to determine who would be the next MLA. Brighton quickly became the battleground for a struggle between forces led by the Premier and others supportive of the Commonwealth Treasurer, Peter Costello. In the event, Kennett's support for the Small Business Minister, Louise Asher, an MLC seeking to move to the lower house, proved decisive, though not before a very public struggle was conducted. As expected, Asher won the seat comfortably in the general election, but the fall in the Liberal first preference vote of 8.8 per cent was one of the largest shifts of Liberal votes in the metropolitan area.(27)

Frankston East

This was the seat held by the rebel Liberal, Peter McLellan, who had left the party in the previous year to sit as an Independent. McLellan had won the seat for the Liberals in 1992, but resigned after clashes with the Premier over various issues including WorkCover, privatisation and the effort to reduce the importance of the Auditor-General. In a re-run of the aborted Commonwealth election for Newcastle in 1998, McLellan's death on the morning of the election meant that Frankston East voters would have to wait for a supplementary election, on 16 October (see below, p. 13-14).

Geelong

If Labor was to do well, it needed to win back seats in areas it once held. Geelong was just such an area, and the Opposition nominated Ian Trezise, son of Neil, Geelong football legend, MLA for Geelong West (1964-91) and Minister in the Cain Government. Geelong was held by Ann Henderson, Minister for Housing and Minister responsible for Aboriginal Affairs. She had increased the Liberal vote by over six per cent in the previous election, winning the seat on first preferences (52.6%) and seeming to make it much more likely to be retained. Despite this, Geelong turned out to be the ultimate cliff-hanger. Henderson's vote fell by 5.1 per cent, the Labor vote barely moved (+0.1%), but the seat went to preferences, where Trezise eked out a win by just 16 of the 30 984 formal votes that had been cast. If just nine of Labor's Geelong voters had shifted to the Government, the Coalition would probably have retained office.

Gippsland East

One difficulty in analysing State elections is that the most easily found information tends to relate to general State-wide issues. In focussing on the broad picture, however, commentators can sometimes fail to notice the existence of local issues that are important enough to turn many voters away from the major parties. Occasionally a sitting member can be defeated by a spectacular movement of such votes-in 1988 the Labor Party lost the safe Labor seat of Swansea in New South Wales over the controversial issue of the Swansea Bridge. In Gippsland East an issue that had caused much local unhappiness was the virtual disappearance of water running in the Snowy River. Craig Ingram, a concerned local resident, decided to stand in an effort to draw attention to the Snowy issue. As in the Swansea case, the single issue campaigner did much better than he expected. The National sitting member's vote fell by 16.9 per cent, with Ingram's vote of 24.8 per cent leaving him in third position. Preferences from three other candidates pushed him into second place, and Labor's second preferences produced a massive 15.4 per cent two-candidate-preferred margin for the political novice. The National Party and its predecessors had held the seat since 1920.(28)

Gippsland West

In the 1996 State election, the endorsed Labor candidate, Susan Davies, managed just one- third of the first preferences votes, finishing a distant runner-up to former Liberal leader Alan Brown (57.7%). When running as an independent in the 1997 by-election, Davies' percentage of the vote actually declined by 0.6 per cent, but aided by the preferences of the four other candidates, who stripped 16.3 per cent off the Liberal vote, she squeaked into the seat by 159 votes. In 1999 Davies was only able to increase her first preference vote by 3.1 per cent despite being the sitting MLA. She was helped greatly by the Liberal vote falling a further 3.4 per cent from the by-election figure and won the seat on preferences by an eventual margin of eight per cent.(29)

Gisborne

Tom Reynolds, the Member for Gisborne, and Minister for Sport and Rural Development, retired at this election. Premier Kennett participated in the resulting preselection, making it clear that he wished it to be won by Rob Knowles, Minister for Health and Aged Care. Knowles, fifth in the Ministerial list, was spoken of as Kennett's preferred successor as party leader, but had the disqualification of having a seat in the Legislative Council. After much intra-party argument, Knowles gained preselection for a seat that Reynolds had retained in 1996 with a first preference vote of 55.7 per cent (itself a drop of 7.2 per cent). In 1999, the Liberal vote dropped a further 13.8 per cent and although Labor's vote also fell (0.4%), its candidate Joanne Duncan managed to win on preferences-the Liberals thus lost a seat held since 1967. Apart from its vote suffering because of the general drop in regional areas, the Liberal Party was reported to have suffered from voter resentment at the government's inattention to concerns over a noisome waste treatment plant, as well as resentment at Knowles being brought in as a headquarters-anointed candidate.(30)

Mildura

In 1996 the loss of Mildura by the Liberals to an independent was seen by the party as a one-off, fluke result. As is typical in the occasional independent victory, Russell Savage had gained only a modest first preference vote (35.7%), but picked up the lion's share of preferences to win the seat by just 1.8 per cent. During his term in Parliament, Savage was portrayed as standing up for his rural constituents, while also managing to anger the Premier on a number of well-publicised occasions. Although the Liberal Party had expected to win back the seat, Savage's first preference vote increased by 8.7 per cent in the general election, and he secured over 56 per cent of the two-candidate-preferred vote. The Liberal vote fell by 19 per cent, most of which probably went to the National Party (19.7%) which nominated a candidate, unlike 1996.(31)

Mitcham

As already noted, Mitcham was the scene of a remarkable by-election in December 1997 when an enormous swing saw Labor's Tony Robinson win the seat narrowly from Andrew Munroe (LP) and 15 other candidates. In the 1982 State election it was the movement of eastern suburb electorates, such as Mitcham, to Labor, that was considered to have been crucial in returning Labor to office. In 1999, observers believed that if Labor could not win a parcel of such seats, then its chances would be slim. It was therefore important for Robinson to hold the seat in another contest with Munroe. In the event, Labor did not recover ground in this part of Melbourne, though Mitcham was held by just 343 votes after preferences. The seat may well have been decided on the votes of an independent who campaigned against Government proposals for the Eastern Freeway extension. He won 4.8 per cent of the vote and directed his second preferences to Labor.(32)

Niddrie

In normal circumstances the electorate of Niddrie, held by Rob Hulls for the ALP by a margin of 8.8 per cent, would not feature in a listing of electorates of interest. On this occasion, however, the electorate was in the news because of the origins of the Liberal candidate, Susannah Kruger. Hulls, former MHR for Kennedy (Qld, 1990-93), and one of the more colourful of Labor's Assembly members, had been forced to apologise to two young women, one of whom had been Kruger, after he had a verbal altercation with them earlier in the year. At the time of the announcement of the election, Kruger received publicity by approaching the Liberal Party and offering herself as a candidate, despite her apparent lack of any political experience. How would she fare against a no-holds-barred politician like Hulls? The answer was quite clear, due to the fact that each of the 1996 and 1999 contests had only two candidates. Kruger's vote of 43.2 per cent was a fall of 2.4 per cent, giving Hulls a 13.6 per cent margin.(33)

Swan Hill

In 1996 Swan Hill was one of the safest Coalition seats, having been retained by Barry Steggall (NP) with a first preference vote of 59 per cent. Three years later, local schoolteacher and former St Kilda football star, Carl Ditterich, stood as an independent, apparently at the urging of Russell Savage in neighbouring Mildura. The picture was made more interesting by the decision of Bill Croft of PHON to stand. Croft had won 12 per cent of the vote in Mallee in the 1998 Commonwealth election. Like Savage, Ditterich and Croft both emphasised government neglect of the bush. Although Ditterich won only 22.6 per cent of the vote, he forced the sitting member to preferences as a consequence of his vote falling by 13.8 per cent, and briefly seemed to have a chance of winning the seat. Eventually, Steggall won with a 52.8 per cent two-candidate-preferred vote. Croft had managed only 5.1 per cent of first preferences.

Warrnambool

Water was also a problem for the Government in Warrnambool, the seat of retiring Police Minister, Bill McGrath (NP). A rise in water charges for local farmers had become a controversial issue. With the retirement of the Minister, the Liberal Party nominated John Vogels, to the Nationals' chagrin (see below p. 25). Despite this competition the National Party expressed its confidence of retaining the seat. In the event its vote fell by an extraordinary 40.3 per cent to just 17.5 per cent. The Liberal candidate topped the poll with 40.2 per cent and won easily on preferences.(34)

The Frankston East Supplementary Election

After the counting of all seats except Frankston East, the Government held 43 seats, Labor held 41 and independents held 3 (Gippsland East, Gippsland West, Mildura). The Frankston East supplementary election, to be held on 16 October, therefore assumed great importance. If the seat was retained by the Liberal Party, the Government would have half the lower house numbers, and would need only the support of one of the independents to control the Assembly-Craig Ingram seemed the least hostile to Premier Kennett. If Labor could win the seat, it would then be in a position of being able to govern with the support of the three independents, but a loss by Labor would have meant that it could not form a government that had any realistic chance of survival. In addition, the supplementary election was likely to be seen as an opinion poll upon the standing of the Government and might therefore play a part in influencing the independents when considering their future actions in the Parliament. During the election, they had, in fact, made it clear that the result in the supplementary election would do just that.

The major parties therefore put all of their resources into winning the seat, for it was eminently winnable for both sides-in 1996 McLellan's first preference vote had been 4.6 per cent ahead of his Labor opponent, though later preferences had pushed that out to a margin in excess of 6 per cent. In addition, the presence of 14 non-major party candidates on the ballot paper seemed to make it more of a lottery than would usually be the case. Leader of the Opposition Bracks made little alteration to his election pitch, but Premier Kennett caught the headlines by a sudden announcement of more money to be given to the local hospital. He attracted some criticism by the apparent ease with which he expressed his preparedness to modify some of his Government's policies despite his strong defence of them in the general election. He also made an unprecedented apology for his political style which, he acknowledged, may have antagonised some people.

The result was quite convincing, for Labor's Matt Viney won the seat on first preferences, a rise of 7.1 per cent to 51.4 per cent. The Liberal vote fell substantially by 7.3 per cent, to 41.6 per cent. Labor now held 42 of the 88 Legislative Assembly seats, three short of an absolute majority.

A New Government

On 27 September shortly before the Frankston East election the three independent MLAs released their 'Independents' Charter Victoria 1999', stating they wanted written responses to the Charter from the party leaders by the Tuesday prior to polling day for the supplementary election. Stating their determination to remain independent and outside any 'formal part of any government', the independents expressed their willingness to support a government which publicly undertook to:

  • Promote 'open and accountable government'
  • Improve 'the democratic operation of Parliament'
  • Establish 'clear plans, strategies and targets to address the urgent needs of Rural Victoria'
  • Offer assurances of increased levels of cooperation with Independent Members, and improved codes of conduct between government and other Members of Parliament
  • Permit no more privatisation of public assets 'at least until after a full independent inquiry has reported to Parliament on the social and economic costs and benefits of planned and existing privatisations'.

The independents also expressed their willingness to provide political stability by voting with the government on appropriation and supply bills and all motions of no confidence, 'unless there is evidence of fraud, misappropriation or illegal activities'.(35)

After negotiations with both sides, on 18 October the independents announced their support for Labor,(36) and two days later the Bracks Labor Government was sworn in by Governor Gobbo. There were 18 ministers, none with prior ministerial experience and eight of whom were women-a record proportion for any State or Commonwealth government. Four of the new Ministers, Candy Broad, Justin Madden, Bronwyn Pike and Marsha Thomson accepted office prior to their taking their Parliamentary seats for the first time. Only two, Peter Batchelor and Sherryl Garbutt, had been in Parliament at the time of the defeat of the previous Labor Government in 1992.

The Verdict

Government Performance

Three factors seem to affected voters' perceptions of the Kennett Government's performance.

A Radical Conservative Government

In many ways the Kennett Government was ground-breaking. The extent of innovation was great, and the preparedness to tread where others had refused to go marked it out as a ministry prepared to test public patience. The Kennett Government has, in fact, been described as 'a genuine revolution in the relationship between the public and private sectors and between society and the State'.(37) Its radical reorganisation of local government, for instance, dealt with a political issue that had seen its predecessor unwilling to take on vested regional interests, while its embrace of the Crown Casino was in stark contrast to the timidity of the Liberal Government of Dick Hamer. The swathe cut through the public service, which included the closure of schools and hospitals, was very controversial, and the pushing of outsourcing eclipsed any other Australian government's efforts. Such a record may well have been a double-edged sword, for although it would have pleased many in the community, it probably antagonised many more. Woodward and Costar have noted that State governments 'cannot ... assume that having good credentials as economic managers will suffice [to ensure their re-election]'. In saying this they drew a parallel between the governments of Jeff Kennett and Wayne Goss.(38)

Here also it would not have taken very many votes to be loosened for the Government's position to become uncertain.

The Premier and Governmental Style

Although the opinion polls consistently gave Premier Kennett a very favourable rating, there seems to have been no doubt that his political style was controversial. His crash- through approach to government, his unpreparedness to tolerate criticism and his muzzling of ministers during the campaign, were all well-publicised examples of his leadership style. Woodward and Costar have stated that this became a 'major' issue after the Herald Sun ran a front page story on the Premier's gagging of his team.(39) Prior to the election, Gary Morgan stated that his research suggested that many voters saw the Premier's confidence as arrogance. He cited Kennett's decision to ignore Bracks as a 'crucial mistake', suggesting that, '[w]hen you ignore the opposition they have a field day'.(40) It seems quite likely, therefore, that some votes shifted because of an unhappiness with Kennett's mode of operation.

On the other hand, it was claimed that the Premier's brash style won him many supporters among young males aged 18-25 years.(41) The use, and the style of, the 'jeff' website was seen as a means of attracting this part of the electorate. Kennett was often heard on various Melbourne rock radio stations, where his 'Jeff f....... rules, OK!' adverts were also to be heard. In hindsight, the danger may have been that in pitching so public a message to this demographic segment, he may have alienated support from others. There was some evidence of middle-aged voters being less keen on the Premier than younger voters.(42) The hostile journalist, Pamela Bone, claimed in the Age before the election that '[Liberal] party strategists knew many traditional Liberal voters would be shocked, not only by the language [of the adverts] but the sentiment behind them'. Dame Beryl Beaurepaire, Liberal grande dame, was said to have described them as 'a pity'.(43)

Services

It is a truism of State and Territory elections that the performance of the government in the provision of services plays a very important part in explaining election results. Poll evidence suggests that service delivery was a significant issue in this election. When surveying voters' views prior to the election the Herald Sun claimed that nearly eight voters in 10 were unhappy at the state of hospitals, nearly two-thirds unhappy at changes in schools, and over three-quarters dissatisfied at the central place that gambling had assumed in Victoria.(44) A Morgan poll, published in the final weeks of the campaign, suggested that whilst voters preferred the Government as the manager of the economy (58% favoured the Government and 14% favoured the Opposition), by contrast Labor was preferred in the areas of health (55-15), education (51-18) and law and order (53-18).(45) As we have seen the Government did not lose many votes overall, but a few disgruntled voters unhappy with particular services and prepared to shift their vote because of this, may well have made the difference between a narrow defeat and a comfortable parliamentary majority for the Coalition.

The fact that during the campaign the Premier announced a number of significant initiatives relating to government services suggests that he may have realised the potential for the loss of votes in this area. In his policy speech much was made of the provision of more teachers and nurses, as well as a promise for faster hospital treatment-perhaps these promises were seen as an implicit recognition that there were some serious weaknesses in the provision of these services or that the changes had gone further than voters were prepared to accept.

A potential problem for a State government that cuts back the provision of services by its own agencies is that it runs the risk of suffering an electoral backlash if the new providers are not up to the mark. For the Kennett Government this may have been symbolised by three aspects of outsourcing that gained it unwelcome publicity. First, there were a number of stories of ambulances failing to answer calls quickly, some of which produced claims of patients dying because of these delays. The second matter involved the creation of private gaols, where claims were made of inefficiency, and of inmates being able to abscond easily. Finally, there was the pending introduction of high tolls to be paid on new privately-run motorways, and the conversion of older public roads into the motorway system.

