House of Representatives Committees

| House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs

Footnotes

Chapter 1 Introduction

[1]       Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing, 2011, <www.agencysearch.australia.gov.au/search/search.cgi?collection=agencies&form=simple&profile=abs&query=census of population and housing 2011> accessed 12 September 2012.

Chapter 2 The role of Indigenous languages

[1]       Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) and the Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages and Culture (FATSILC) National Indigenous Languages Survey, 2005, pp. 20-21.

[2]       United Nations General Assembly paper, fifth session, Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Study on the role of languages and culture in the promotion and protection of the rights and identity of indigenous peoples, 2012, p. 8.

[3]       The National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139, p. 2.

[4]       ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 3.

[5]       Teachers and Students of Cert III in Learning Endangered Aboriginal Language, Murray Bridge TAFE, South Australia, Submission 18, p. 2.

[6]       A Turner, Artepe Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 13.

[7]       L Box, Yipirinya School Council, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, pp. 24-5.

[8]       C Edwards and F Meakins, Submission 4a, p. 2.

[9]       R Williams, Papulu Apparr-Kari Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 34.

[10]     Walpiri Patu Kurlangu Jaru, Submission 121, p. 6.

[11]     IRCA, Submission 68, p. 7.

[12]     The Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 2.

[13]     The Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 2.

[14]     T Stockley, Submission 62, p. 2.

[15]     A Rigney, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 2.

[16]     M Dhamarrandji, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 4.

[17]     P Bedford, Committee Hansard, Halls Creek, 1 May 2012, p. 10.

[18]     D Angelo, Submission 110, p. 2.

[19]     T Stockley, Submission 62, p. 2.

[20]     Reconciliation Australia, Submission 115, p. 1.

[21]     T Stebbins, Submission 69, p. 2.

[22]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 10.

[23]     N Hatfield, Submission 63,  pp. 5-6.

[24]     N Hatfield, Submission 63,  p. 4.

[25]     IRCA, Submission 68a, p. 2.

[26]     T Stockley, Submission 62, p. 9.

[27]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, pp. 15-16.

[28]     Studies reported by the United States National Academy of Sciences identified greater brain plasticity in bilingual infants compared with non bilingual infants at the pre-language stage. The studies showed that bilingual infants are far more likely to learn new responses than non bilingual infants. See A Kovacs and J Mehler, ‘Cognitive gains in 7 month old bilingual infants’, < www.pnas.org/content/106/16/6556.short> accessed 11 February 2012.

[29]     United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), 2003, ‘Language Vitality and Endangerment: Document submitted to the International Expert Meeting on UNESCO Programme Safeguarding of Endangered Languages’ <www.unesco.org/culture/ich/doc/src/00120-EN.pdf> accessed 11 February 2012.

[30]     N Thieberger, Submission 106, p. 1.

[31]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 2.

[32]     Australian of the Year Awards 2013, ‘Senior Australian of the Year 2012’, <www.australianoftheyear.org.au/recipients/?m=laurie-baymarrwangga-2012> accessed 30 August 2012.

[33]     Yan-nhangu Dictionary Team, Submission 30, p. 3.

[34]     R Amery, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 5.

[35]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey, 2005, p. 21.

[36]     Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), ‘Closing the Gap: The Indigenous Reform Agenda’ <www.fahcsia.gov.au/our-responsibilities/indigenous-australians/programs-services/closing-the-gap> accessed 30 August 2012.

[37]     AEU, Submission 88, p. 7.

[38]     J Phillips, ANTaR, Committee Hansard, 18 November 2011, p. 9.

[39]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 3.

[40]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 31, p. 1.

[41]     Australian Society for Indigenous Languages, Submission 60, p. 1.

[42]     Why Warriors Pty Ltd and the Arnhem Human Enterprise Development (AHED) project, Submission 37, pp. 1 and 3.

[43]     IRCA, Submission 68, p. 7.

[44]     P Bedford, Committee Hansard, Halls Creek, 1 May 2012, p. 10.

[45]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 8.

[46]     NSW Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 15.

[47]     T Stebbins, Submission 69, p. 2.

[48]     C Johnston, Submission 32, p. 2.

[49]     AEU, Submission 88, p. 1.

[50]     Why Warriors Pty Ltd and the AHED project, Submission 37, p. 4.