The Urban-Rural Divide

The Government seemed well aware that the question of services seemed particularly to affect rural and regional residents. The Premier had reportedly made 27 visits to country areas during January-August 1999 for a significant number of the Government's marginal seats were outside of Melbourne.(46) Coalition relationships had become strained over policies that appeared to be uncaring of the position of rural people, while being very much capital city-centred. Some policies, in particular, earned unwelcome criticism. The massive reshaping of local government, which removed many government offices from country towns and was said to have reduced the quality of service, and the plans to privatise the State Electricity Commission, for example, both put strains upon the Coalition, for the National Party was uncomfortable with such changes.(47) Some cases, such as the closure of the Mortlake hospital in 1994, took on a symbolic importance, as they seemed to illustrate how the Government did not understand the needs of country people. As the editor of a country newspaper put it: 'you tear the heart out of any community when a hospital shuts'.(48)

The division between town and country has been a key part of Australian electoral politics since the advent of elected legislatures in the nineteenth century. The importance of this division has been seen most obviously in the continuing electoral health and political significance of the (Country) National Party that emerged during the second decade of this century. Generally, this has worked to the disadvantage of the Labor Party. In the 1999 Victorian election, however, the belief that the Kennett Coalition Government had neglected rural areas seems to have been crucial in accounting for the marked success of the ALP in rural electorates. A paper by two Victorian academics states that 'The backlash against the government in rural and regional Victoria was decisive'.(49) In Melbourne the Government lost just three seats, on a vote fall of 2.3 per cent, but in the thirty-two non- metropolitan seats the combined Liberal-National vote fell by 6.1 per cent, with nine seats lost by the Coalition-eight to the ALP and one to the successful independent in Gippsland East. There was a 4.7 per cent swing to Labor in provincial city electorates.(50) Surprisingly, National leader McNamara put this down to an inability to counter the 'folksy' and 'country boy' image of Bracks, who had been raised in Ballarat.(51) Despite this unusual claim of a Labor politician apparently sounding more sympathetic to the bush than were the Nationals, the loss of rural votes and seats was presumably much more to do with a longer-term rural unhappiness with the Government. In two general elections the Government parties had in fact lost 12 of the 26 regional seats that they gained in 1992. At the same time, just six of the 35 Melbourne seats were lost to Labor. This suggests that Bracks' election as party leader had little to do with the final result, and that regional Victorian voters had begun to resent what they saw as 'big-city' neglect some years before.(52)

The impact of preferential voting

This election is a reminder that occasionally the preferential voting method can have an impact upon the result of an election.

Labor won the election despite being behind the Coalition on first preferences. Sometimes such a result can be an indication that many votes have been wasted-large majorities built up in safe seats can be a problem for a party. This occurred to Labor in the 1954 Commonwealth election when it failed to win government despite topping 50 per cent on first preferences. A variant of this occurs then a party can win a significant number of seats by securing enough second or later preferences from other candidates although its opponents win a greater number of first preferences. This second example was said to have been crucial to Labor's 1990 Commonwealth election victory.

It also seems to have been very important in Victoria in 1999. In five seats (Carrum, Geelong, Gisborne, Mitcham, Seymour) Labor trailed its major opponent on first preferences. The average margin was 1.7 per cent. In all cases Labor won the seat on preferences, despite their opponent's first preference figure averaging 47.7 per cent in four of the seats. Only in Gisborne, where the Liberal first preference vote was 41.9 per cent, was the Government candidate some distance from the figure needed for victory. This suggests that although quite a number of voters shifted from the Coalition parties many of these voters did not find the Labor Party attractive enough to receive their first preference. Instead, they voted for a third candidate but put Labor ahead of the Coalition on their later preferences. It was hardly a ringing endorsement of the Labor Party.

The importance of preferences was also evident in Gippsland East and Gippsland West, both won by independents. In Gippsland East the first preference count had the National candidate (35.9%) 11.1 per cent ahead of Craig Ingram-who in fact was third after the first preference count. Despite this the National was defeated comfortably on preferences. In Gippsland West the gap was narrower, but again the Liberal candidate (38%) lost a lead, and Susan Davies won comfortably on preferences.

It is therefore clear that if a different voting method had been in use, the result would have been different. First-past-the-post, for instance, would have produced a comfortable majority for the Kennett Government.

A Protest Vote?

It has been noted that if a State administration continues to deliver benefits to the electorate then it is likely to remain in office. It does seem that, generally, a State government's administrative performance has to be very bad for it to be voted out by the voters.(53) The 1999 Victorian election must make analysts think again about some of the 'truths' of State-level electoral politics, for on the eve of the election it appeared that the Kennett Government was in much better electoral standing than the challenging Labor party. It had experienced some community unrest over aspects of its administration of the State's services, but polls seemed to be saying it was still held in high regard.

Was this result, then, simply a 'protest' vote against the Kennett Government? In this context, 'protest' is meant to suggest that some voters, resentful about some aspect of the Government's performance, but not wanting its actual defeat, voted against it to give it and its leader (in the words of an unnamed senior Liberal), 'a bit of a kick up the arse on a few things'.(54) Was it, in the words of Denis Napthine, successor to Kennett as leader of the Liberal Party, 'a protest vote gone wrong'?(55) Such a view is well summed up by the Liberal MLA for Mordialloc, Geoff Leigh, who described the election result as 'one of the great accidents of history'.(56) The journalist Mike Steketee has even used such a view to wonder if the publication of opinion polls ought to be controlled close to an election, as is done in some European countries.(57)

Despite the fact that such views have been heard on similar occasions-after the near- defeat of the Greiner (NSW, L-NP, 1991) and Goss (Qld, ALP, 1995) Governments for example-such views are essentially unprovable. It is impossible to know when a vote against a government is 'genuine' and when it is 'not-genuine', that is, a 'protest' vote. All that electoral analysts can do is ascertain just how many votes shifted in an election-the reasons for each shift are impossible to establish with any accuracy. One possible test of the 'protest vote' view might be the Frankston East and Burwood by-elections. If voters in these electorates were concerned that a 'protest vote' had gone too far, they could at least have shown their support for the Liberal Party. In both cases, however, there was a further movement of voters away from the Liberals.

To a marked degree, elections deal with expectations. If enough people are certain of a particular result-in this case the comfortable return of a government-then there is a need to explain away a different outcome. Despite the impossibility of really knowing what motivates the individual voter, journalists and politicians together can find comfort in the notion of the 'protest' vote: in the words of one journalist, 'Saturday's poll may well go down as the election that defied all predictions, producing the mother of all protest votes'.(58) To state such a conclusion, however, is not to prove it.

The Election that Would not Die

Apart from having to wait for four weeks after polling day to learn the Frankston East result, three other important post-polling day events formed part of the story of the 1999 Victorian election.

End of the Coalition

Mention has already been made of the long history of poor relations between the two major non-Labor parties, typified by the words of long-time Liberal Premier, Sir Henry Bolte, who once described the Country Party as 'a mob of political prostitutes who will go to bed with anybody'.(59) Despite the fact that the 1992-99 Kennett Government was the longest surviving coalition in Victorian history, relations between the long-time antagonists was at times very strained. This was partly due to the inevitable tensions that exist in Liberal-National coalitions wherever they are established, but it was given particular feeling because of the relative strengths of the parties. The Liberal Party actually won a majority of seats in the 1992 and 1996 elections, and the Coalition was formed by the grace of the Premier-himself a determined opponent of coalition in the 1980s. Not all Liberals were pleased with this.(60)

The relationship was also strained by many of the policies followed by the Kennett Government that appeared to be unsympathetic to the needs of rural people (see above, pp. 17-18). In the aftermath of the unexpected defeat, it therefore seemed inevitable that the formal coalition would crumble. On 22 October, a meeting between National MPs and the party's State Council duly reported that henceforth there was 'no coalition agreement between the Liberal and National Parties in Opposition'.(61)

Such a decision was in part a recognition that tensions existed in both camps. For the Nationals there was also the feeling that they were fighting for their very existence. In 2000, the National Party holds just seven Legislative Assembly seats and six in the Legislative Council-nine per cent of the Parliament. Fifty years ago the respective figures were 20 and 13 in a smaller Parliament, for 32 per cent of the total membership. For the Liberals there were the continuing resentments felt in that party over the very notion of coalition. In an echo of Henry Bolte's words, one unnamed Liberal MLA claimed after the election that, 'The Nationals like to stay for the night but don't like to get married'.(62)

Eventually a memorandum of understanding was signed. It was designed to satisfy disgruntled National supporters, while apparently accepting the probable need to work together in the future:

  • Although the formal coalition is at an end for the time being, there will be a combined Opposition front bench.
  • There will be an Opposition front bench team of 22 (out of a total Assembly representation of 43).
  • Five of these 22 will be from the National Party.
  • The parties will remain 'separate and distinct'.
  • The party leadership will meet weekly, and shadow Cabinet will meet regularly.
  • Backbench members will sit in separate party blocs. The Liberal party will be the official Opposition, and the National Party 'the Third Party'.
  • The National Party Leader will have a place at the Legislative Assembly table with the Leader and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party.(63)

The Kennett Resignation and the Burwood By-election

Jeff Kennett submitted his resignation from Parliament on 2 November, thus precipitating the by-election for his seat of Burwood that was held on 11 December. Both the Labor and Liberal Parties put a great deal of effort into winning a seat that had been held by the Liberals since its re-creation in 1976. Labor's candidate was Bob Stensholt, the defeated candidate in the general election, while the Liberals surprised by their by-passing of prominent party member, Helen Kroger, for Lana McLean.

The Liberal Party seemed to be on the back foot throughout the campaign. McLean proved unexpectedly controversial. Among other matters, she had been involved in a local planning dispute and she was apparently involved in a legal dispute with the Commonwealth Bank. She even earned notice during the campaign for her criticism of a junior basketball referee. The party also earned media criticism for some of its claims, such as the prediction that a Labor victory would encourage the government to set up a chain of heroin injecting rooms across all suburbs of Melbourne. At the same time, Labor seemed to concentrate its efforts on the discrediting of McLean rather than discussing policy. When the fact of Stensholt having not mentioned his brief career as a seminarian was noted by the Liberal Party, an Age journalist criticised the 'grubby' campaigning efforts of both sides, 'Why such crowded gutters in Burwood?', he asked.(64) The picture in the by-election was made more uncertain by the nominations of a Green candidate and of Stephen Mayne, former Kennett media adviser, who had earlier had a well-publicised falling-out with his employer.

The Labor Party won Burwood comfortably after preferences, though the result was probably brought about more by voter disillusionment with their opponents than enthusiasm for a party which had never held the seat. Even in a climate of support and interest for a new government, Labor's first preference vote of 45.1 per cent was only 3.6 per cent higher than in the general election. As in the case of the general election itself, it was a reminder of the relatively small increase in the Labor vote over the State as a whole (see below, p. 22). By contrast, the Liberal vote fell to its lowest in over twenty years, with its 40.5 per cent being ten per cent lower than in September. Mayne pointed to a probable disillusionment with both major parties: in the general election the combined Labor-Liberal vote was 97 per cent, but in the by-election this fell by 11.4 per cent.(65)

The Resignation of Pat McNamara

Soon after the election, the National Party leader, Pat McNamara, announced that he would soon leave the leadership, and would probably leave the Parliament by Christmas. It seemed likely that there would be a by-election for his seat of Benalla in the new year, possibly February. The 1999 Victorian election therefore seemed still to have some life, particularly as a swing of 7.5 per cent would see the National Party lose a seat that it has held since 1943.

In due course McNamara handed over the reins to Peter Ryan in November, but did not say anything about his resignation from the Parliament. However, in the immediate aftermath of the Burwood by-election, reports began to be heard of McNamara coming under pressure to remain in the seat, at least for a few more months.(66) Were the seat to be won by the Government, this would be the first time Labor has held a seat whose history can be dated back to the first decade of this century. Such a result would give Labor half of the Legislative Assembly, a significantly stronger position than before the resignation of Kennett. Loss of Benalla would also further weaken the Nationals' parlous parliamentary position. McNamara remains in Parliament at the time of writing.

The State of the Parties

The Labor Party

Labor is fortunate to be occupying the government benches in the Legislative Assembly. Its vote of 45.5 per cent, which was a modest increase of only 2.4 per cent on the 1996 figure, was actually 1.6 per cent behind its Coalition opponents. Labor's total of first preferences is the lowest by a winning party since the final Hamer victory in 1979. The election result might actually tell us more about the disillusionment of voters with the Coalition Government, than their support for their challengers. Many voters abandoned the Coalition, but a significant number chose to give Labor their second preference, rather than their first. In the seat of Seymour, for example, Labor trailed the Liberal sitting member on first preferences, but won the seat by just 462 votes after the distribution of Australian Green preferences.

On a more positive note, Labor's vote of 45.5 per cent was its second increase in successive elections, and was a healthy 7.1 per cent above its dark days of 1992-which had been its worst vote for 25 years. The ALP needs to use the advantages of office to prepare the ground to win majority government in its own right and gain a safer parliamentary position-as did the New South Wales party between the elections of 1995 and 1999. It has to work to win more seats east and south of the Yarra, for history suggests that its hold on its regional gains will be harder to maintain than its hold over its metropolitan seats. The increase in its Melbourne vote was only 2.6 per cent, and its total metropolitan vote of 49.6 per cent gives significant room for improvement-in 1982 John Cain's Labor Party won 54.7 per cent of the Melbourne vote. There is room for growth outside of the capital as well. Despite Labor picking up so many regional seats, its overall vote was only 38.1 per cent, 4.8 per cent lower than in 1982. It must ensure that its policies are seen as 'bush-friendly', if it is to retain these seats.

Of course, the length of time that Labor has in office may be insufficient to build up any degree of extra support, for its biggest problem will be ensuring that it retains the government reins. A minority government, propped up with some reluctance by independents, which has to face a Legislative Council controlled by the Opposition, is likely to see an early election as a strong possibility. Whether it could win majority control of the Assembly may well depend on a great many variables that are out of its control.(67) Not the least of its problems is the great difficulty it will have in gaining control of the Legislative Council while the two-member province electoral system is retained.

The Liberal Party

The Liberal Party's new leader, Denis Napthine, has moved to indicate a new style of leadership: '1 can't imagine a denis.com'. He quickly signalled this in symbolic fashion. The Victorian Liberals under the successive leadership of Henry Bolte, Dick Hamer, Lindsay Thompson and, initially, Jeff Kennett, had always had caucus election for most of their front bench. In 1988 this had been scrapped by Kennett, who took over the responsibility himself-as is done in other divisions of the party. In turn, Napthine has reinstated caucus election with a few positions chosen by the party leader.(68)

Like the ALP, the Liberals can face the next few years with some optimism. With a new leadership team, and presumably a forthcoming review of its policies, it should be encouraged by the fact that its 1999 State-wide vote fell by only 1.8 per cent. In fact, its first preference vote was higher than any vote managed by Sir Henry Bolte from 1955 to 1970, when the party was reliant on Democratic Labor Party preferences in a great many seats. The party is very strong in Melbourne, so that its main aim must be to regain the seats it held in regional Victoria-for instance, it lost both Ballarat East and Ballarat West, as well as the two Legislative Council Ballarat contests.

Overall, the Liberal Party is well-placed to launch a bid to regain office at the next election, providing the early, emotional views of some members ('the worst ever loss in the history of the Victorian section'(69)) do not lead to any widespread party blood-letting with resulting poor publicity. If such blood-letting does occur, past history suggests that the earlier it is done before the next election, the better.

The National Party

The National Party's position is far less healthy. Despite its running of two more candidates than in 1996 its vote fell. Its State total of 4.9 per cent was the party's lowest on record-50 years ago its vote was exactly 10 percentage points higher. It currently holds just seven of the 88 seats; fifty years ago it held 20 of 75 seats. Its chances of growth appear to be non-existent. A steady decline in regional seats presents it with a dilemma familiar to branches in New South Wales and Queensland. One chance of growth is to contest near-metropolitan seats, but its abject failure when it attempted to do so in Victoria in the mid-1980s does not bode well for such a tactic if it were to be tried again.(70)

In the immediate future, the party must work to regain Gippsland East. The task of pushing the Liberals out of Warrnambool might be rather more difficult. Elsewhere, it possibly needs to reconsider its opposition to three-cornered contests, for to do so would enable it to mount a serious challenge in the Liberal-held regional seats, as well as in the regional seats its coalition partner has just lost.

The Nationals must hope that the Bracks push to introduce proportional representation for Legislative Council elections can be stopped. On its current vote, it would be hard-pressed to retain its six seats, assuming that the upper house remained the same size. Were it to be reduced, as has been flagged by Labor, and as occurred in Tasmania in 1998, the task of gaining any upper house representation would be very much harder than it is at present.