[51]     D Rice, Bilingual Resources Development Unit, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 38.

[52]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 1.

[53]     Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, Submission 70, p. 3.

[54]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 61.

[55]     R Amery, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 3.

[56]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 63.

[57]     M Christie, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 55.

[58]     W Fogarty, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 3 November 2011, p. 2.

[59]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, pp. 11-12.

[60]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, p. 12.

[61]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11.

[62]     IRCA, Submission 68a, p. 1.

[63]     IRCA, Submission 68a, p. 2.

[64]     L Cavanagh, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 18.

[65]     IRCA, Supplementary Submission 68a, p. 7.

[66]     I Kral, Committee Hansard, 3 November 2011, p. 2.

[67]     A dialect is a variety of a language spoken in a particular area by a particular group.

[68]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 3.

[69]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 27.

[70]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 24.

[71]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 58.

[72]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 7.

[73]     D Angelo, Submission 153, p. 1.

[74]     D Marmion, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 7 July 2011, p. 7.

[75]     C Gorman, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 2.

[76]     C Gorman, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 2.

[77]     TSRA, Submission 146, p. 2. A table outlining languages spoken in the Torres Strait can be found in the submission on pp. 2-3.

[78]     C Yu, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 8.

[79]     The Australian Council of TESOL Associations, ACTA, Submission 72, p. 8.

[80]     C Gorman, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 3.

[81]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, pp. 6-7.

[82]     ABS, ‘Population composition: Indigenous languages’ <www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/aad2e0bbe820ca2570ec001117a5!OpenDocument>  accessed 16 July 2012.

[83]     ABS, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey 2008, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/4714.0/ accessed 12 September 2012.

[84]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 11.

[85]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 24.

[86]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11.

[87]     AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 68.

[88]     The Koori Mail, Indigenous Population is 548 370 – a 20 percent jump!, 27 June 2012, p. 5.

[89]     Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing, 2011, <www.agencysearch.australia.gov.au/search/search.cgi?collection=agencies&form=simple&profile=abs&query=census of population and housing 2011> accessed 12 September 2012.

[90]     B Devlin, Submission 81, p. 2.

[91]     AIATSIS, Australian Indigenous Languages Database, <http://austlang.aiatsis.gov.au/disclaimer.php> accessed 2 August 2012.

[92]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, pp. 6-7.

[93]     Details on specific languages and the number of speakers in Australia can be referenced in chapter 6 of the NILS 2005 report. AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 68.

Chapter 3 Indigenous languages policy

[1]       Office for the Arts, ‘Indigenous Languages – A National Approach 2009’ <www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/languages>, accessed 3 July 2012.

[2]       W Fogarty, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 3 November 2011, p. 1.

[3]       AIATSIS and FATSILC, National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 3.

[4]       A Rigney, Kaurna Warra Pintyandi, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 1.

[5]       V Koolmatrie, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 21.

[6]       J Bianco, National Policy on Languages, Australian Government Publishing. Service (AGPS), Canberra, 1987.

[7]       J Dawkins, Minister for Employment Education and Training, Australia’s Language: The Australian Language and Literacy Policy, 2 September 1991, AGPS, Canberra, 1993.

[8]       House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Language and Culture: A Matter of Survival, 1992.

[9]       Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs (AIATSIS) and the Federation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages and Culture (FATSILC), National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005.

[10]     Office for the Arts, ‘Indigenous Languages – A National Approach 2009’ <www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/languages> accessed 3 July 2012.

[11]     AEU, Submission 88, p. 7.

[12]     ESALG, Submission 25, p. 6.

[13]     IRCA, Submission 68, p. 9.

[14]     AEU, Submission 88, p. 18.

[15]     National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139a, p. 5.

[16]     F Balsalmo, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 2.

[17]     F Baisden, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 13.

[18]     Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport, ‘National Cultural Policy’ <www.culture.arts.gov.au/discussion-paper/developing-a-vision> accessed 28 August 2012.

[19]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 7.

[20]     Western Australian Department of Education Kimberley, Submission 117, p. 1.

[21]     Northern Territory Department of Education and Training, ‘Framework for Learning English as an Additional Language’ <www.det.nt.gov.au/about‑us/policies/documents/schools/framework-for-learning-english-as-an-additional-language>, accessed 22 August 2012.