The Nationals also have a dilemma over the matter of coalition with the Liberal Party. Despite the view of Pat McNamara that the advantages in being involved in government decision-making justified joining a coalition, others have suggested that 'the experience of power in the Kennett years can be said to have been at best a mixed blessing'.(71) The party presumably suffered by being part of the 'Melbourne-centric' Kennett Government, and a return to a coalition government would leave it open to a similar problem in the future. Ryan has pledged to visit rural Victoria to listen to its concerns, but it has been argued that this may be too late: 'The time to communicate with rural communities and then deliver meaningful, effective policies was between 1992 and the 1999 election'.(72)

Three-cornered Contests

Three-cornered contests used to be an important component of Coalition electoral contests. In recent years, however, the National Party, ever-mindful of its declining number of seats, has criticised the Liberal Party for its continued enthusiasm for them-as was heard after the 1999 New South Wales election.(73) In a similar fashion, McNamara expressed his annoyance at the number of 'pointless' three-cornered contests in Victoria in 1999. A journalist summed up what he called 'one of the many lessons' learned from the campaign, namely that the partners had spent 'too much energy and resources' fighting such three-cornered battles.(74) The evidence does not seem to bear out such a view.

There were five such contests in this Legislative Assembly election, three in Liberal (or former Liberal) seats, and two in National seats. None of these seats had three-cornered contests in 1996. There were none in the Legislative Council contests.

In Gippsland West and Mildura the three-cornered contests in former Liberal seats were actually caused by the nomination of National Party candidates. In both, the combined Liberal-National vote topped the first preference vote of the winning independent, suggesting that the theory that three-cornered contests maximise the combined Coalition vote, was borne out. In neither case, however, did the Coalition vote top 50 per cent, and this no doubt was of vital importance in aiding the independent victories. In both cases, however, the three-cornered contest tactic appears to have been justified.

In Polwarth, a Liberal seat that runs west from the electorates of Geelong North and Geelong, the Liberal candidate ( 41% ) saw 10 percentage points stripped from the party's 1996 vote. As the National candidate (16.6%), was a prominent ex-Geelong AFL player, it is quite likely that it was his nomination that forced the Liberal sitting member to preferences. The margin between the two Coalition partners was so great-and the National vote so low-that it can be argued that if there was a 'pointless' three-cornered contest, this was it. It was forced, though, by the National Party.

As we have seen the Coalition lost a larger proportion of votes in rural Victoria than in metropolitan electorates. In Wimmera, however, the Coalition figure jumped from 56.9 per cent in 1996 (National only) to a combined Liberal and National vote of 63.5 per cent. Assuming that a National candidate standing alone would have had a reduced vote, the three-cornered contest quite clearly maximised the Coalition vote, as the theory suggests it should. The impact upon the ALP was such that it received less than one-quarter of the vote and was excluded from the contest at the penultimate count. The final count was therefore between National and Liberal, with the National candidate retaining the seat by a 15 per cent margin.

We have seen earlier that the National Party had come under criticism in Warrnambool over water charges. Despite this, the 'intrusion' of a Liberal Party candidate presumably helped the Coalition vote to top 57 per cent-though the National's 17.5 per cent was a drop of 40.3 per cent on the previous result. The question here is whether the National standing alone could have won this seat that is normally not friendly to the ALP. Labor's candidate received just 31.5 per cent, so it is unlikely that enough of the vote that went to the Liberals would have shifted to Labor if a Liberal candidate had not been on the ballot paper. As no other candidate topped 6 per cent, it is in regard to this seat, alone, that McNamara's complaint-as a National spokesperson-has some justification. From the Liberal perspective, however, the fact that the Liberal Party was able to nominate an attractive candidate for the seat meant that Warrnambool did not slip out of Coalition hands as might have happened.

Conclusion

A matter of timing?

The Victorian Liberal Party, the most successful division of the party that Robert Menzies created over 50 years ago, will probably mull over two tantalising questions for some time to come:

  • Should Kennett have gone earlier? A combination of good polls, plus Labor's leadership tensions, suggests that the Premier should probably have gone to the people earlier, possibly as early as May or June. The delay meant that the new leadership was able to stake out a position as a reasonable, 'new' face of Labor that could increasingly claim to have put the party's internal problems behind it.(75)
  • It seems clear that if Kennett had timed his departure from the Liberal leadership-and hence the Premiership-as soon as it was clear that he had lost his parliamentary majority, then at least Russell Savage, and possibly Craig Ingram, would have supported a minority Liberal-National Government. Indeed, as late as the Monday after the Frankston East by-election, Savage suggested that an earlier Kennett resignation would have swung independent support behind the Coalition: 'They had a great chance to do it but they didn't'.(76)

Implications?

There are several implications that can be drawn from the Victorian election.

  • The urban-rural divide remains an important part of Australian politics. Given the right circumstances, as in Victoria in 1999, even if few votes move in metropolitan electorates a significant movement of votes in the bush can decide an election result. This recent Victorian election is a reminder of New South Wales 1976. In that election Labor's ability to retain the seats it held outside of the cities, and to pick up the rural seat that gave it a one-seat parliamentary majority, brought Neville Wran to power.
  • It is clear that the growing volatility of the Australian electorate means that no government, whether at Commonwealth or State level, can be seen as impregnable. The past decade has seen governments defeated in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT as well as in the Commonwealth election of 1996.
  • A related point is that even governments with very large majorities can see these quickly disappear. This occurred to Premiers Greiner, Goss and Kennett, with Greiner resigning before the end of his term, Goss losing power after a by-election defeat and Kennett's recent loss of power.
  • Governments that undertake a large-scale reform program run the risk of bringing about a voter backlash, no matter how much the economic circumstances of the time suggest the need for such reform.
  • Victoria 1999 reminds us that the use of preferential voting can sometimes have an important impact upon the result of an Australian election.

 

Endnotes

  1. Peter Aimer, Politics, Power and Persuasion. The Liberals in Victoria, James Bennett, Sydney, 1974, pp. 150-4.
  2. At this time, a symbol of the less-than-friendly relations between the non-Labor parties was the decision of the Liberal Party in 1949 to call itself the Liberal and Country Party. The party only dropped the word 'Country' in 1965.
  3. James Jupp, 'Victoria: Left, Right and Centre', in Andrew Parkin and John Warhurst, ed., Machine Politics in the Australian Labor Party, George Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1983, pp. 69-72.
  4. Brian Costar and Nicholas Economou, 'Elections and Electoral Change 1982-92', in Mark Considine and Brian Costar, ed., Trials in Power. Cain, Kirner and Victoria 1982-1992, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1992, p. 261.
  5. Leanne White, 'The Fourth Estate and the Kennett Government', in Brian Costar and Nicholas Economou, eds, The Kennett Revolution. Victorian Politics in the 1990s, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1999, p. 33.
  6. Herald Sun, 25 August 1999.
  7. Ardel Shamsullah, '"The Policy of Confidence": Politics in Victoria 1992-98', in Costar and Economou, The Kennett Revolution, p. 6.
  8. Australian, 1 April 1996.
  9. Ernie Chaples, Helen Nelson and Ken Turner, 'The Wran model in perspective', in Ernie Chaples, Helen Nelson and Ken Turner, eds, The Wran Model. Electoral politics in New South Wales 1981 and 1984, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1985, p. 245.
  10. Brian Costar, 'Laboring against the Jeff factor', Sunday Age, 29 August 1999.
  11. Age, 25 August 1999.
  12. Graham Hudson, 'The ALP: Labouring in Opposition', in Costar and Economou, The Kennett Revolution, p. 99.
  13. Brumby quoted in Hudson, op. cit., p. 100.
  14. Nicholas Economou and Brian Costar, 'The Electoral Contest and Coalition Dominance 1992-98', in Costar and Economou, The Kennett Revolution, p. 131.
  15. Shamsullah, op. cit., p. 13.
  16. Economou and Costar, 'The Electoral Contest...', p. 130; Age, 12 November 1997.
  17. Age, 27 July 1998.
  18. Australian, 25 February 1999.
  19. Shamshullah, op. cit., p. 11; Hudson, op. cit., p. 109.
  20. For speculation that Labor could lose seats, see Australian, 25 February 1999, Age, 25 August 1999.
  21. Age, 25 August 1999.
  22. Allan Attwood, 'A true believer takes his chance while cameras roll', Age, 20 September 1999.
  23. Age, 26 August 1999.
  24. Age, 25 August 1999.
  25. Age, 28 August 1999.
  26. Australian, 25 August 1999.
  27. Age, 17, 18 July 1999, Weekend Australian, 3-4 July 1999.
  28. Sunday Age, 24 October 1999.
  29. Age, 9 September 1999.
  30. Herald Sun, 6 September 1999; Age, 20 September 1999.
  31. Sunday Herald Sun, 5 September 1999; Age, 10 September 1999.
  32. Weekend Australian, 28-29 August 1999; Sunday Age, 5 September 1999; Herald Sun, 8 September 1999; Age, 20 September 1999.
  33. Herald Sun, 25 August 1999; Australian, 26 August 1999.
  34. Age, 25 August 1999.
  35. Independents' Charter Victoria 1999, http://home.vicnet.au/~susandavies/Charterfinal.htm
  36. Age, 18 October 1999.
  37. Robert Manne, Sydney Morning Herald, 13 September 1999.
  38. Woodward and Costar, op. cit., p. 15.
  39. Dennis Woodward and Brian Costar, 'Another Case of Electoral Volatility? The 1999 Victorian Election', unpublished paper, 1999, p. 3.
  40. Bulletin, 7 September 1999.
  41. Financial Review, 17 September 1999, Courier Mail, 18 September 1999.
  42. Age, 28 August 1999.
  43. Pamela Bone, 'Why some Liberals can't abide Kennett', Age, 16 September 1999; Anne Henderson, 'Rewards go to grassroots pollies', Australian, 30 September 1999.
  44. Herald Sun, 27 August 1999.
  45. Herald Sun, 10 September 1999.
  46. Age, 25 August 1999.
  47. Anne Vince, 'Amalgamations', in Brian Dollery and Neil Marshall ed., Australian Local Government. Reform and Renewal, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1997, p. 160; Brian Costar, 'Coalition Government: An Unequal Partnership', in Costar and Economou, The Kennett Revolution, pp. 93-4; Bill Russell, 'Rebuilding Victoria after Kennett', Dissent, Summer 1999/2000, p. 56.
  48. Editor, St Arnaud North Central News, quoted Costar, 'Coalition Government...', p. 92.
  49. Woodward and Costar, op. cit., p. 9.
  50. ibid, p.16.
  51. Age, 20 September 1999.
  52. See Tim Colebatch, 'Behind the rural revolt', Age, 18 October 1999; for other articles on the rural view of the Kennett Government, see Weekend Australian, 28-29 August 1999, Bulletin, 5 October 1999.
  53. Scott Bennett, Affairs of State: politics in the Australian States and Territories, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1992, p. 187.
  54. Australian, 2-8 December 1999.
  55. Age, 18 December 1999.
  56. Age, 25 October 1999.
  57. Mike Steketee, 'Felled by the polls', Australian, 2-8 December 1999.
  58. Tony Parkinson, 'Can-do Premier undone', Age, 20 September 1999.
  59. Quoted in Brian Costar, 'The National Party Campaign', in Brian J. Costar and Colin A. Hughes ed., Labor to Office. The Victorian State Election 1982, Drummond, Blackburn, p. 70.
  60. Bennett, op. cit., p. 7.
  61. Financial Review, 23 October 1999.
  62. Age, 27 October 1999.
  63. Age, 29 October 1999.
  64. Age, 9 December 1999.
  65. Age, 16 December 1999.
  66. See, for example, Australian, 12 January 2000.
  67. Virginia Trioli, 'End of the line', Bulletin, 26 October 1999, pp. 42-3.
  68. Age, Australian, 27 October 1999.
  69. Bernie Finn, former MLA for Tullamarine, Age, 22 December 1999.
  70. Ardel Shamsullah, 'Politics in Victoria: Parliament, Cabinet and the Political Parties', in Considine and Costar, op. cit., pp. 16-17.
  71. Age, 21 December 1999.
  72. bid.
  73. For the New South Wales National Party's complaints, see Scott Bennett and Gerard Newman, 'New South Wales Election 1999', Research Paper No. 22, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 1999, pp. 14-15. See also Scott Bennett, Winning and Losing. Australia's National Elections, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1996, pp. 52-3.
  74. Ewin Hannan, 'Running on empty in Liberal country', Age, 18 December 1999.
  75. Adam Kilgour, Executive Director of CPR Communications & Public Relations Pty Ltd, who worked on the Labor campaign, was one observer who believed the delay was a 'major' mistake by the Premier, see 'How Bracks won it', Age, 22 October 1999.
  76. Bulletin, 26 October 1999.

Table 1 Legislative Assembly, State Summary

Enrolled 3 130 338

Candidates

Seats Won (a)

First Preference Votes

Change from 1996

Number

Per cent

Seats(b)

Votes

Australian Labor Party (ALP)

88

42

1 289 696

45.57

+13(+12)

+2.44

Liberal Party (LP)

81

36

1 194 998

42.22

-13(-10)

-1.77

National Party (NP)

12

7

135 930

4.80

-2(-2)

-1.89

Australian Greens (AG)

21

32 570

1.15

+1.15

Hope Party (HP)

10

10 894

0.38

+0.38

One Nation (PHON)

4

8 181

0.29

+0.29

Australian Democrats (AD)

6

7 972

0.28

+0.28

Democratic Labor Party (DLP)

8

6 183

0.22

+0.22

Natural Law Party (NLP)

15

6 044

0.21

-1.65

Shooters Party (SP)

2

2 011

0.07

+0.03

Australian Reform Party (ARP)

3

1 483

0.05

+0.05

Christian Democratic Party (CDP)

1

414

0.01

-0.22

Abolish Child Support (ACS)

1

194

0.01

+0.01

Independents (IND)

67

3

133 701

4.72

+2(0)

+0.65

Formal Votes

2 830 271

96.98

-0.72

Informal Votes

88 275

3.02

+0.72

Totals/Turnout

319

88

2 918 546

93.23

-0.85

(a) After the Burwood by-election, ALP 43 and LP 35.

(b) Figures in brackets represent change from position prior to 1999 election.