[22]     Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales, ‘New South Wales Aboriginal Languages Policy’ <www.daa.nsw.gov.au/data/files/languagespolicyFINAL.pdf>, accessed 22 August 2012.

[23]     Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales, Submission 98, p. 16.

[24]     Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales, Submission 98, p. 16.

[25]     Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales, Submission 98, p. 17.

[26]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 6. The development of interpreting and translating services will be discussed in detail in Chapter 6.

[27]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, pp. 9-15.

[28]     Papulu Appar-kari Language Corporation, Submission 49, p. 1.

[29]     Indigenous Remote Communications Association, Submission 68, p. 3.

[30]     L Cavanagh, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 18

[31]     National Indigenous Radio Service, Submission 56, p. 1.

[32]     See, for example, Aboriginal Affairs NSW, Submission 98, p. 9; M Martin, Committee Hansard, Halls Creek, 1 May 2012, p. 17; J Hobson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 13 October 2012, p. 4; Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity (RNLD), Submission 130, p. 7.

[33]     M Florey, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 8.

[34]     Yan-nhangu Dictionary Team, Submission 30, p. 2.

[35]     M Martin, Committee Hansard, Halls Creek, 1 May 2012, p. 17

[36]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11; M Florey, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 8; Kaurna Warra Pintyandi group, Submission 92, p. 3; R Amery, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 3.

[37]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 8.

[38]     K Olowsky, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 23.

[39]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 8.

[40]     N Hatfield, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 10.

[41]     Mabu Yawuru Ngan-ga, Submission 147, pp. 1-5; Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, pp. 1-9.

[42]     C Leahy, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 4.

[43]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 2.

[44]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 2.

[45]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 2.

[46]     S Campton, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 22 March 2012, p. 3.

[47]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 3.

[48]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 3.

[49]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 1.

[50]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 1.

[51]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 2.

[52]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127, p. 6.

[53]     S Campton, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 25 August 2011, p. 6.

[54]     Data supplied by the Office for the Arts, 11 September 2012.

[55]     Mobile Languages Team, Submission 90, p. 6.

[56]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 68.

[57]     ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 8.

[58]     TAC, Submission 144, p. 8.

[59]     National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139, p. 139.

[60]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 3.

[61]     Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 4.

[62]     S Campton, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 25 August 2011, p. 6.

[63]     S Campton, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 25 August 2011, p. 7.

[64]     S Basser, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 22 March 2012, p. 6.

[65]     N David, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 25 August 2011, p. 7.

[66]     TSRA, Submission 146, p. 1.

[67]     TSRA, Submission 146, p. 2.

[68]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 13.

[69]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 13.

[70]     Koori Centre, University of Sydney, Submission 7, p. 8.

[71]     Harold Mitchell AC, Building Support: Report of the Review of Private Sector Support for the Arts in Australia, 2011, p. 8.

[72]     M Gordon, Cultural Property and Gifts, Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport, Committee Correspondence, 8 June 2012.

[73]     Australian Taxation Office, ‘Is your organisation a public benevolent institution?’ <www.ato.gov.au/nonprofit/content.aspx?menuid=1445&doc=/content/26553 .htm&page=2#P7_396> accessed 13 June 2012.

[74]     VACL, Submission 152, p. 1.

[75]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 12.

[76]     P Paton, VACL, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 24 May 2012, p. 8.

[77]     S Loong, Submission 85, p. 1; ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 10; Australian Linguistic Society, Submission 104, p. 1; S Disbray, Submission 126, p. 2; New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 25; RNLD, Submission 130, p. 11.

[78]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 105

[79]     Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Indigenous Australians, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution: Report of the Expert Panel, 2012, p. xvii.

[80]     TAC, Submission 144, p. 5.

[81]     United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Article 13.

[82]     United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Article 14(1).

[83]     United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Article 31.

[84]     ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 5.

[85]     United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, done at Paris, 17 October 2003, Article 2.

[86]     ANTaR, Submission 23a, p. 5; TAC, Submission 144, p. 1; RNLD, Submission 130, p. 8; Aboriginal Resource and Development Services (ARDS), Submission 74, p. 14; New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 25.

[87]     ANTaR, Submission 23a, p. 5.