Table 2a Legislative Assembly: District Summary

Number

Electoral District

First Preference Votes

Formal

Votes

Informal

Votes

Total

Votes

Electors

Enrolled

ALP

LP

NP

Others

Albert Park

18 997

14 671

33 668

989

34 657

39 365

Altona

21 545

11 774

33 319

1 303

34 622

36 589

Ballarat East

16 100

13 886

29 986

706

30 692

32 526

Ballarat West

15 527

14 910

30 437

744

31 181

32 893

Bayswater

13 732

17 165

1 380

32 277

786

33 063

35 427

Bellarine

14 289

15 875

1 930

32 094

599

32 693

34 423

Benalla

13 013

17 543

30 556

1 128

31 684

34 087

Benambra

13 561

18 016

31 577

931

32 508

35 378

Bendigo East

15 478

14 123

2 380

31 981

567

32 548

34 094

Bendigo West

18 315

11 679

2 483

32 477

638

33 115

34 932

Bennettswood

13 103

16 715

29 818

733

30 551

32 822

Bentleigh

13 831

15 679

1 927

31 437

865

32 302

34 492

Berwick

17 248

21 958

1 519

40 725

1 241

41 966

44 452

Box Hill

12 166

17 299

1 356

30 821

671

31 492

34 099

Brighton

6 973

17 701

5 920

30 594

664

31 258

34 221

Broadmeadows

22 718

6 889

2 080

31 687

1 898

33 585

36 559

Bulleen

9 810

17 843

2 722

30 375

982

31 357

33 760

Bundoora

18 375

14 612

807

33 794

973

34 767

36 747

Burwood

13 062

17 455

928

31 445

789

32 234

34 668

Carrum

16 099

16 770

1 896

34 765

899

35 664

38 150

Caulfield

13 460

18 947

32 407

1 024

33 431

37 601

Clayton

20 037

12 441

32 478

1 503

33 981

36 653

Coburg

18 877

7 765

2 547

29 189

1 248

30 437

35 338

Cranbourne

14 892

20 444

2 379

37 715

997

38 712

41 084

Dandenong

23 129

18 297

41 426

1 733

43 159

46 056

Dandenong North

16 406

11 908

2 096

30 410

1 302

31 712

33 802

Doncaster

10 579

19 707

2 126

32 412

915

33 327

35 902

Dromana

13 542

17 900

1 441

32 883

799

33 682

36 014

Eltham

14 325

18 696

4 157

37 178

907

38 085

40 355

Essendon

18 489

13 135

31 624

839

32 463

34 636

Evelyn

11 480

18 367

3 686

33 533

1 042

34 575

36 733

Footscray

19 916

9 533

29 449

1 503

30 952

34 174

Forest Hill

12 895

17 583

1 000

31 478

816

32 294

34 556

Frankston

10 083

17 778

2 476

30 337

635

30 972

33 431

Frankston East

13 127

10 632

1 803

25 562

1 280

26 842

28 877

Geelong

14 001

14 719

2 264

30 984

802

31 786

33 830

Geelong North

19 000

12 176

31 176

1 158

32 334

34 379

Gippsland East

8 177

10 776

11 054

30 007

812

30 819

33 075

Gippsland South

9 955

15 130

4 867

29 952

800

30 752

32 761

Gippsland West

5 487

11 502

1 973

11 332

30 294

821

31 115

32 796

Gisborne

13 589

14 084

5 975

33 648

981

34 629

36 390

Glen Waverley

10 738

18 410

29 148

714

29 862

31 984

Hawthorn

10 635

20 548

1 650

32 833

792

33 625

36 943

Ivanhoe

15 079

12 788

2 227

30 094

858

30 952

33 205

Keilor

22 338

12 851

2 875

38 064

1 967

40 031

42 091

Kew

10 751

19 594

1 380

31 725

795

32 520

35 644

Knox

14 684

20 481

1 408

36 573

943

37 516

39 768

Malvern

10 583

21 129

31 712

697

32 409

35 940

Melbourne

20 572

12 122

1 986

34 680

1 334

36 014

41 000

Melton

24 237

15 294

39 531

1 862

41 393

44 047

Mildura

2 572

7 998

6 015

13 942

30 527

763

31 290

33 191

Mill Park

24 307

12 405

924

37 636

1 541

39 177

41 456

Mitcham

14 411

15 043

2 423

31 877

729

32 606

34 479

Monbulk

12 266

15 206

3 043

30 515

870

31 385

33 627

Mooroolbark

12 549

19 509

32 058

896

32 954

34 835

Mordialloc

14 200

15 515

29 715

955

30 670

32 829

Mornington

12 198

17 821

3 599

33 618

813

34 431

36 840

Morwell

17 366

11 040

2 912

31 318

700

32 018

33 737

Murray Valley

10 811

20 899

31 710

990

32 700

34 790

Narracan

13 074

11 925

3 685

28 684

939

29 623

31 688

Niddrie

17 761

13 525

31 286

1 252

32 538

33 802

Northcote

20 681

8 124

2 480

31 285

1 306

32 591

35 695

Oakleigh

15 060

13 558

1 975

30 593

1 118

31 711

34 347

Pakenham

11 949

17 202

3 208

32 359

802

33 161

35 194

Pascoe Vale

17 725

9 569

27 294

1 098

28 392

31 045

Polwarth

7 393

12 668

5 116

5 735

30 912

686

31 598

33 217

Portland

8 016

12 093

7 153

27 262

515

27 777

29 156

Prahran

13 056

16 789

3 055

32 900

904

33 804

39 089

Preston

20 087

8 769

1 052

29 908

1 339

31 247

33 794

Richmond

20 121

10 716

4 213

35 050

1 348

36 398

41 466

Ripon

15 579

14 045

29 624

668

30 292

31 732

Rodney

8 565

18 329

3 257

30 151

692

30 843

32 526

Sandringham

11 693

19 478

31 171

828

31 999

34 629

Seymour

15 410

15 675

1 797

32 882

879

33 761

35 717

Shepparton

7 616

12 355

10 965

30 936

865

31 801

33 823

South Barwon

12 468

16 892

3 937

33 297

761

34 058

36 107

Springvale

18 230

11 152

2 078

31 460

1 476

32 936

35 438

Sunshine

19 826

9 100

4 780

33 706

1 987

35 693

38 506

Swan Hill

5 511

12 378

9 486

27 375

1 066

28 441

30 088

Thomastown

23 305

8 212

31 517

1 479

32 996

35 416

Tullamarine

18 346

15 561

2 383

36 290

1 210

37 500

39 652

Wantirna

13 301

21 579

34 880

931

35 811

37 964

Warrandyte

10 630

19 395

1 645

31 670

620

32 290

34 386

Warrnambool

9 993

12 739

5 550

3 418

31 700

962

32 662

34 226

Werribee

22 652

14 120

1 524

38 296

1 221

39 517

41 644

Williamstown

20 468

8 877

1 341

30 686

1 155

31 841

34 501

Wimmera

7 230

9 450

9 866

3 868

30 414

878

31 292

32 652

Yan Yean

18 265

15 397

1 712

35 374

1 048

36 422

38 305

Total

1 289 696

1 194 998

135 930

209 647

2 830 271

88 275

2 918 546

3 130 338

Regions

Metropolitan

907 539

837 769

0

82 894

1 828 202

61 771

1 889 973

2 040 259

Non-Metropolitan

382 157

357 229

135 930

126 753

1 002 069

26 504

1 028 573

1 090 079

Note: Party winning seat shown in bold.

 

Table 2b Legislative Assembly: District Summary

Per cent

Electoral District

First Preference Votes

Formal

Votes

Informal

Votes

Turnout

ALP

LP

NP

Others

Albert Park

56.4

43.6

97.1

2.9

88.0

Altona

64.7

35.3

96.2

3.8

94.6

Ballarat East

53.7

46.3

97.7

2.3

94.4

Ballarat West

51.0

49.0

97.6

2.4

94.8

Bayswater

42.5

53.2

4.3

97.6

2.4

93.3

Bellarine

44.5

49.5

6.0

98.2

1.8

95.0

Benalla

42.6

57.4

96.4

3.6

93.0

Benambra

42.9

57.1

97.1

2.9

91.9

Bendigo East

48.4

44.2

7.4

98.3

1.7

95.5

Bendigo West

56.4

36.0

7.6

98.1

1.9

94.8

Bennettswood

43.9

56.1

97.6

2.4

93.1

Bentleigh

44.0

49.9

6.1

97.3

2.7

93.7

Berwick

42.4

53.9

3.7

97.0

3.0

94.4

Box Hill

39.5

56.1

4.4

97.9

2.1

92.4

Brighton

22.8

57.9

19.4

97.9

2.1

91.3

Broadmeadows

71.7

21.7

6.6

94.3

5.7

91.9

Bulleen

32.3

58.7

9.0

96.9

3.1

92.9

Bundoora

54.4

43.2

2.4

97.2

2.8

94.6

Burwood

41.5

55.5

3.0

97.6

2.4

93.0

Carrum

46.3

48.2

5.5

97.5

2.5

93.5

Caulfield

41.5

58.5

96.9

3.1

88.9

Clayton

61.7

38.3

95.6

4.4

92.7

Coburg

64.7

26.6

8.7

95.9

4.1

86.1

Cranbourne

39.5

54.2

6.3

97.4

2.6

94.2

Dandenong

55.8

44.2

96.0

4.0

93.7

Dandenong North

53.9

39.2

6.9

95.9

4.1

93.8

Doncaster

32.6

60.8

6.6

97.3

2.7

92.8

Dromana

41.2

54.4

4.4

97.6

2.4

93.5

Eltham

38.5

50.3

11.2

97.6

2.4

94.4

Essendon

58.5

41.5

97.4

2.6

93.7

Evelyn

34.2

54.8

11.0

97.0

3.0

94.1

Footscray

67.6

32.4

95.1

4.9

90.6

Forest Hill

41.0

55.9

3.2

97.5

2.5

93.5

Frankston

33.2

58.6

8.2

97.9

2.1

92.6

Frankston East

51.4

41.6

7.1

95.2

4.8

93.0

Geelong

45.2

47.5

7.3

97.5

2.5

94.0

Geelong North

60.9

39.1

96.4

3.6

94.1

Gippsland East

27.3

35.9

36.8

97.4

2.6

93.2

Gippsland South

33.2

50.5

16.2

97.4

2.6

93.9

Gippsland West

18.1

38.0

6.5

37.4

97.4

2.6

94.9

Gisborne

40.4

41.9

17.8

97.2

2.8

95.2

Glen Waverley

36.8

63.2

97.6

2.4

93.4

Hawthorn

32.4

62.6

5.0

97.6

2.4

91.0

Ivanhoe

50.1

42.5

7.4

97.2

2.8

93.2

Keilor

58.7

33.8

7.6

95.1

4.9

95.1

Kew

33.9

61.8

4.3

97.6

2.4

91.2

Knox

40.1

56.0

3.8

97.5

2.5

94.3

Malvern

33.4

66.6

97.8

2.2

90.2

Melbourne

59.3

35.0

5.7

96.3

3.7

87.8

Melton

61.3

38.7

95.5

4.5

94.0

Mildura

8.4

26.2

19.7

45.7

97.6

2.4

94.3

Mill Park

64.6

33.0

2.5

96.1

3.9

94.5

Mitcham

45.2

47.2

7.6

97.8

2.2

94.6

Monbulk

40.2

49.8

10.0

97.2

2.8

93.3

Mooroolbark

39.1

60.9

97.3

2.7

94.6

Mordialloc

47.8

52.2

96.9

3.1

93.4

Mornington

36.3

53.0

10.7

97.6

2.4

93.5

Morwell

55.5

35.3

9.3

97.8

2.2

94.9

Murray Valley

34.1

65.9

97.0

3.0

94.0

Narracan

45.6

41.6

12.8

96.8

3.2

93.5

Niddrie

56.8

43.2

96.2

3.8

96.3

Northcote

66.1

26.0

7.9

96.0

4.0

91.3

Oakleigh

49.2

44.3

6.5

96.5

3.5

92.3

Pakenham

36.9

53.2

9.9

97.6

2.4

94.2

Pascoe Vale

64.9

35.1

96.1

3.9

91.5

Polwarth

23.9

41.0

16.6

18.6

97.8

2.2

95.1

Portland

29.4

44.4

26.2

98.1

1.9

95.3

Prahran

39.7

51.0

9.3

97.3

2.7

86.5

Preston

67.2

29.3

3.5

95.7

4.3

92.5

Richmond

57.4

30.6

12.0

96.3

3.7

87.8

Ripon

52.6

47.4

97.8

2.2

95.5

Rodney

28.4

60.8

10.8

97.8

2.2

94.8

Sandringham

37.5

62.5

97.4

2.6

92.4

Seymour

46.9

47.7

5.5

97.4

2.6

94.5

Shepparton

24.6

39.9

35.4

97.3

2.7

94.0

South Barwon

37.4

50.7

11.8

97.8

2.2

94.3

Springvale

57.9

35.4

6.6

95.5

4.5

92.9

Sunshine

58.8

27.0

14.2

94.4

5.6

92.7

Swan Hill

20.1

45.2

34.7

96.3

3.7

94.5

Thomastown

73.9

26.1

95.5

4.5

93.2

Tullamarine

50.6

42.9

6.6

96.8

3.2

94.6

Wantirna

38.1

61.9

97.4

2.6

94.3

Warrandyte

33.6

61.2

5.2

98.1

1.9

93.9

Warrnambool

31.5

40.2

17.5

10.8

97.1

2.9

95.4

Werribee

59.1

36.9

4.0

96.9

3.1

94.9

Williamstown

66.7

28.9

4.4

96.4

3.6

92.3

Wimmera

23.8

31.1

32.4

12.7

97.2

2.8

95.8

Yan Yean

51.6

43.5

4.8

97.1

2.9

95.1

Total

45.6

42.2

4.8

7.4

97.0

3.0

93.2

Regions

Metropolitan

49.6

45.8

0.0

4.5

96.7

3.3

92.6

Non-Metropolitan

38.1

35.6

13.6

12.6

97.4

2.6

94.4

Note: Party winning seat shown in bold.

Table 3 Legislative Assembly: District Details

Albert Park

Enrolled 39 365

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Thwaites J *

ALP

18 997

56.4

-0.6

Rushford R

LP

14 671

43.6

+4.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 668

97.1

-0.7

Informal

 

989

2.9

+0.7

Turnout

 

34 657

88.0

-1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Altona

Enrolled 36 589

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kosky L *

ALP

21 545

64.7

+7.9

Lambrinakos S

LP

11 774

35.3

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 319

96.2

-0.9

Informal

 

1 303

3.8

+0.9

Turnout

 

34 622

94.6

+0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Ballarat East

Enrolled 32 526

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Traynor B *

LP

13 886

46.3

-2.0

Howard G

ALP

16 100

53.7

+5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 986

97.7

-0.7

Informal

 

706

2.3

+0.7

Turnout

 

30 692

94.4

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Ballarat West

Enrolled 32 893

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Verlin J #

LP

14 910

49.0

-0.5

Overington K

ALP

15 527

51.0

+5.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 437

97.6

-0.6

Informal

 

744

2.4

+0.6

Turnout

 

31 181

94.8

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Bayswater

Enrolled 35 427

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bristow J

HP

1 380

4.3

+4.3

Craven S

ALP

13 732

42.5

+1.4

Ashley G *

LP

17 165

53.2

-2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Craven S

ALP

14 623

45.3

+2.8

Ashley G *

LP

17 654

54.7

-2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 277

97.6

-0.5

Informal

 

786

2.4

+0.5

Turnout

 

33 063

93.3

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Bellarine

Enrolled 34 423

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Erler K

ALP

14 289

44.5

+0.1

Menheere-Thompson E

AD

1 930

6.0

+6.0

Spry G *

LP

15 875

49.5

-6.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Erler K

ALP

15 495

48.3

+3.8

Spry G *

LP

16 599

51.7

-3.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 094

98.2

-0.1

Informal

 

599

1.8

+0.1

Turnout

 

32 693

95.0

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Benalla

Enrolled 34 087

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Allen D

ALP

13 013

42.6

+19.0

McNamara P *

NP

17 543

57.4

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 556

96.4

-1.6

Informal

 

1 128

3.6

+1.6

Turnout

 

31 684

93.0

-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Benambra

Enrolled 35 378

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Plowman T *

LP

18 016

57.1

-5.8

Murdoch B

ALP

13 561

42.9

+9.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 577

97.1

-0.9

Informal

 

931

2.9

+0.9

Turnout

 

32 508

91.9

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Bendigo East

Enrolled 34 094

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Rivendell B

AG

1 552

4.9

+4.9

John M *

LP

14 123

44.2

-8.1

Thorpe A

ARP

828

2.6

+2.6

Allan J

ALP

15 478

48.4

+6.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

John M *

LP

15 004

46.9

-8.1

Allan J

ALP

16 977

53.1

+8.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 981

98.3

-0.4

Informal

 

567

1.7

+0.4

Turnout

 

32 548

95.5

+0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Bendigo West

Enrolled 34 932

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Cameron B *

ALP

18 315

56.4

+12.7

Howard A

IND

1 092

3.4

+3.4

Hall A

AG

1 391

4.3

+4.3

Cappy F

LP

11 679

36.0

-7.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Cameron B *

ALP

19 893

61.3

+9.6

Cappy F

LP

12 582

38.7

-9.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 477

98.1

-0.4

Informal

 

638

1.9

+0.4

Turnout

 

33 115

94.8

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Bennettswood

Enrolled 32 822

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Wilson R #

LP

16 715

56.1

-2.0

Andrews M

ALP

13 103

43.9

+4.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 818

97.6

-0.5

Informal

 

733

2.4

+0.5

Turnout

 

30 551

93.1

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Bentleigh

Enrolled 34 492

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Maloney C

ALP

13 831

44.0

+0.1

Brunton N

AG

1 139

3.6

+3.6

King G

DLP

492

1.6

+1.6

Barber M

IND

296

0.9

+0.9

Peulich I *

LP

15 679

49.9

-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Maloney C

ALP

15 090

48.1

+2.8

Peulich I *

LP

16 300

51.9

-2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 437

97.3

-0.7

Informal

 

865

2.7

+0.7

Turnout

 

32 302

93.7

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Berwick

Enrolled 44 452

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dean R *

LP

21 958

53.9

+0.8

Reed P

ALP

17 248

42.4

-0.3

Rowe M

DLP

1 519

3.7

+3.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Dean R *

LP

22 376

54.9

-0.4

Reed P

ALP

18 348

45.1

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

40 725

97.0

-0.4

Informal

 

1 241

3.0

+0.4

Turnout

 

41 966

94.4

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Box Hill

Enrolled 34 099

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Waters J

HP

1 356

4.4

+4.4

Thorn C

ALP

12 166

39.5

+1.2

Clark R *

LP

17 299

56.1

-3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Thorn C

ALP

13 067

42.4

+2.7

Clark R *

LP

17 754

57.6

-2.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 821

97.9

-0.4

Informal

 