Chapter 4 Learning Indigenous languages and Standard Australian English - Early childhood language learning

[1]       House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Doing Time – Time for Doing, Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System, 2011, p. 135.

[2]       Queensland Government Department of Education and Training (Queensland DET), Submission 109, p. 14.

[3]       Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 7.

[4]       New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 8.

[5]       G Barnes, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 6

[6]       The Australian Council of TESOL Associations (ACTA), Submission 72, p. 27.

[7]       L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 9.

[8]       B McGillivray, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 19.

[9]       C Yu, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 3.

[10]     N Hatfield, Submission 63, p. 2.

[11]     N Hatfield, Submission 63, p. 3.

[12]     B Ganambarr, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 10.

[13]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 7.

[14]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, p. 3.

[15]     C Bowern, Submission 83, p. 3.

[16]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 10.

[17]     G Barnes, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 5.

[18]     B Devlin, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 54.

[19]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 7.

[20]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, p. 11.

[21]     Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, pp. 1-2.

[22]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 15.

[23]     Torres Strait Regional Authority (TSRA), Submission 146, p. 9.

[24]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 14.

[25]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 17.

[26]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 15.

[27]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 17.

[28]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[29]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[30]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[31]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 8.

[32]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 3.

[33]     G Barnes, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 14.

[34]     Kimberley Education Regional Office, Western Australia Department of Education, Submission 117, p. 1.

[35]     Kimberley Education Regional Office, Western Australia Department of Education, Submission 117, p. 1.

[36]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11.

[37]     ACARA, The Australian Curriculum <www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Curriculum/Overview> accessed 6 August 2012.

[38]     ACARA, The Australian Curriculum <www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Curriculum/Overview> accessed 6 August 2012.

[39]     ACARA, Submission 151, pp. 3-4.

[40]     ‘F’ stands for Foundation year, ie kindergarten or prep.

[41]     ACARA, The Australian Curriculum <www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Curriculum/Overview> accessed 6 August 2012.

[42]     Association of Independent Schools SA, Submission 10, p. 1.

[43]     SACCS, Submission 15, p. 1.

[44]     South Australia Commission for Catholic Schools (SACCS), Submission 15, pp. 1-2.

[45]     Diocese of Lismore, Catholic Education Office, Submission 86, p. 4.

[46]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs, Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, p. 18.

[47]     Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Submission 131, p. 14.

[48]     TSRA, Submission 146, p. 8.

[49]     Trevor Stockley, Submission 62, pp. 9-10.

[50]     C Gorman, Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 2.

[51]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 7.

[52]     Eastern States Aboriginal Languages Group, Submission 25, p. 2.

[53]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 7.

[54]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 74.

[55]     Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs (AIATSIS) and the Federation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages and Culture (FATSILC), National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, p. 114.

[56]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 9.

[57]     M Florey, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 8.

[58]     M Florey, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 8.

[59]     Australian Federation of Graduate Women, Submission 47, p. 2,

[60]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 9.

[61]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 20.

[62]     C Gorman, Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 3.

[63]     MCEEYA is now called the Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood (SCSEEC). It comprises state, territory and Commonwealth Ministers with responsibility for these areas. SCSEEC is one of twelve Standing Councils established under new Council of Australian Governments arrangements.

[64]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 8.

[65]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 31.

[66]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 13.

[67]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 13.

[68]     SACCS, Submission 15, p. 2.

[69]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Community, Submission 98, p. 6.

[70]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 8.

[71]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 19.

[72]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 32.

[73]     K Gale, B Graham and C Grimes, Submission 19, p. 2.

[74]     B Devlin and M Christie, Submission 81, pp. 3-4

[75]     Why Warriors Pty Ltd and the Arnhem Human Enterprise Development (AHED) project, Submission 37, p. 7.

[76]     Australian Society for Indigenous Languages (AuSIL), Submission 60, Attachment 1, p. 1.

[77]     United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

[78]     Research Centre for Languages and Culture (RCLC), Submission 44, p. 2.

[79]     AuSIL, Submission 60, p. 3.

[80]     AuSIL, Submission 60, Attachment 1, p. 7.

[81]     K Gale, B Graham and C Grimes, Submission 57, p. 3.

[82]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 5.

[83]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 5.

[84]     G Dickson, Submission 125, pp. 5-6.

[85]     G Dickson, Submission 125, p. 6.

[86]     Concerned Australians, Submission 16, p. 2.

[87]     B Devlin, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 54.

[88]     Sisters’ of St Joseph SA Reconciliation Circle, Submission 41, p. 4.

[89]     Eastern States Aboriginal Languages Group, Submission 25, p. 2.

[90]     K Trudgen, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 15.

[91]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 31.

[92]     AuSIL, Submission 60, p. 3.

[93]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 14.

[94]     ACTA, Submission 72, pp. 14-15.

[95]     New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, p. 5.

[96]     L Jones, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 13.

[97]     ACTA, Submission 72, p. 17.

[98]     K Trudgen, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 17.

[99]     W Baarda, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 45.

[100]   K Gale, B Graham and C Grimes, Submission 19, p. 5.

[101]   Aboriginal and Islander Independent Community School (AIICS), Submission 133, p. 2.

[102]   ACTA, Submission 72, p. 17.

[103]   B Ganambarr, Yirrkala School, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 11.

Chapter 5 Teaching Indigenous languages

[1]       Teachers and Students of Cert III in Learning Endangered Aboriginal Language, Murray Bridge TAFE, South Australia, Submission 18, p. 5.

[2]       Teachers and Students of Cert III in Learning Endangered Aboriginal Language, Murray Bridge TAFE, South Australia, Submission 18, p. 10.

[3]       New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 17.

[4]       A Ash, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, pp. 25 and 29.

[5]       ACIKE, Courses available in 2012  <www.cdu.edu.au/acike/courses-and-programs> viewed 8 August 2012.

[6]       New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 15.

[7]       J Hobson, University of Sydney, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 32.

[8]       J Hobson, University of Sydney, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 32.

[9]       D Castel, Alice Springs Language Centre, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 46.

[10]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 9.

[11]     J Hobson, University of Sydney, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 32.

[12]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 9.

[13]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 12.

[14]     F Baisden, ESALG, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 14.

[15]     B Devlin, Submission 81, p. 8.

[16]     M Carew, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, pp. 10-11.

[17]     J Oldfield, BIITE, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 1.

[18]     M Laughren, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 47.

[19]     C Kilgariff, BIITE, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 59.

[20]     C Kilgariff, BIITE, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 61.

[21]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 10.

[22]     L Box, Yipirinya School, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 25.

[23]     K Kasmira, Arlparra School, Committee Hansard, Utopia Homelands, 3 April 2012, p. 8.

[24]     New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 13.

[25]     Teachers and Students of Cert III in Learning Endangered Aboriginal Language, Murray Bridge, TAFE SA, Submission 18, p. 5.

[26]     A Ash, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 28.

[27]     K Lowe, New South Wales Board of Studies, Committee Hansard, 18 November 2011, p. 41; Warlpiri Patu Kurlangu Jaru, Submission 121, p. 10.

[28]     P Williams, A Ash, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 28.

[29]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11.

[30]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 11.

[31]     NSW Government, Submission 98, p. 4.

[32]     M Carew, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, pp. 11-12.

[33]     M Florey, Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity (RNLD), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 10.

[34]     J Simpson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 9 February 2012, p. 2.

[35]     S Goodwin, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 March 2012, pp. 7-8.

[36]     DEEWR, Submission 131, p. 19.

[37]     G Barnes, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2012, Darwin, p. 4.

[38]     Northern Territory Government, ‘Territory 2030 Strategic Plan, Data Snapshots’ <www.territory2030.nt.gov.au/documents/snapshots/pdf/ED3.1.pdf> viewed 15 August 2012.

[39]     M McCarthy, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[40]     L Box, Yiripinya School, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 24.

[41]     P Downey, Aboriginal and Islander Independent Community School Inc., Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 34.

[42]     J Bradbury, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, pp. 6-5.

[43]     K Kasmira, Arlparra School, Committee Hansard, Utopia Homelands, 3 April 2012, p. 6.

[44]     V Garrawurra, Shepherdson College, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 50; A Ash, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 27.

[45]     R Trudgen, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 19.

[46]     N Hatfield, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 9.

[47]     Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales and Department of Education and Communities, Submission 98, pp. 3 and 12-13.

[48]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 10.