671

2.1

+0.4

Turnout

 

31 492

92.4

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Brighton

Enrolled 34 221

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Del Porto A

IND

5 920

19.4

+19.4

Dunsmuir I

ALP

6 973

22.8

-7.3

Asher L #

LP

17 701

57.9

-8.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Dunsmuir I

ALP

10 529

34.4

+2.5

Asher L #

LP

20 061

65.6

-2.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 594

97.9

-0.4

Informal

 

664

2.1

+0.4

Turnout

 

31 258

91.3

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Broadmeadows

Enrolled 36 559

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Marr G

IND

1 022

3.2

+3.2

Tay P

LP

6 889

21.7

-1.7

Brumby J *

ALP

22 718

71.7

0.0

Haidar A

IND

789

2.5

+2.5

Kaliniy J

IND

269

0.8

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Tay P

LP

8 019

25.3

+0.4

Brumby J *

ALP

23 651

74.7

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 687

94.3

-2.7

Informal

 

1 898

5.7

+2.7

Turnout

 

33 585

91.9

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Bulleen

Enrolled 33 760

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Manassa D

HP

890

2.9

+2.9

Miras C

ALP

9 810

32.3

-1.1

Trafficante R

AG

1 832

6.0

+6.0

Kotsiras N #

LP

17 843

58.7

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Miras C

ALP

11 662

38.4

+3.0

Kotsiras N #

LP

18 709

61.6

-3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 375

96.9

-0.5

Informal

 

982

3.1

+0.5

Turnout

 

31 357

92.9

-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

Bundoora

Enrolled 36 747

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mason N

NLP

807

2.4

-0.5

Garbutt S *

ALP

18 375

54.4

+3.9

McCabe C

LP

14 612

43.2

-3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Garbutt S *

ALP

18 942

56.1

+3.5

McCabe C

LP

14 852

43.9

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 794

97.2

-0.8

Informal

 

973

2.8

+0.8

Turnout

 

34 767

94.6

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Burwood

Enrolled 34 668

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bunn M

NLP

734

2.3

-0.9

Kennett J *

LP

17 455

55.5

-1.7

Stensholt B

ALP

13 062

41.5

+2.0

Abolish Child Support

ACS

194

0.6

+0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Kennett J *

LP

17 858

56.8

-1.8

Stensholt B

ALP

13 585

43.2

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 445

97.6

-0.7

Informal

 

789

2.4

+0.7

Turnout

 

32 234

93.0

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Carrum

Enrolled 38 150

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Bray D

AG

1 896

5.5

+5.5

Lindell J

ALP

16 099

46.3

+0.4

Lean D *

LP

16 770

48.2

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Lindell J

ALP

17 444

50.2

+1.0

Lean D *

LP

17 321

49.8

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34 765

97.5

-0.5

Informal

 

899

2.5

+0.5

Turnout

 

35 664

93.5

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Caulfield

Enrolled 37 601

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Shardey H *

LP

18 947

58.5

+0.2

Simon H

ALP

13 460

41.5

+3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 407

96.9

-0.7

Informal

 

1 024

3.1

+0.7

Turnout

 

33 431

88.9

-2.7

 

 

 

 

 

Clayton

Enrolled 36 653

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Lok C

LP

12 441

38.3

0.0

Lim H *

ALP

20 037

61.7

+6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 478

95.6

-1.3

Informal

 

1 503

4.4

+1.3

Turnout

 

33 981

92.7

-0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Coburg

Enrolled 35 338

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Carli C *

ALP

18 877

64.7

-1.5

Rush E

AG

2 547

8.7

+8.7

Hrycek M

LP

7 765

26.6

-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Carli C *

ALP

20 951

71.8

+4.9

Hrycek M

LP

8 232

28.2

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 189

95.9

-1.0

Informal

 

1 248

4.1

+1.0

Turnout

 

30 437

86.1

-5.9

 

 

 

 

 

Cranbourne

Enrolled 41 084

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McCormack C

IND

2 379

6.3

+6.3

Perera J

ALP

14 892

39.5

-1.5

Rowe G *

LP

20 444

54.2

-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Perera J

ALP

16 708

44.3

+3.3

Rowe G *

LP

21 002

55.7

-3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37 715

97.4

+0.1

Informal

 

997

2.6

-0.1

Turnout

 

38 712

94.2

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Dandenong

Enrolled 46 056

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Miller A

LP

18 297

44.2

+0.1

Pandazopoulos J *

ALP

23 129

55.8

+6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

41 426

96.0

-0.4

Informal

 

1 733

4.0

+0.4

Turnout

 

43 159

93.7

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Dandenong North

Enrolled 33 802

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Lenders J #

ALP

16 406

53.9

+3.3

Harris G

IND

1 820

6.0

+6.0

Emmanouil G

LP

11 908

39.2

-6.8

Klimek F

ARP

276

0.9

+0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Lenders J #

ALP

17 634

58.0

+5.8

Emmanouil G

LP

12 775

42.0

-5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 410

95.9

-1.1

Informal

 

1 302

4.1

+1.1

Turnout

 

31 712

93.8

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Doncaster

Enrolled 35 902

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Fyfield S

AG

1 497

4.6

+4.6

Perton V *

LP

19 707

60.8

-3.1

McCallum J

ALP

10 579

32.6

-0.3

Dawe G

HP

629

1.9

+1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Perton V *

LP

20 518

63.3

-1.6

McCallum J

ALP

11 892

36.7

+1.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 412

97.3

-0.3

Informal

 

915

2.7

+0.3

Turnout

 

33 327

92.8

-1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Dromana

Enrolled 36 014

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dixon M *

LP

17 900

54.4

+3.5

Thompson D

ALP

13 542

41.2

+7.0

Crea P

DLP

951

2.9

+2.9

Charlwood J

NLP

490

1.5

+0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Dixon M *

LP

18 480

56.2

-1.9

Thompson D

ALP

14 403

43.8

+1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 883

97.6

-0.8

Informal

 

799

2.4

+0.8

Turnout

 

33 682

93.5

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Eltham

Enrolled 40 355

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Engish J

IND

546

1.5

+1.5

Jennings M

IND

1 310

3.5

+3.5

Hanney P

ALP

14 325

38.5

+0.2

Rosenfeldt W

NLP

98

0.3

-0.8

Whitehead J

AG

1 237

3.3

+3.3

Phillips W *

LP

18 696

50.3

-4.4

Carter S

AD

966

2.6

+2.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Hanney P

ALP

17 315

46.4

+3.2

Phillips W *

LP

19 960

53.6

-3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37 178

97.6

-0.9

Informal

 

907

2.4

+0.9

Turnout

 

38 085

94.4

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Essendon

Enrolled 34 636

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Maddigan J *

ALP

18 489

58.5

+7.6

Saunders K

LP

13 135

41.5

-1.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 624

97.4

-0.3

Informal

 

839

2.6

+0.3

Turnout

 

32 463

93.7

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Evelyn

Enrolled 36 733

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Gillam C

IND

1 824

5.4

+5.4

Fyffe C #

LP

18 367

54.8

-5.1

Marquez-Bridger N

ALP

11 480

34.2

+0.8

Houlihan R

IND

1 862

5.6

+5.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Fyffe C #

LP

19 957

59.5

-3.2

Marquez-Bridger N

ALP

13 571

40.5

+3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 533

97.0

-0.6

Informal

 

1 042

3.0

+0.6

Turnout

 

34 575

94.1

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

Footscray

Enrolled 34 174

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Lynch D

LP

9 533

32.4

+2.6

Mildenhall B *

ALP

19 916

67.6

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 449

95.1

-0.7

Informal

 

1 503

4.9

+0.7

Turnout

 

30 952

90.6

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Forest Hill

Enrolled 34 556

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Richardson J *

LP

17 583

55.9

-3.8

Buxton J

ALP

12 895

41.0

+3.3

Hardiman S

HP

1 000

3.2

+3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Richardson J *

LP

17 974

57.1

-3.2

Buxton J

ALP

13 503

42.9

+3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 478

97.5

-0.6

Informal

 

816

2.5

+0.6

Turnout

 

32 294

93.5

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Frankston

Enrolled 33 431

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Borg F

IND

626

2.1

+2.1

Koch D

ALP

10 083

33.2

-0.4

Kelsall H

AG

1 850

6.1

+6.1

McCall A *

LP

17 778

58.6

-5.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Koch D

ALP

11 891

39.3

+4.7

McCall A *

LP

18 399

60.7

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 337

97.9

-0.3

Informal

 

635

2.1

+0.3

Turnout

 

30 972

92.6

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Frankston East

Enrolled 28 877

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Vogt M

AG

486

1.9

+1.9

Bunyan I

IND

72

0.3

+0.3

McClure M

IND

77

0.3

+0.3

McLean C #

LP

10 632

41.6

-7.3

Rankin S

IND

131

0.5

+0.5

Anderson R

IND

95

0.4

+0.4

Pavlekovich-Smith I

IND

13

0.1

+0.1

Viney M

ALP

13 127

51.4

+7.1

Clark G

IND

21

0.1

+0.1

Hoser R

IND

11

0.0

+0.0

Burleigh G

IND

140

0.5

+0.5

Crea P

DLP

93

0.4

+0.4

Clarke L

NLP

24

0.1

-1.0

Eames L

IND

319

1.2

+1.2

Dawn D

IND

58

0.2

+0.2

Coppard J

IND

263

1.0

+1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McLean C #

LP

11 603

45.4

-7.7

Viney M

ALP

13 953

54.6

+7.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

25 562

95.2

-2.6

Informal

 

1 280

4.8

+2.6

Turnout

 

26 842

93.0

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Geelong

Enrolled 33 830

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Faris R

IND

1 292

4.2

+4.2

Grose L

IND

641

2.1

+2.1

O'Dea J

IND

331

1.1

+1.1

Henderson A *

LP

14 719

47.5

-5.1

Trezise I

ALP

14 001

45.2

+0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Henderson A *

LP

15 484

50.0

-3.5

Trezise I

ALP

15 500

50.0

+3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 984

97.5

-0.3

Informal

 

802

2.5

+0.3

Turnout

 

31 786

94.0

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Geelong North

Enrolled 34 379

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kennett B

LP

12 176

39.1

-2.9

Loney P *

ALP

19 000

60.9

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 176

96.4

-0.6

Informal

 

1 158

3.6

+0.6

Turnout

 

32 334

94.1

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Gippsland East

Enrolled 33 075

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Buckley B

IND

1 704

5.7

+5.7

Ingram C

IND

7 439

24.8

+24.8

Bolitho B

ALP

8 177

27.3

-1.3

Treasure D *

NP

10 776

35.9

-16.9

Freshwater M

PHON

1 911

6.4

+6.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Ingram C

IND

17 317

57.7

 

Treasure D *

NP

12 690

42.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 007

97.4

-0.9

Informal

 

812

2.6

+0.9

Turnout

 

30 819

93.2

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Gippsland South

Enrolled 32 761

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Sayers M

IND

4 411

14.7

+14.7

Ryan P *

NP

15 130

50.5

-17.2

Emanuel H

ALP

9 955

33.2

+4.7

Clarke R

NLP

456

1.5

-2.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Ryan P *

NP

17 238

57.5

-11.9

Emanuel H

ALP

12 740

42.5

+11.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 952

97.4

-0.9

Informal

 

800

2.6

+0.9

Turnout

 

30 752

93.9

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Gippsland West

Enrolled 32 796

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Taylor P

ALP

5 487

18.1

-15.1

Head W

NP

1 973

6.5

+6.5

Richardson M

NLP

128

0.4

+0.4

McRae G

LP

11 502

38.0

-19.8

Lowry M

IND

385

1.3

-7.7

Davies S *

IND

10 819

35.7

+35.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

McCrae G

LP

13 934

46.0

 

Davies S *

IND

16 360

54.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 294

97.4

-0.9

Informal

 

821

2.6

+0.9

Turnout

 

31 115

94.9

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Gisborne

Enrolled 36 390

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mowatt R

AD

1 260

3.7

+3.7

Reynolds G

IND

643

1.9

+1.9

Duncan J

ALP

13 589

40.4

-0.4

Dunn D

IND

3 394

10.1

+10.1

Knowles R #

LP

14 084

41.9

-13.8

Hall L

AG

678

2.0

+2.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Duncan J

ALP

17 371

51.6

+9.4

Knowles R #

LP

16 277

48.4

-9.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 648

97.2

-0.9

Informal

 

981

2.8

+0.9

Turnout

 

34 629

95.2

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Glen Waverley

Enrolled 31 984

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith R *

LP

18 410

63.2

-1.6

Dalby R

ALP

10 738

36.8

+4.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 148

97.6

-0.6

Informal

 

714

2.4

+0.6

Turnout

 

29 862

93.4

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Hawthorn

Enrolled 36 943

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Baillieu T #

LP

20 548

62.6

+1.7

Wickiramasingham N

ALP

10 635

32.4

+3.3

Dawborn K

HP

1 650

5.0

+5.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Baillieu T #

LP

21 042

64.1

+0.5

Wickiramasingham N

ALP

11 791

35.9

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 833

97.6

-1.1

Informal

 

792

2.4

+1.1

Turnout

 

33 625

91.0

-3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Ivanhoe

Enrolled 33 205

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Poynton L

HP

358

1.2

+1.2

McLean D

LP

12 788

42.5

-5.0

Langdon C *

ALP

15 079

50.1

+0.8

Clarke L

NLP

132

0.4

-2.8

Roberts R

AG

1 737

5.8

+5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McLean D

LP

13 413

44.6

-3.8

Langdon C *

ALP

16 679

55.4

+3.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 094

97.2

-0.7

Informal

 

858

2.8

+0.7

Turnout

 

30 952

93.2

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Keilor

Enrolled 42 091

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Seitz G *

ALP

22 338

58.7

-0.3

Burns H

IND

2 875

7.6

+7.6

Fenech J

LP

12 851

33.8

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Seitz G *

ALP

23 529

61.9

+0.3

Fenech J

LP

14 481

38.1

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

38 064

95.1

-0.7

Informal

 

1 967

4.9

+0.7

Turnout

 

40 031

95.1

+0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Kew

Enrolled 35 644

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hale P

HP

1 380

4.3

+4.3

McIntosh A #

LP

19 594

61.8

-1.9

Lewes J

ALP

10 751

33.9

+1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McIntosh A #

LP

20 247

63.8

-1.2

Lewes J

ALP

11 478

36.2

+1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 725

97.6

-0.6

Informal

 

795

2.4

+0.6

Turnout

 

32 520

91.2

-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

Knox

Enrolled 39 768

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Wells K

DLP

1 408

3.8

+3.8

Smith C

ALP

14 684

40.1

-0.1

Lupton H *

LP

20 481

56.0

-0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Smith C

ALP

15 611

42.7

+0.6

Lupton H *

LP

20 962

57.3

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36 573

97.5

-0.5

Informal

 

943

2.5

+0.5

Turnout

 

37 516

94.3

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Malvern

Enrolled 35 940

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Doyle R *

LP

21 129

66.6

+0.2

Wallace J

ALP

10 583

33.4

+2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 712

97.8

-0.3

Informal

 

697

2.2

+0.3

Turnout

 

32 409

90.2

-2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne

Enrolled 41 000

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Pike B #

ALP

20 572

59.3

+5.7

McLean L

LP

12 122

35.0

+4.2

Jorquera J

IND

1 986

5.7

+5.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Pike B #

ALP

22 112

63.8

-2.1

McLean L

LP

12 568

36.2

+2.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34 680

96.3

-0.7

Informal

 

1 334

3.7

+0.7

Turnout

 

36 014

87.8

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Melton

Enrolled 44 047

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McGeary J

LP

15 294

38.7

+0.8

Nardella D #

ALP

24 237

61.3

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

39 531

95.5

-1.2

Informal

 

1 862

4.5

+1.2

Turnout

 

41 393

94.0

+0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Mildura

Enrolled 33 191

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mansell A

NP

6 015

19.7

+19.7

Danson P

LP

7 998

26.2

-19.0

Savage R *

IND

13 551

44.4

+8.7

Zigouras J

ALP

2 572

8.4

-9.5

Joyce T

AD

391

1.3

+1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Mansell A

NP

11 039

43.9

 

Savage R *

IND

14 110

56.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 527

97.6

-0.7

Informal

 