[49]     Queensland Indigenous Languages Advisory Committee, Submission 82, p. 4; ESALG, Submission 25, p. 5.

[50]     A Ash, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 28.

[51]     Eastern States Indigenous Languages Group, Submission 25, p. 5.

[52]     D Marmion, AIATSIS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 7 July 2011, p. 6.

[53]     R Jackson, ACTA, Committee Hansard, 18 November 2011, Sydney, p. 27.

[54]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 9.

[55]     L Jones, Western Australian Department of Education, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 9.

[56]     M McCarthy, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, pp. 2‑3.

[57]     F Baisden, Eastern States Aboriginal Languages Group, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, pp. 16-17.

[58]     New South Wales Board of Studies, Submission 73, p. 9.

[59]     R Jackson, ACTA, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 28; Koori Centre, University of Sydney, Submission 7, p. 4; K Kasmira, Arlparra School, Committee Hansard, Utopia Homelands, 3 April 2012, p. 7.

[60]     C Gorman, Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 8.

[61]     J Phillips, Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 8.

[62]     J Hobson, Koori Centre, University of Sydney, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, pp. 34-5.

[63]     G Barnes, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 7.

[64]     K Kasmira, Arlparra School, Committee Hansard, Utopia Homelands, 3 April 2012, p. 7.

[65]     R Jackson, ACTA, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 25.

[66]     Aboriginal and Islander Independent Community School Inc, Submission 133, pp. 1-2.

[67]     New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Submission 59, p. 19.

[68]     M Hall, New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 20.

[69]     DEEWR, Submission 131, p. 19.

[70]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 9.

[71]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 11.

[72]     Queensland DET, Submission 109, p. 11.

[73]     S Armitage, Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 5.

[74]     S Armitage, Queensland DET, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 5.

Chapter 6 Interpreting and translating Indigenous languages

[1]       Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘Census of Population and Housing’, 2011, <www.agencysearch.australia.gov.au/search/search.cgi?collection=agencies&form=simple&profile=abs&query=census of population and housing 2011> accessed 12 September 2012.

[2]       Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), Submission 141, pp. 3 and 8.

[3]       M McCarthy, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[4]       D Newry, KIS, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, pp. 14-15.

[5]       FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 13.

[6]       NT AIS, Working with Interpreters <www.dlghs.nt.gov.au/ais/working_with_interpreters> accessed 18 July 2012.

[7]       ATSILS, The Right to a Fair Trial: A Submission to the Commonwealth Attorney-General Regarding the Expansion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Interpreter Services, 2012, pp. 17-19.

[8]       K Hayward, Papulu Apparr-Kari Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Alice Springs, 4 April 2012, p. 29.

[9]       FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 9.

[10]     Office of the Arts, Submission 127, p. 6.

[11]     Office for the Arts, ‘Indigenous Languages – A National Approach 2009’ <www.arts. gov.au/indigenous/languages>, accessed 18 July 2012.

[12]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 8.

[13]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 8.

[14]     Torres Strait Regional Authority, Submission 146, pp. 14-15.

[15]     Department of Human Services, Submission 8, p. 7.

[16]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 10.

[17]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 11.

[18]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141a, p. 1.

[19]     Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission 22, Attachment A: Talking in language: Indigenous language interpreters and government communication, April 2011, p. 5.

[20]     Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission 22, Attachment A: Talking in language: Indigenous language interpreters and government communication, April 2011, pp. 2-3.

[21]     Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission 22, p. 1.

[22]     Central Land Council, Submission 100, p. 16.

[23]     M McCarthy, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 3.

[24]     D Angelo, Submission 153, p. 12.

[25]     C Salter, Submission 100, p. 5.

[26]     AuSIL, Submission 60, p. 6.

[27]     Northern Territory Government, Submission 138, pp. 7-8.

[28]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 10.

[29]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 9.

[30]     Central Land Council, Submission 100, p. 16.

[31]     K Lester, University of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 32.

[32]     I Scales and B McDonald, TAFE South Australia, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 30.

[33]     Sisters of St Joseph SA Reconciliation Circle, Submission 41, pp. 4-5.

[34]     B Priman, ESILG, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2012, p. 15.

[35]     Australian Society for Indigenous Languages, Submission 60, pp. 5-6.

[36]     ATSILS, The Right to a Fair Trial: A Submission to the Commonwealth Attorney-General Regarding the Expansion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Interpreter Services, 2012, p. 14.

[37]     KIS, Discussion Paper: Indigenous Language Interpreting Services, 2004, p. 6.

[38]     House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Doing Time – Time for Doing: Indigenous youth in the criminal justice system, 2011, p. 206.

[39]     NAAJA, Submission 135, p. 6.

[40]     P Collins, NAAJA, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 34.

[41]     NAAJA, Submission 135, p. 6.

[42]     J Thorn, Submission 50, p. 2.

[43]     J Thorn, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 67.

[44]     National Rural Health Alliance, Submission 148, p. 2.

[45]     KIS, Discussion Paper: Indigenous Language Interpreting Services, June 2004, p. 24.

[46]     M McLellan, AuSIL, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 31; P Collins, NAAJA, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 34.

[47]     Curriculum Council of Western Australia, Submission 129, p. 6; A Hawkes, Submission 120, p. 5; C Rosas, NT AIS, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 8.

[48]     ATSILS, The Right to a Fair Trial: A Submission to the Commonwealth Attorney-General Regarding the Expansion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Interpreter Services, March 2012, p. 15.

[49]     National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139, p. 7.

[50]     Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs (AIATSIS) and the Federation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages and Culture (FATSILC), National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, pp. 90 and 119.

[51]     J Beever, NAATI, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 March 2012, p. 13.

[52]     Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission 22, Attachment A: Talking in language: Indigenous language interpreters and government communication, 2011, p. 4.

[53]     J Giacon, Submission 1, p. 1; A Rigney, Kaurna Warra Pintyandi, Committee Hansard, Adelaide, 2 April 2012, p. 2.

[54]     Department of Human Services, Submission 8, pp. 7-8.

[55]     J Hobson, Koori Centre, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 33.

[56]     Central Land Council, Submission 101, p. 17.

[57]     D Lightfoot, KIS, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 17.

[58]     A Kogolo, KIS, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 16.

[59]     Northern Territory Government, Submission 138, p. 7.

[60]     Office of the Arts, Submission 127, p. 6, FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 15.

[61]     Northern Territory Government, Submission 138, p. 7.

[62]     See FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 14.

[63]     Department of Human Services, Submission 8, p. 9.

[64]     Central Land Council, Submission 100, p. 17.

[65]     Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre, Submission 78, p. 3.

[66]     Why Warriors Pty Ltd and the AHED Project, Submission 37, p. 10.

[67]     D Angelo, Submission 153, p. 12.

[68]     R Trudgen, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 21.

[69]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, p. 12.

[70]     NAATI, Submission 140, p. 2.

[71]     FaHCSIA, Submission 141, pp. 12-13.

[72]     NAATI, Submission 140, p. 2.

[73]     R Foote, NAATI, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 March 2012, p. 10.

[74]     J Beever and R Foote, NAATI, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 March 2012, p. 12.

[75]     NAATI, Submission 140a, p. 1.

[76]     NAATI, Submission 140a, p. 2.

[77]     NAATI, Submission 140a, p. 3.

[78]     NAATI, Submission 140, pp. 3-5.

[79]     NAATI, Submission 140a, p. 2.

[80]     NAATI, Submission 140a, p. 3.

[81]     NAATI, Submission 140a, pp. 2-3.

[82]     M McCarthy, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 2.

[83]     C Kilgariff, BIITE, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 62.

[84]     D Lightfoot, KIS, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 16.

[85]     D Fox, NAAJA, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 2 May 2012, p. 33.

[86]     House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Language and Culture: A Matter of Survival, 1992, p. 62.

[87]     House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Doing Time – Time for Doing: Indigenous youth in the criminal justice system, June 2011, p. 210.

[88]     Australian Government, Government response to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Report: Doing Time - Time for Doing: Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System, November 2011, p. 30.

Chapter 7 Preserving languages for future generations

[1]       Office for the Arts, Submission 127a, p. 4.

[2]       Muurrbay–Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre, Submission 9, Attachment 1, p. 1.

[3]       The Mobile Language Team, Submission 90, p. 2.

[4]       Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 49, p. 1.

[5]       Kimberley Language Resource Centre, Submission 38, p. 1.