763

2.4

+0.7

Turnout

 

31 290

94.3

+0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Mill Park

Enrolled 41 456

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Davenport A

LP

12 405

33.0

+1.0

D'Angelo R

NLP

924

2.5

+1.0

Andrianopoulos A *

ALP

24 307

64.6

+4.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Davenport A

LP

12 864

34.2

-1.8

Andrianopoulos A *

ALP

24 772

65.8

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

37 636

96.1

-0.4

Informal

 

1 541

3.9

+0.4

Turnout

 

39 177

94.5

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Mitcham

Enrolled 34 479

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Robinson T *

ALP

14 411

45.2

+4.7

Petherbridge T

HP

894

2.8

+2.8

Munroe A

LP

15 043

47.2

-6.4

Aubrey C

IND

1 529

4.8

+4.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Robinson T *

ALP

16 110

50.5

+5.8

Munroe A

LP

15 767

49.5

-5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 877

97.8

-0.3

Informal

 

729

2.2

+0.3

Turnout

 

32 606

94.6

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Monbulk

Enrolled 33 627

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Scurfield L

NLP

258

0.8

-0.5

Voigt W

CDP

414

1.4

+1.4

McArthur S *

LP

15 206

49.8

-2.7

Wood L

ALP

12 266

40.2

+2.0

Holtham R

AG

1 928

6.3

+6.3

Feltham F

DLP

443

1.5

+1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McArthur S *

LP

16 241

53.2

-2.0

Wood L

ALP

14 306

46.8

+2.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 515

97.2

-0.8

Informal

 

870

2.8

+0.8

Turnout

 

31 385

93.3

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Mooroolbark

Enrolled 34 835

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Elliott L *

LP

19 509

60.9

0.0

McCrorey D

ALP

12 549

39.1

+2.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 058

97.3

-0.6

Informal

 

896

2.7

+0.6

Turnout

 

32 954

94.6

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Mordialloc

Enrolled 32 829

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McLeod R

ALP

14 200

47.8

+5.8

Leigh G *

LP

15 515

52.2

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 715

96.9

-1.2

Informal

 

955

3.1

+1.2

Turnout

 

30 670

93.4

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Mornington

Enrolled 36 840

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Nicholson V

IND

2 816

8.4

+8.4

Cornelius G

ALP

12 198

36.3

-0.8

Plunkett S

IND

783

2.3

+2.3

Cooper R *

LP

17 821

53.0

-6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Cornelius G

ALP

14 880

44.3

+5.6

Cooper R *

LP

18 733

55.7

-5.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 618

97.6

-0.4

Informal

 

813

2.4

+0.4

Turnout

 

34 431

93.5

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Morwell

Enrolled 33 737

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Tyler P

LP

11 040

35.3

+35.3

Hamilton K *

ALP

17 366

55.4

+4.0

Hoppner H

IND

2 912

9.3

+9.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Tyler P

LP

12 856

41.1

-6.2

Hamilton K *

ALP

18 457

58.9

+6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 318

97.8

-0.1

Informal

 

700

2.2

+0.1

Turnout

 

32 018

94.9

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Murray Valley

Enrolled 34 790

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Jasper K *

NP

20 899

65.9

-5.3

Leschen Z

ALP

10 811

34.1

+8.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 710

97.0

-1.4

Informal

 

990

3.3

+1.4

Turnout

 

32 700

94.0

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Narracan

Enrolled 31 688

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Fozard M

AD

1 534

5.3

+5.3

Mathieson R

IND

504

1.8

+1.8

Maxfield I

ALP

13 074

45.6

+3.7

Dowling C

SP

1 292

4.5

+4.5

Andrighetto F *

LP

11 925

41.6

-5.8

Robinson H

IND

355

1.2

+1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Maxfield I

ALP

15 063

52.5

+4.1

Andrighetto F *

LP

13 261

47.5

-4.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

28 684

96.8

-1.3

Informal

 

939

3.2

+1.3

Turnout

 

29 623

93.5

-1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Niddrie

Enrolled 33 802

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kruger S

LP

13 525

43.2

-2.4

Hulls R *

ALP

17 761

56.8

+2.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 286

96.2

-0.7

Informal

 

1 252

3.8

+0.7

Turnout

 

32 538

96.3

+1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Northcote

Enrolled 35 695

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Richardson E

LP

8 124

26.0

-2.2

Duffy S

IND

2 480

7.9

+7.9

Delahunty M *

ALP

20 681

66.1

+6.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Richardson E

LP

8 552

27.3

-2.8

Delahunty M *

ALP

22 733

72.7

+2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 285

96.0

-0.2

Informal

 

1 306

4.0

+0.2

Turnout

 

32 591

91.3

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Oakleigh

Enrolled 34 347

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Barker A

ALP

15 060

49.2

+3.4

McGregor S

IND

452

1.5

+1.5

Eboli L

IND

268

0.9

+0.9

Walters S

AG

1 107

3.6

+3.6

McGill D *

LP

13 558

44.3

-3.1

Schlager R

NLP

148

0.5

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Barker A

ALP

16 286

53.3

+4.1

McGill D *

LP

14 262

46.7

-4.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 593

96.5

-1.1

Informal

 

1 118

3.5

+1.1

Turnout

 

31 711

92.3

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Pakenham

Enrolled 35 194

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Scoullar D

AG

2 571

7.9

+7.9

Maclellan R *

LP

17 202

53.2

-5.0

Dean F

IND

637

2.0

+0.3

Anderson J

ALP

11 949

36.9

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Maclellan R *

LP

18 284

56.5

-4.6

Anderson J

ALP

14 059

43.5

+4.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 359

97.6

-0.4

Informal

 

802

2.4

+0.4

Turnout

 

33 161

94.2

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Pascoe Vale

Enrolled 31 045

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Aghajani V

LP

9 569

35.1

-2.9

Campbell C *

ALP

17 725

64.9

+4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

27 294

96.1

-0.9

Informal

 

1 098

3.9

+0.9

Turnout

 

28 392

91.5

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Polwarth

Enrolled 33 217

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Crook B

IND

4 574

14.8

-3.8

Brown S

AG

1 161

3.8

+3.8

Couch P

NP

5 116

16.6

+16.6

Garland S

ALP

7 393

23.9

-4.5

Mulder T #

LP

12 668

41.0

-10.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Garland S

ALP

12 237

39.6

-2.3

Mulder T #

LP

18 675

60.4

+2.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 912

97.8

-0.3

Informal

 

686

2.2

+0.3

Turnout

 

31 598

95.1

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Portland

Enrolled 29 156

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Jackson L

ALP

8 016

29.4

-5.1

Kempton P

IND

7 153

26.2

+26.2

Napthine D *

LP

12 093

44.4

-11.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Jackson L

ALP

12 394

45.5

+5.9

Napthine D *

LP

14 868

54.5

-5.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

27 262

98.1

-0.2

Informal

 

515

1.9

+0.2

Turnout

 

27 777

95.3

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Prahran

Enrolled 39 089

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Salter W

AG

2 282

6.9

+6.9

Burke L *

LP

16 789

51.0

-1.8

O'Reilly J

ALP

13 056

39.7

-3.9

Dawson M

NLP

164

0.5

-3.1

Murphy F

DLP

609

1.9

+1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Burke L *

LP

17 785

54.0

-0.6

O'Reilly J

ALP

15 126

46.0

+0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 900

97.3

-0.4

Informal

 

904

2.7

+0.4

Turnout

 

33 804

86.5

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Preston

Enrolled 33 794

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dickins M

NLP

1 052

3.5

+1.2

Padgett R

LP

8 769

29.3

-4.6

Leighton M *

ALP

20 087

67.2

+3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Padgett R

LP

9 384

31.4

-3.3

Leighton M *

ALP

20 522

68.6

+3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 908

95.7

-0.1

Informal

 

1 339

4.3

+0.1

Turnout

 

31 247

92.5

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Richmond

Enrolled 41 466

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Jolly S

IND

4 213

12.0

+12.0

Tran D

LP

10 716

30.6

+0.6

Wynne R #

ALP

20 121

57.4

-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Tran D

LP

11 837

33.8

+1.2

Wynne R #

ALP

23 204

66.2

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35 050

96.3

-0.9

Informal

 

1 348

3.7

+0.9

Turnout

 

36 398

87.8

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Ripon

Enrolled 31 732

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Helper J

ALP

15 579

52.6

+8.8

Elder S *

LP

14 045

47.4

-5.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 624

97.8

-0.5

Informal

 

668

2.2

+0.5

Turnout

 

30 292

95.5

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Rodney

Enrolled 32 526

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

McCulloch M

ALP

8 565

28.4

+8.7

Maughan N *

NP

18 329

60.8

-2.8

Hutton D

PHON

3 257

10.8

+10.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McCulloch M

ALP

10 358

34.4

+10.5

Maughan N *

NP

19 793

65.6

-10.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 151

97.8

-0.6

Informal

 

692

2.2

+0.6

Turnout

 

30 843

94.8

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Sandringham

Enrolled 34 629

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Thompson M *

LP

19 478

62.5

-0.3

Munt J

ALP

11 693

37.5

+3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 171

97.4

-0.9

Informal

 

828

2.6

+0.9

Turnout

 

31 999

92.4

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Seymour

Enrolled 35 717

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hardman B

ALP

15 410

46.9

+2.9

Rule D #

LP

15 675

47.7

-4.8

Romagnesi J

AG

1 797

5.5

+5.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Hardman B

ALP

16 672

50.7

+4.9

Rule D #

LP

16 210

49.3

-4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

32 882

97.4

-0.7

Informal

 

879

2.6

+0.7

Turnout

 

33 761

94.5

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Shepparton

Enrolled 33 823

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Boyle W

ALP

7 616

24.6

-3.2

Kilgour D *

NP

12 355

39.0

-26.0

Hazelman C

IND

10 965

35.4

+35.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Kilgour D *

NP

16 724

54.1

 

Hazelman C

IND

14 212

45.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 936

97.3

-0.3

Informal

 

865

2.7

+0.3

Turnout

 

31 801

94.0

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

South Barwon

Enrolled 36 107

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Paterson A *

LP

16 892

50.7

-8.4

Crutchfield M

ALP

12 468

37.4

-0.6

Paull J

AD

1 891

5.7

+5.7

Lauren T

IND

598

1.8

+1.8

Gannon M

IND

215

0.6

+0.6

Chenery S

AG

1 233

3.7

+3.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Paterson A *

LP

18 222

54.7

-5.5

Crutchfield M

ALP

15 076

45.3

+5.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 297

97.8

-0.4

Informal

 

761

2.2

+0.4

Turnout

 

34 058

94.3

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Springvale

Enrolled 35 438

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Liu-Hyland B

IND

1 680

5.3

+5.3

Campbell J

LP

11 152

35.4

-2.7

Bisset R

IND

398

1.3

+1.3

Holding T #

ALP

18 230

57.9

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Campbell J

LP

12 322

39.2

-2.9

Holding T #

ALP

19 114

60.8

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 460

95.5

-1.2

Informal

 

1 476

4.5

+1.2

Turnout

 

32 936

92.9

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Sunshine

Enrolled 38 506

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Morgan S

LP

9 100

27.0

-2.7

Languiller T

ALP

19 826

58.8

-8.8

Barker I *

IND

4 780

14.2

+14.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Morgan S

LP

10 062

29.9

-1.0

Languiller T

ALP

23 643

70.1

+1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

33 706

94.4

-0.8

Informal

 

1 987

5.6

+0.8

Turnout

 

35 693

92.7

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Swan Hill

Enrolled 30 088

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Schorel G

IND

257

0.9

+0.9

Ditterich C

IND

6 192

22.6

+22.6

Williams D

ALP

5 511

20.1

+2.7

Maher B

IND

1 435

5.2

+5.2

Croft B

PHON

1 383

5.1

+5.1

Steggall B *

NP

12 378

45.2

-13.8

Bonney L

IND

219

0.8

+0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Ditterich C

IND

12 925

47.2

 

Steggall B *

NP

14 450

52.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

27 375

96.3

-2.0

Informal

 

1 066

3.7

+2.0

Turnout

 

28 441

94.5

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Thomastown

Enrolled 35 416

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Gidley M

LP

8 212

26.1

-1.3

Batchelor P

ALP

23 305

73.9

+3.0

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 517

95.5

-1.0

Informal

 

1 479

4.5

+1.0

Turnout

 

32 996

93.2

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Tullamarine

Enrolled 39 652

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Beattie L

ALP

18 346

50.6

+6.5

Fraser P

AG

996

2.7

+2.7

Grenfell R

SP

719

2.0

+2.0

Finn B *

LP

15 561

42.9

-5.4

Mulholland J

DLP

668

1.8

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Beattie L

ALP

19 502

53.8

+6.9

Finn B *

LP

16 751

46.2

-6.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

36 290

96.8

-1.0

Informal

 

1 210

3.2

+1.0

Turnout

 

37 500

94.6

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Wantirna

Enrolled 37 964

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Abraham C

ALP

13 301

38.1

+2.3

Wells K *

LP

21 579

61.9

-0.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

34 880

97.4

-0.6

Informal

 

931

2.6

+0.6

Turnout

 

35 811

94.3

+1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Warrandyte

Enrolled 34 386

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Orr D

ALP

10 630

33.6

+3.2

Honeywood P *

LP

19 395

61.2

-0.2

Roberts P

NLP

288

0.9

-0.3

Stockdale K

HP

1 357

4.3

+4.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Orr D

ALP

11 571

36.5

+0.4

Honeywood P *

LP

20 096

63.5

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 670

98.1

-0.4

Informal

 

620

1.9

+0.4

Turnout

 

32 290

93.9

-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

Warrnambool

Enrolled 34 226

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Blair G

AG

740

2.3

+2.3

Walsh G #

NP

5 550

17.5

-40.3

O'Brien R

IND

435

1.4

+1.4

Vogels J

LP

12 739

40.2

+40.2

Lindop M

IND

1 864

5.9

-6.7

Reekie R

ALP

9 993

31.5

+2.9

Wilson B

ARP

379

1.2

+1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Vogels J

LP

18 682

58.9

-4.9

Reekie R

ALP

13 018

41.1

+4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

31 700

97.1

-1.1

Informal

 

962

2.9

+1.1

Turnout

 

32 662

95.4

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Werribee

Enrolled 41 644

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Gillett M *

ALP

22 652

59.1

+12.8

Manson C

AG

913

2.4

+2.4

Impson G

IND

353

0.9

+0.9

McLaren D

LP

14 120

36.9

-6.7

Backhouse W

IND

258

0.7

+0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Gillett M *

ALP

23 540

61.5

+10.8

McLaren D

LP

14 754

38.5

-10.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

38 296

96.9

-0.6

Informal

 

1 221

3.1

+0.6

Turnout

 

39 517

94.9

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Williamstown

Enrolled 34 501

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dyson N

IND

1 341

4.4

+4.4

Evers-Buckland A

LP

8 877

28.9

-4.3

Bracks S *

ALP

20 468

66.7

+2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Evers-Buckland A

LP

9 671

31.5

-2.9

Bracks S *

ALP

21 011

68.5

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 686

96.4

-0.2

Informal

 

1 155

3.6

+0.2

Turnout

 

31 841

92.3

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Wimmera

Enrolled 32 652

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hallam D

IND

1 446

4.8

+4.8

Cross G

LP

9 450

31.1

+31.1

Mackley B

PHON

1 630

5.4

+5.4

Liston L

IND

792

2.6

+2.6

Power L

ALP

7 230

23.8

+3.0

Delahunty H #

NP

9 866

32.4

-24.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Cross G

LP

12 904

42.4

 

Delahunty H #

NP

17 510

57.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

30 414

97.2

-1.4

Informal

 

878

2.8

+1.4

Turnout

 

31 292

95.8

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Yan Yean

Enrolled 38 305

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith L

IND

1 371

3.9

+3.9

Rigby B

NLP

341

1.0

-1.5

Tivendale H

LP

15 397

43.5

-3.7

Haermeyer A *

ALP

18 265

51.6

+1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Tivendale H

LP

16 204

45.8

-2.6

Haermeyer A *

ALP

19 170

54.2

+2.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

35 374

97.1

-0.6

Informal

 

1 048

2.9

+0.6

Turnout

 

36 422

95.1

-0.4

Table 4 Legislative Assembly: Two Party Preferred Vote

Electoral District

Number

Per cent

% Swing

to ALP

ALP

LP/NP

ALP

LP/NP

Albert Park

18 997

14 671

56.4

43.6

-2.4

Altona

21 545

11 774

64.7

35.3

+6.5

Ballarat East

16 100

13 886

53.7

46.3

+3.7

Ballarat West

15 527

14 910

51.0

49.0

+2.4

Bayswater

14 623

17 654

45.3

54.7

+2.8

Bellarine

15 495

16 599

48.3

51.7

+3.8

Benalla

13 013

17 543

42.6

57.4

+7.9

Benambra

13 561

18 016

42.9

57.1

+7.9

Bendigo East

16 977

15 004

53.1

46.9

+8.1

Bendigo West

19 893

12 582

61.3

38.7

+9.5

Bennettswood

13 103

16 715

43.9

56.1

+3.2

Bentleigh

15 090

16 300

48.1

51.9

+2.8

Berwick

18 348

22 376

45.1

54.9

+0.3

Box Hill

13 067

17 754

42.4

57.6

+2.7

Brighton

10 529

20 061

34.4

65.6

+2.5

Broadmeadows

23 651

8 019

74.7

25.3

-0.4

Bulleen

11 662

18 709

38.4

61.6

+3.0

Bundoora

18 942

14 852

56.1

43.9

+3.5

Burwood

13 585

17 858

43.2

56.8

+1.8

Carrum

17 444

17 321

50.2

49.8

+1.0

Caulfield

13 460

18 947

41.5

58.5

+0.8

Clayton

20 037

12 441

61.7

38.3

+2.1

Coburg

20 951

8 232

71.8

28.2

+4.9

Cranbourne

16 708

21 002

44.3

55.7

+3.4

Dandenong

23 129

18 297

55.8

44.2

+2.5

Dandenong North

17 634

12 775

58.0

42.0

+5.8

Doncaster

11 892

20 518

36.7

63.3

+1.6

Dromana

14 403

18 480

43.8

56.2

+1.9

Eltham

17 315

19 960

46.5

53.5

+3.2

Essendon

18 489

13 135

58.5

41.5

+5.1

Evelyn

13 571

19 957

40.5

59.5

+3.2

Footscray

19 916

9 533

67.6

32.4

-1.7

Forest Hill

13 503

17 974

42.9

57.1

+3.4

Frankston

11 891

18 399

39.3

60.7

+4.7

Frankston East

13 953

11 603

54.6

45.4

+7.7

Geelong

15 500

15 484

50.0

50.0

+3.5

Geelong North

19 000

12 176

60.9

39.1

+2.9

Gippsland East

14 222

15 782

47.4

52.6

+12.6

Gippsland South

12 740

17 238

42.5

57.5

+11.9

Gippsland West

13 199

17 095

43.6

56.4

+6.2

Gisborne

17 371

16 277

51.6

48.4

+9.5

Glen Waverley

10 738

18 410

36.8

63.2

+2.5

Hawthorn

11 791

21 042

35.9

64.1

-0.5

Ivanhoe

16 679

13 413

55.4

44.6

+3.8

Keilor

23 529

14 481

61.9

38.1

+0.3

Kew

11 478

20 247

36.2

63.8

+1.2

Knox

15 611

20 962

42.7

57.3

+0.6

Malvern

10 583

21 129

33.4

66.6

+1.0

Melbourne

22 112

12 568

63.8

36.2

-2.1

Melton

24 237

15 294

61.3

38.7

-0.9

Mildura

11 223

19 304

36.8

63.2

+1.4

Mill Park

24 772

12 864

65.8

34.2

+1.9

Mitcham

16 110

15 767

50.5

49.5

+5.9

Monbulk

14 306

16 241

46.8

53.2

+2.1

Mooroolbark

12 549

19 509

39.1

60.9

+1.4

Mordialloc

14 200

15 515

47.8

52.2

+2.5

Mornington

14 880

18 733

44.3

55.7

+5.5

Morwell

18 457

12 856

58.9

41.1

+6.2

Murray Valley

10 811

20 899

34.1

65.9

+6.5

Narracan

15 063

13 621

52.5

47.5

+4.1

Niddrie

17 761

13 525

56.8

43.2

+2.4

Northcote

22 733

8 552

72.7

27.3

+2.8

Oakleigh

16 286

14 262

53.3

46.7

+4.1

Pakenham

14 059

18 284

43.5

56.5

+5.6

Pascoe Vale

17 725

9 569

64.9

35.1

+3.9

Polwarth

12 237

18 675

39.6

60.4

-2.3

Portland

12 394

14 868

45.5

54.5

+5.9

Prahran

15 126

17 785

46.0

54.0

+0.6

Preston

20 522

9 384

68.6

31.4

+3.3

Richmond

23 204

11 837

66.2

33.8

-1.1

Ripon

15 579

14 045

52.6

47.4

+7.2

Rodney

10 358

19 793

34.4

65.6

+10.5

Sandringham

11 693

19 478

37.5

62.5

+1.8

Seymour

16 672

16 210

50.7

49.3

+4.9

Shepparton

11 743

19 267

37.9

62.1

+7.4

South Barwon

15 076

18 222

45.3

54.7

+5.5

Springvale

19 114

12 322

60.8

39.2

+2.9

Sunshine

23 643

10 062

70.1

29.9

+1.1

Swan Hill

10 619

16 864

38.6

61.4

+7.6

Thomastown

23 305

8 212

73.9

26.1

+1.9

Tullamarine

19 502

16 751

53.8

46.2

+6.8

Wantirna

13 301

21 579

38.1

61.9

+1.3

Warrandyte

11 571

20 096

36.5

63.5

+0.5

Warrnambool

13 018

18 682

41.1

58.9

+4.9

Werribee

23 540

14 754

61.5

38.5

+10.7

Williamstown

21 011

9 671

68.5

31.5

+2.9

Wimmera

10 648

19 850

34.9

65.1

+6.1

Yan Yean

19 170

16 204

54.2

45.8

+2.5

Total

1 420 775

1 409 567

50.2

49.8

+3.7

Region

Metropolitan

960 658

867 363

52.6

47.4

+2.5

Non-Metropolitan

460 117

542 204

45.9

54.1

+6.1

Table 5 Legislative Assembly: Electoral Pendulum

District

Swing to Lose

%

District

Swing to Lose

%

ALP/Ind Seats

LP/NP Seats

Broadmeadows

24.7

Malvern

16.6

Thomastown

23.9

Murray Valley

15.9

Northcote

22.7

Rodney

15.6

Coburg

21.8

Brighton

15.6

Sunshine

20.1

Wimmera

15.1

Preston

18.6

Hawthorn

14.1

Williamstown

18.5

Kew

13.8

Footscray

17.6

Warrandyte

13.5

Richmond

16.2

Doncaster

13.3

Mill Park

15.8

Glen Waverley

13.2

Pascoe Vale

14.9

Sandringham

12.5

Altona

14.7

Shepparton

12.1

Melbourne

13.8

Wantirna

11.9

Keilor

11.9

Bulleen

11.6

Clayton

11.7

Swan Hill

11.4

Werribee

11.5

Mooroolbark

10.9

Melton

11.3

Frankston

10.7

Bendigo West

11.3

Polwarth

10.4

Geelong North

10.9

Evelyn

9.5

Springvale

10.8

Warrnambool

8.9

Morwell

8.9

Caulfield

8.5

Essendon

8.5

Box Hill

7.6

Dandenong North

8.0

Gippsland South

7.5

Gippsland East (Ind)

7.7

Benalla

7.4

Niddrie

6.8

Knox

7.3

Albert Park

6.4

Forest Hill

7.1

Mildura (Ind)

6.1

Benambra

7.1

Bundoora

6.1

Burwood

6.8

Dandenong

5.8

Pakenham

6.5

Ivanhoe

5.4

Dromana

6.2

Frankston East

4.6

Bennettswood

6.1

Yan Yean

4.2

Mornington

5.7

Gippsland West (Ind)

4.0

Cranbourne

5.7

Tullamarine

3.8

Berwick

4.9

Ballarat East

3.7

South Barwon

4.7

Oakleigh

3.3

Bayswater

4.7

Bendigo East

3.1

Portland

4.5

Ripon

2.6

Prahran

4.0

Narracan

2.5

Eltham

3.5

Gisborne

1.6

Monbulk

3.2

Ballarat West

1.0

Mordialloc

2.2

Seymour

0.7

Bentleigh

1.9

Mitcham

0.5

Bellarine

1.7

Carrum

0.2

Geelong

0.0

Note: Swing to lose for Independent held seats based on two candidate preferred vote.

Table 6 Legislative Council, State Summary

Enrolled 3 130 338

Candidates

Seats Won

First Preference Votes

Swing Per cent

Number

Per cent

Australian Labor Party (ALP)

20

8

1 187 484

42.23

+1.72

Liberal Party (LP)

19

11

1 116 347

39.70

-4.20

National Party (NP)

3

3

204 587

7.28

+0.65

Australian Democrats (AD)

17

190 940

6.79

+1.06

Australian Greens (AG)

4

62 796

2.23

+2.23

Christian Democratic Party (CDP)

2

6 608

0.24

+0.04

Australian Reform Party (ARP)

1

6 617

0.23

+0.23

Independents (IND)

8

36 399

1.29

-1.74

Formal Votes

2 811 778

96.63

-0.79

Informal Votes

97 949

3.37

+0.79

Turnout/Total Votes

74

22

2 909 727

92.95

-1.13

Table 7 Legislative Council, Composition After 1999 Election

 

Elected

1996(a)

Elected

1999

Total

Liberal Party

13

11

24

National Party

3

3

6

Australian Labor Party

6

8

14

Total

22

22

44

(a) Adjusted for 1999 By-election results. Ballarat Province changed from LP to ALP.

 

Table 8 Legislative Council: Province Summary

Electoral Province

First Preference Votes

Formal Votes

Informal Votes

Total Votes

Electors Enrolled

ALP

LP

NP

AD

Others

Number

Ballarat

57 655

55 834

6 853

120 342

3 383

123 725

133 541

Central Highlands

61 686

70 353

132 039

4 368

136 407

144 842

Chelsea

57 949

56 642

5 250

2 185

122 026

4 621

126 647

135 896

Doutta Galla

93 833

49 202

143 035

7 441

150 476

158 446

East Yarra

41 644

72 041

13 236

126 921

3 308

130 229

141 354

Eumemmerring

64 024

65 426

5 161

9 509

144 120

6 243

150 363

159 504

Geelong

57 389

58 390

6 540

5 568

127 887

3 350

131 237

138 739

Gippsland

47 503

46 447

6 802

18 652

119 404

4 330

123 734

131 261

Higinbotham

69 024

53 414

122 438

3 892

126 330

136 171

Jika Jika

87 169

45 415

132 584

5 390

137 974

147 692

Koonung

51 052

71 158

6 908

4 480

133 598

3 915

137 513

146 767

Melbourne

73 484

44 220

13 517

131 221

5 460

136 681

152 440

Melbourne North

78 663

42 115

4 909

125 687

6 777

132 464

142 672

Melbourne West

79 460

43 561

7 682

130 703

5 801

136 504

146 908

Monash

45 926

62 295

9 211

4 165

121 597

4 009

125 606

151 995

North Eastern

43 958

70 020

10 148

124 126

3 889

128 015

136 517

North Western

49 952

62 789

8 855

121 596

2 913

124 509

132 305

Silvan

48 266

66 992

7 375

3 587

126 220

3 685

129 905

138 275

South Eastern

51 147

70 597

6 551

5 972

134 267

3 807

138 074

146 734

Templestowe

69 383

13 568

46 776

129 727

3 944

133 671

143 222

Waverley

54 573

57 252

9 869

121 694

4 686

126 380

135 806

Western

42 151

71 778

6 617

120 546

2 737

123 283

129 251

Total

1 187 484

1 116 347

204 587

190 940

112 420

2 811 778

97 949

2 909 727

3 130 338

Per cent

Ballarat

47.9

46.4

5.7

97.3

2.7

92.6

Central Highlands

46.7

53.3

96.8

3.2

94.2

Chelsea

47.5

46.4

4.3

1.8

96.4

3.6

93.2

Doutta Galla

65.6

34.4

95.1

4.9

95.0

East Yarra

32.8

56.8

10.4

97.5

2.5

92.1

Eumemmerring

44.4

45.4

3.6

6.6

95.8

4.2

94.3

Geelong

44.9

45.7

5.1

4.4

97.4

2.6

94.6

Gippsland

39.8

38.9

5.7

15.6

96.5

3.5

94.3

Higinbotham

56.4

43.6

96.9

3.1

92.8

Jika Jika

65.7

34.3

96.1

3.9

93.4

Koonung

38.2

53.3

5.2

3.4

97.2

2.8

93.7

Melbourne

56.0

33.7

10.3

96.0

4.0

89.7

Melbourne North

62.6

33.5

3.9

94.9

5.1

92.8

Melbourne West

60.8

33.3

5.9

95.8

4.2

92.9

Monash

37.8

51.2

7.6

3.4

96.8

3.2

82.6

North Eastern

35.4

56.4

8.2

97.0

3.0

93.8

North Western

41.1

51.6

7.3

97.7

2.3

94.1

Silvan

38.2

53.1

5.8

2.8

97.2

2.8

93.9

South Eastern

38.1

52.6

4.9

4.4

97.2

2.8

94.1

Templestowe

53.5

10.5

36.1

97.0

3.0

93.3

Waverley

44.8

47.0

8.1

96.3

3.7

93.1

Western

35.0

59.5

5.5

97.8

2.2

95.4

Total

42.2

39.7

7.3

6.8

4.0

96.6

3.4

93.0

Note: Party winning seat shown in bold

Table 9 Legislative Council, Province Details

Ballarat

Enrolled 133 541

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Clark D #

LP

55 834

46.4

-5.3

Lutz G

AD

6 853

5.7

+1.8

Hadden-Tregear D

ALP

57 655

47.9

+6.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Clark D #

LP

58 568

48.7

-5.7

Hadden-Tregear D

ALP

61 774

51.3

+5.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

120 342

97.3

-0.9

Informal

 

3 383

2.7

+0.9

Turnout

 

123 725

92.6

-2.3

 

 

 

 

 

Central Highlands

Enrolled 144 842

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Stoney G *

LP

70 353

53.3

-0.8

Mitchell R

ALP

61 686

46.7

+8.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

132 039

96.8

-0.9

Informal

 

4 368

3.2

+0.9

Turnout

 

136 407

94.2

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Chelsea

Enrolled 135 896

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Smith B

ALP

57 949

47.5

+5.3

Good M

IND

2 185

1.8

+1.8

Bennett J

AD

5 250

4.3

-0.4

Wilding S *

LP

56 642

46.4

-4.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Smith B

ALP

62 501

51.2

+4.5

Wilding S *

LP

59 525

48.8

-4.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

122 026

96.4

-1.1

Informal

 

4 621

3.6

+1.1

Turnout

 

126 647

93.2

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Doutta Galla

Enrolled 158 446

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Madden J #

ALP

93 833

65.6

+7.8

Daw P

LP

49 202

34.4

-1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

143 035

95.1

-0.6

Informal

 

7 441

4.9

+0.6

Turnout

 

150 476

95.0

+0.9

 

 

 

 

 

East Yarra

Enrolled 141 354

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Birrell M *

LP

72 041

56.8

-0.5

Harcourt P

AD

13 236

10.4

+1.5

Walpole D

ALP

41 644

32.8

+2.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Birrell M *

LP

76 560

60.3

-1.8

Walpole D

ALP

50 356

39.7

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

126 921

97.5

-0.8

Informal

 

3 308

2.5

+0.8

Turnout

 

130 229

92.1

-1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Eumemmerring

Enrolled 159 504

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Dickson L

CDP

4 492

3.1

+0.5

Blades R

IND

5 017

3.5

+3.5

Berk D

AD

5 161

3.6

-0.5

Rich-Phillips G #

LP

65 426

45.4

-3.4

Baldovino C

ALP

64 024

44.4

+1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Rich-Phillips G #

LP

72 518

50.3

-2.5

Baldovino C

ALP

71 602

49.7

+2.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

144 120

95.8

-1.0

Informal

 

6 243

4.2

+1.0

Turnout

 

150 363

94.3

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Geelong

Enrolled 138 739

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Whitehead A

AG

5 568

4.4

+4.4

Hodge R

AD

6 540

5.1

+0.6

Carbines E

ALP

57 389

44.9

+1.6

Hartigan B *

LP

58 390

45.7

-5.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Carbines E

ALP

65 790

51.4

+4.7

Hartigan B *

LP

62 097

48.6

-4.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

127 887

97.4

-0.3

Informal

 