[6]       Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre, Submission 78, p. 1.

[7]       Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages (VACL), Submission 152, p. 1.

[8]       Eastern States Aboriginal Languages Group (ESALG), Submission 25, p. 1.

[9]       ESALG, Submission 25, p. 1.

[10]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 2.

[11]     RNLD, Submission 130, p .2.

[12]     F Baisden, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 20.

[13]     Federation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages and Culture (FATSILC), Submission 97, p. 2.

[14]     FATSILC, Submission 97, p. 2.

[15]     B McGillivray, FATSILC, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 18.

[16]     B McGillivray, FATSILC, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 20.

[17]     B McGillivray, FATSILC, Committee Hansard, Broome, 30 April 2012, p. 20.

[18]     Office for the Arts, ‘National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005’  <www.arts. gov.au?sites/default/files/pdfs/nils-report-2005.pdf> accessed 3 July 2012, p. 107.

[19]     Office for the Arts, ‘National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005’  <www.arts. gov.au?sites/default/files/pdfs/nils-report-2005.pdf> accessed 3 July 2012, p. 107.

[20]     Office for the Arts, ‘Indigenous Languages – A National Approach 2009’, <www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/languages>, accessed 3 July 2012.

[21]     L Williams, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 September 2011, p. 2.

[22]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 31a, p. 4.

[23]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 31a, p. 4.

[24]     ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 108.

[25]     ANTaR, Submission 23, p. 8.

[26]     Australian Human Rights Commission, Social Justice Report 2009,  2010,  p. 72.

[27]     National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139a, p. 4.

[28]     S Basser, Office for the Arts, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 22 March 2012, p. 7.

[29]     National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, Submission 139a, p. 12.

[30]     J Hobson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 13 October 2012, p. 4.

[31]     J Hobson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 13 October 2012, p. 4.

[32]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 12.

[33]     ESALG, Submission 25, p. 6.

[34]     J Christian, Aboriginal Affairs NSW, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 18 November 2011, p. 13.

[35]     Aboriginal Affairs NSW, Submission 98, p. 3.

[36]     Aboriginal Affairs NSW, Submission 98, p. 3.

[37]     J Hobson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 13 October 2012, p. 4.

[38]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 11.

[39]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, pp. 9-15; N Hatfield, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 6 October 2011, p. 10; RNLD, Submission 130, p. 6.

[40]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 9.

[41]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 11.

[42]     Miromaa Aboriginal Language and Technology Centre, ‘Our Languages’, <www.ourlanguages.net.au/> accessed 22 August 2012.

[43]     D McKenny, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 10.

[44]     I Kraal and B Fogarty, Submission 20, p. 9.

[45]     R Kelly Jnr, Committee Hansard, Newcastle, 9 September 2011, p. 3.

[46]     N Thieberger, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 16 February 2012, p. 2.

[47]     Indigenous Remote Communication Association (IRCA), Submission 68a, p. 3.

[48]     IRCA, Submission 68a, p. 3.

[49]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 2.

[50]     RNLD, Submission 130, p. 9.

[51]     AIATSIS, Submission 154, p. 3.

[52]     AIATSIS, Submission 154, p. 3.

[53]     AIATSIS, Submission 154, p. 3.

[54]     AIATSIS, ‘Annual Report 2010-11’ <www.aiatsis.gov.au/corporate/docs/AR10-11/Output%201-Research.pdf> accessed 24 July 2012.

[55]     Koori Centre, University of Sydney, Submission 7a, p. 1.

[56]     AIATSIS, About AIATSIS Research Grants, < www.aiatsis.gov.au/research/ grants/grants.html>, accessed 27 July 2012.

[57]     Koori Centre, University of Sydney, Submission 7a, p. 2.

[58]     Centre for Indigenous Technology Information and Engineering Solutions (CITIES), Submission 24a, p. 3.

[59]     CITIES, Submission 24, p. 4.

[60]     ESALG, Submission 25, p. 4.

[61]     AIATSIS, Submission 154, p. 1.

[62]     K Obato, AIATSIS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 7 July 2011, p. 1.

[63]     D Marmion, AIATSIS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 7 July 2011, p. 1.

[64]     Coordinating Support for Indigenous Scriptures, Submission 65.

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