3 350

2.6

+0.3

Turnout

 

131 237

94.6

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Gippsland

Enrolled 131 261

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Treasure D

IND

11 179

9.4

+9.4

Seabrook P

IND

3 957

3.3

+3.3

McCubbin J

AD

6 802

5.7

+1.0

Davis P *

LP

46 447

38.9

+38.9

Wishart D

ALP

47 503

39.8

+6.2

O'Brien J

IND

3 516

2.9

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Davis P *

LP

60 046

50.3

-10.7

Wishart D

ALP

59 358

49.7

+10.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

119 404

96.5

-1.4

Informal

 

4 330

3.5

+1.4

Turnout

 

123 734

94.3

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Higinbotham

Enrolled 136 171

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Strong C *

LP

69 024

56.4

-0.4

Tucker C

AD

53 414

43.6

+35.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

122 438

96.9

-1.0

Informal

 

3 892

3.1

+1.0

Turnout

 

126 330

92.8

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Jika Jika

Enrolled 147 692

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Mikakos J #

ALP

87 169

65.7

+10.4

Dunn A

LP

45 415

34.3

+0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

132 584

96.1

-0.3

Informal

 

5 390

3.9

+0.3

Turnout

 

137 974

93.4

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Koonung

Enrolled 146 767

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kir M

AG

4 480

3.4

+3.4

Legg K

ALP

51 052

38.2

+2.7

Atkinson B *

LP

71 158

53.3

-3.2

Alesich S

AD

6 908

5.2

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Legg K

ALP

58 137

43.6

+3.2

Atkinson B *

LP

75 248

56.4

-3.2

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

133 598

97.2

-0.7

Informal

 

3 915

2.8

+0.7

Turnout

 

137 513

93.7

-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne

Enrolled 152 440

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Handsaker S

AD

13 517

10.3

+1.9

Romanes G #

ALP

73 484

56.0

+1.1

McGraith S

LP

44 220

33.7

+0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Romanes G #

ALP

83 865

63.9

+0.1

McGraith S

LP

47 313

36.1

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

131 221

96.0

-0.9

Informal

 

5 460

4.0

+0.9

Turnout

 

136 681

89.7

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne North

Enrolled 142 672

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

De Bono G

LP

42 115

33.5

-2.5

McClure M

IND

4 909

3.9

+3.9

Thomson M #

ALP

78 663

62.6

+4.9

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

De Bono G

LP

44 484

35.4

-2.9

Thomson M #

ALP

81 196

64.6

+2.9

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

125 687

94.9

-1.4

Informal

 

6 777

5.1

+1.4

Turnout

 

132 464

92.8

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne West

Enrolled 146 908

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Darveniza K #

ALP

79 460

60.8

+13.2

Barnes D

AD

7 682

5.9

+2.8

Borg A

LP

43 561

33.3

-0.2

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Darveniza K #

ALP

84 297

64.5

+3.3

Borg A

LP

46 404

35.5

-3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

130 703

95.8

-0.4

Informal

 

5 801

4.2

+0.4

Turnout

 

136 504

92.9

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Monash

Enrolled 151 995

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

D'Andrea R

IND

4 165

3.4

+3.4

Coote A #

LP

62 295

51.2

-0.5

Willox J

ALP

45 926

37.8

-0.7

Peters J

AD

9 211

7.6

+1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Coote A #

LP

67 158

55.3

+0.5

Willox J

ALP

54 246

44.7

-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

121 597

96.8

-0.8

Informal

 

4 009

3.2

+0.8

Turnout

 

125 606

82.6

-7.8

 

 

 

 

 

North Eastern

Enrolled 136 517

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Davis L

ALP

43 958

35.4

+9.8

Lee B

AD

10 148

8.2

+4.2

Baxter B *

NP

70 020

56.4

+19.4

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Davis L

ALP

49 395

39.8

+9.1

Baxter B *

NP

74 727

60.2

-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

124 126

97.0

-0.8

Informal

 

3 889

3.0

+0.8

Turnout

 

128 015

93.8

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

North Western

Enrolled 132 305

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kidd J

ALP

49 952

41.1

+7.3

Bishop B *

NP

62 789

51.6

-5.6

Van Diesen A

AD

8 855

7.3

+1.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Kidd J

ALP

54 332

44.7

+6.3

Bishop B *

NP

67 257

55.3

-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

121 596

97.7

-0.4

Informal

 

2 913

2.3

+0.4

Turnout

 

124 509

94.1

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Silvan

Enrolled 138 275

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Tunstall M

ALP

48 266

38.2

+3.5

Raskovy S

IND

1 471

1.2

+1.2

Leeper A

AD

7 375

5.8

-0.1

Olexander A #

LP

66 992

53.1

-2.9

Levick R

CDP

2 116

1.7

+1.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Tunstall M

ALP

54 475

43.2

+3.6

Olexander A #

LP

71 662

56.8

-3.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

126 220

97.2

-0.6

Informal

 

3 685

2.8

+0.6

Turnout

 

129 905

93.9

-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

South Eastern

Enrolled 146 734

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Kingsford S

AG

5 972

4.4

+4.4

Bowden R *

LP

70 597

52.6

-4.0

Armstrong R

AD

6 551

4.9

0.0

Binney M

ALP

51 147

38.1

-2.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Bowden R *

LP

76 088

56.7

-3.4

Binney M

ALP

58 148

43.3

+3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

134 267

97.2

-0.6

Informal

 

3 807

2.8

+0.6

Turnout

 

138 074

94.1

-0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Templestowe

Enrolled 143 222

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Evans R

AG

46 776

36.1

+36.1

Forwood B *

LP

69 383

53.5

-1.3

Millane B

AD

13 568

10.5

+1.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Evans R

AG

57 426

44.3

 

Forwood B *

LP

72 294

55.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

129 727

97.0

-0.7

Informal

 

3 944

3.0

+0.7

Turnout

 

133 671

93.3

-1.5

 

 

 

 

 

Waverley

Enrolled 135 806

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Morgan P

AD

9 869

8.1

+1.2

Brideston A *

LP

57 252

47.0

-3.9

Morris S

ALP

54 573

44.8

+4.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Brideston A *

LP

61 735

50.7

-4.1

Morris S

ALP

59 959

49.3

+4.1

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

121 694

96.3

-1.1

Informal

 

4 686

3.7

+1.1

Turnout

 

126 380

93.1

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Western

Enrolled 129 251

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

 

 

 

 

Hallam R *

NP

71 778

59.5

+59.5

Mitchell P

ALP

42 151

35.0

+1.8

McDonald L

ARP

6 617

5.5

+5.5

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Hallam R *

NP

74 660

61.9

-2.8

Mitchell P

ALP

45 884

38.1

+2.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

120 546

97.8

-0.4

Informal

 

2 737

2.2

+0.4

Turnout

 

123 283

95.4

-0.4

 

 

 

 

 

Table 10 Legislative Council: Two Party Preferred Vote

Electoral Province

Number

Per cent

% Swing to ALP

ALP

LP/NP

ALP

LP/NP

Ballarat

61 774

58 568

51.3

48.7

+5.7

Central Highlands

61 686

70 353

46.7

53.3

+4.3

Chelsea

62 501

59 525

51.2

48.8

+4.5

Doutta Galla

93 833

49 202

65.6

34.4

+4.4

East Yarra

50 356

76 560

39.7

60.3

+1.9

Eumemmerring

71 602

72 518

49.7

50.3

+2.5

Geelong

65 790

62 097

51.4

48.6

+4.7

Gippsland

59 358

60 046

49.7

50.3

+10.7

Higinbotham (a)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Jika Jika

87 169

45 415

65.7

34.3

+2.9

Koonung

58 137

75 248

43.6

56.4

+3.2

Melbourne

83 865

47 313

63.9

36.1

+0.1

Melbourne North

81 196

44 484

64.6

35.4

+2.9

Melbourne West

84 297

46 404

64.5

35.5

+3.3

Monash

54 246

67 158

44.7

55.3

-0.5

North Eastem

49 395

74 727

39.8

60.2

+9.1

North Western

54 332

67 257

44.7

55.3

+6.3

Silvan

54 475

71 662

43.2

56.8

+3.6

South Eastern

58 148

76 088

43.3

56.7

+3.4

Templestowe (a)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Waverley

59 959

61 735

49.3

50.7

+4.1

Western

45 884

74 660

38.1

61.9

+2.8

Total

1 298 003

1 261 020

50.7

49.3

+4.7

(a) Two Party Preferred votes not available due to absence of ALP candidate.

Table 11 Legislative Council: Electoral Pendulum

Province

Swing to Lose
%

 

Province

Swing to Lose
%

LP/NP Seats

ALP Seats

Western (NP)

11.9

Jika Jika

15.7

East Yarra

10.3

Doutta Galla

15.6

North Eastern (NP)

10.2

Melbourne North

14.6

Silvan

6.8

Melbourne West

14.5

South Eastern

6.7

Melbourne

13.9

Higinbotham (a)

6.4

Geelong

1.4

Koonung

6.4

Ballarat

1.3

Templestowe (a)

5.7

Chelsea

1.2

North Western (NP)

5.3

Monash

5.3

Central Highlands

3.3

Waverley

0.7

Gippsland

0.3

Eumemmerring

0.3

(a) No ALP candidate. For Higinbotham, swing to lose against AD; for Templestowe, swing to lose against AG.

Table 12 Legislative Assembly By-elections 1996 to 1999

Gippsland West (1/2/97)

Enrolled 31 375

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Davies S

IND

8 844

32.6

+32.6

Sayers N

SP

1 275

4.7

+4.7

Turnbull D

IND

1 361

5.0

+5.0

Mathieson R

ARP

2 555

9.4

+9.4

Lowry M

IND

1 867

6.9

-2.1

Coleman M #

LP

11 214

41.4

-16.3

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Davies S

IND

13 606

50.3

 

Coleman M #

LP

13 447

49.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

27 116

97.5

-0.8

Informal

 

708

2.5

+0.8

Turnout

 

27 824

88.7

-6.5

 

 

 

 

 

Mitcham (13/12/97)

Enrolled 33 919

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Stokes P

IND

1 356

4.7

+4.7

Munroe A #

LP

8 764

30.7

-22.9

Dunn M

ARP

204

0.7

+0.7

Wootton R

IND

498

1.7

+1.7

Kliska A

IND

257

0.9

+0.9

Ford N

IND

42

0.1

+0.1

Smith B

IND

48

0.2

+0.2

McDermott D

SP

245

0.9

+0.9

Petherbridge T

IND

551

1.9

+1.9

Kalinkara S

IND

42

0.1

+0.1

Scotte D

IND

246

0.9

+0.9

Raskovy S

IND

88

0.3

+0.3

Abolish Child Support

ACS

69

0.2

+0.2

McLaren J

AD

1 857

6.5

+6.5

Evans R

AG

1 021

3.6

+3.6

Stagg A

IND

55

0.2

+0.2

Robinson T

ALP

13 206

46.3

+5.8

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Munroe A #

LP

11 247

39.5

-15.8

Robinson T

ALP

17 214

60.5

+15.8

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

28 549

96.5

-1.6

Informal

 

1 040

3.5

+1.6

Turnout

 

29 589

87.2

-8.0

 

 

 

 

 

Northcote (15/8/98)

Enrolled 34 787

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Kavalenka N

PHON

1 690

6.0

+6.0

Saunders K

AD

7 439

26.3

+26.3

Evans D

IND

555

2.0

+2.0

Sekhon G

AG

1 081

3.8

+3.8

Haidar A

ACS

75

0.3

+0.3

Delahunty M #

ALP

16 954

60.0

+0.4

Sibelle M

IND

472

1.7

+1.7

 

 

 

 

 

Two Candidate Preferred

 

 

 

 

Saunders K

AD

9 891

35.0

 

Delahunty M #

ALP

18 351

65.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

28 266

95.4

-0.8

Informal

 

1 373

4.6

+0.8

Turnout

 

29 639

85.2

-7.6

 

 

 

 

 

Burwood (11/12/99)

Enrolled 34 964

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Stensholt B

ALP

13 410

45.0

+3.5

McLean L #

LP

12 054

40.5

-15.0

Crohn P

AG

1 875

6.3

+6.3

Ferwerda P

DLP

453

1.5

+1.5

Mayne S

IND

1 975

6.6

+6.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Stensholt B

ALP

15 963

53.6

+10.4

McLean L #

LP

13 804

46.4

-10.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

29 767

97.6

0.0

Informal

 

741

2.4

0.0

Turnout

 

30 508

87.3

-5.7

Table 13 Legislative Council By-elections 1996 to 1999

Ballarat (18/9/99)

Enrolled 133 541

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

McQuilten J

ALP

58 904

48.4

+6.9

Clarke C

AG

5 233

4.3

+4.3

Bath H #

LP

55 191

45.3

-6.4

Patterson J

IND

2 423

2.0

+2.0

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

McQuilten J

ALP

63 589

52.2

+6.6

Bath H #

LP

58 162

47.8

-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

121 751

97.1

-1.1

Informal

 

3 631

2.9

+1.1

Turnout

 

125 382

93.9

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne (18/9/99)

Enrolled 152 440

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Sekhon G

AG

11 126

8.5

+8.5

Sharp B

AD

8 437

6.4

-2.0

Nguyen K

LP

41 634

31.8

-1.7

Jennings G #

ALP

69 811

53.3

-1.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Nguyen K

LP

48 336

36.9

+0.7

Jennings G #

ALP

82 617

63.1

-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

131 008

95.9

-1.0

Informal

 

5 555

4.1

+1.0

Turnout

 

136 563

89.6

-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

Melbourne North (18/9/99)

Enrolled 142 672

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First PreferenceVotes

 

 

 

 

Broad C #

ALP

79 955

63.6

+5.9

Bradshaw C

IND

5 255

4.2

+4.2

Kraskov M

LP

40 444

32.2

-3.6

 

 

 

 

 

Two Party Preferred

 

 

 

 

Broad C #

ALP

83 034

66.1

+4.4

Kraskov M

LP

42 607

33.9

-4.4

 

 

 

 

 

Formal

 

125 654

94.9

-1.4

Informal

 

6 789

5.1

+1.4

Turnout

 

132 452

92.8

-1.2

Table 14 Legislative Assembly Elections 1950-1999

Election

ALP

LP

NP

AD

DLP

Oth

Total

ALP

LP/NP

First Preference Votes

Two Party Votes

1950

45.3

40.7

10.6

3.4

100.0

50.4

49.6

1952

49.1

24.9

8.3

17.7

100.0

56.7

43.3

1955

32.6

37.8

9.5

12.6

7.5

100.0

42.1

57.9

1958

37.7

37.2

9.3

14.4

1.4

100.0

42.2

57.8

1961

38.6

36.4

7.1

17.0

0.9

100.0

42.1

57.9

1964

36.2

39.6

8.8

15.0

0.4

100.0

41.0

59.0

1967

37.9

37.5

8.6

14.3

1.7

100.0

41.6

58.4

1970

41.4

36.7

6.4

13.3

2.2

100.0

45.8

54.2

1973

41.6

42.3

6.0

7.8

2.3

100.0

44.8

55.2

1976

42.4

45.9

7.1

2.6

2.1

100.0

44.2

55.8

1979

45.2

41.4

5.6

5.4

0.5

1.8

100.0

49.5

50.5

1982

50.0

38.3

5.0

5.3

0.3

1.0

100.0

53.8

46.2

1985

50.0

41.9

7.3

0.8

100.0

50.7

49.3

1988

46.5

40.6

7.8

1.1

0.2

3.8

100.0

49.5

50.5

1992

38.4

44.2

7.8

0.2

9.4

100.0

43.7

56.3

1996

43.1

44.0

6.7

6.2

100.0

46.5

53.5

1999

45.6

42.2

4.8

0.3

0.2

6.9

100.0

50.2

49.8

Seats Won

1950

24

27

13

1

65

1952

37

11

12

5

65

1955

20

33

11

1

1

66

1958

18

39

9

66

1961

17

39

9

1

66

1964

18

38

10

66

1967

16

44

12

1

73

1970

22

42

8

1

73

1973

18

46

8

1

73

1976

21

52

7

1

81

1979

32

41

8

81

1982

49

24

8

81

1985

47

31

10

88

1988

46

33

9

88

1992

27

52

9

88

1996

29

49

9

1

88

1999

42

36

7

3

88


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