Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: Colonial wars and the First World War

19 September 2014

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Nathan Church, Hannah Gobbett, Martin Lumb and Rob Lundie
Foreign Affairs, Defence and Security and Politics and Public Administration Sections

 

Contents

Abbreviations

Introduction

Colonial wars

First World War

Appendix 1: MPs who enlisted but do not appear on the Australian War Memorial’s Embarkation Roll

Appendix 2: Locations of places and battles referenced within the text

Appendix 3: MPs who served in war and conflict by state and chamber

 

Abbreviations

Honours, orders and decorations
CB Companion of the Order of the Bath
CBE Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
CMG Companion of Order of St Michael and St George
CVO Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
DCM Distinguished Conduct Medal
DFC Distinguished Flying Cross
DSO Distinguished Service Order
KCB Knight Commander, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath
KCMG Knight Commander, The Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George
KBE Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
MBE Member of the Order of the British Empire
MC Military Cross
MM Military Medal
VC Victoria Cross
Parties and Organisations
AIF Australian Imperial Force
ALP Australian Labor Party
ALP N-C Australian Labor Party (Non Communist)
CP Australian Country Party
FLP Federal Labor Party
FSU Farmers and Settlers Union
FT Free Trade
IND Independent
IND UAP Independent United Australia Party
LANG LAB Lang Labor Party
LCL Liberal Country League
LIB Liberal Party of Australia
LIB-CP Liberal Country Party
NAT Nationalist Party
NAT&FARMERS Nationalist and Farmers
PROT Protectionist Party
ST CP State Country Party
UAP United Australia Party
UCP United Country Party

Introduction

This research paper is a companion to a previous Parliamentary Library publication, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war.[1]

This paper chronicles the 125 Commonwealth Members of Parliament (MPs) identified as having served during the Colonial wars and/or the First World War. It includes those who engaged in or were in transit to active service and those who fought for allied countries.

The paper does not include reservists or members of the defence force without active service. Eight such MPs who enlisted but do not appear on the Australian War Memorial’s Embarkation Roll database are listed in Appendix 1.

Honours, awards and decorations for gallantry are listed but campaign service medals are not. One MP, Neville Howse, received the VC during the Boer War. The only MP serving during the Boer War and the First World War to be killed in action was William Johnson, Member for Robertson.

The entry for each MP provides a summary of their war service together with additional pre or post-war
military-related information and where applicable, their Commonwealth ministerial career. Each entry gives the MP’s electorate/state, their party, and their term in the Commonwealth Parliament. Further biographical information is available through the referenced sources, which include the Commonwealth Parliamentary Handbooks, the Australian Dictionary of Biography, the Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate, the Australian War Memorial website records (including the embarkation rolls), state Parliamentary Library websites and biographies of individual MPs. A reference guide to named locations is contained in Appendix 2.

Every effort has been made to ensure the information here is as complete and accurate as possible; however, given the sometimes limited publicly available records, this paper contains some omissions.  

Colonial wars

The colonial wars include the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880); the Zulu War in South Africa (1879); and the Boer War in South Africa (1899–1902). Nineteen Commonwealth MPs (10 members and nine senators) have been identified who served in Colonial wars before Federation. Thirteen of these also served in the First World War.

William Ashley (Senator [NSW], ALP, 1937–1958)

Ashley served as a Trooper in the 5th Battalion of the Australian Commonwealth Horse and departed for the Boer War in May 1902. However, he returned to Australia three months later after his unit was not involved in combat operations.[2]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1941 to 1949 in the ministries of Information; Postmaster-General; Supply and Shipping; Shipping and Fuel; and as Vice-President of the Executive Council.

George Bell (MP [Darwin, Tas.], NAT/UAP, 1919–1922; 1925–1943)

In 1899 Bell enlisted in the 1st Victorian Mounted Infantry Company and served as a Private in the Boer War when he arrived at Cape Town in November. He served in Orange Free State and took part in the notable battles at Bastard Nek and Pink Hill. In April 1900 his unit became attached to the 4th Mounted Corps of the Imperial Army, which participated in the siege of Mafeking, relief of Johannesburg and battle of Diamond Hill. Following his brief return to Australia in late 1900, Bell re-enlisted as a Lieutenant in the 5th Victorian (Mounted Rifles) Contingent and served in the Transvaal, Orange River Colony, Cape Colony and Bakkop, where he was severely wounded in January 1902. For his service he was awarded the DSO and was mentioned in despatches.[3] 

During his parliamentary career he served from 1934 to 1940  as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

See below for his First World War service.

Charles Brand (Senator [Vic.], UAP/LIB, 1935–1947)

In early 1900 Brand enlisted as a Private in the 3rd (Queensland Mounted Infantry) Contingent. He departed for the Boer War in March and initially served as a Sergeant with the Rhodesian Field Force before being promoted to Lieutenant in June 1900. He fought in Rhodesia, the Transvaal and the Orange River and Cape colonies before returning to Australia in May 1901. Re-enlisting in May 1902 he returned to South Africa in June as a Captain in command of the 7th Australian Commonwealth Horse’s ‘C’ squadron; however, the war was over. Upon his return to Australia he served part-time with the Kennedy Infantry Regiment. In December 1905 he transferred to the Permanent Military Forces in Brisbane, performed instructional and staff duties in New South Wales, and served in India from 1910 to 1911. He was promoted to Major in 1912, taking command the following year of the 4th Military District, Adelaide.[4] 

See below for his First World War service.

Cyril Cameron (Senator [Tas.], PROT, 1901–03; 1907–13)

In 1879, Cameron was commissioned into the Queen’s Royal Lancers; from 1879-80 he served in Afghanistan, where he participated in the battle for Kandahar. Cameron served in India between 1881 and 1885 before transferring to England as an Adjutant of the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry and in the Yeomanry Brigade. In 1887 he was promoted to Captain.[5]

With the outbreak of the Boer War, Cameron commanded Tasmania’s first contingent of 80 men that arrived in Cape Town in November 1899. His force engaged in battles in Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal for the next eleven months. Having recently been promoted to Major, in February 1900 Cameron was wounded and captured as he led a scouting party near Arundel. He was subsequently abandoned by his captors, and by April was back in a commanding role. However, in May he was wounded again at the Zand River. He was widely acclaimed when he returned to Tasmania with his contingent in December 1900. For his service Cameron was appointed CB and mentioned in despatches.[6]

Cameron continued serving in the army throughout his tenure in the Senate. As Lieutenant Colonel with the 26th Light Horse, Cameron commanded the Australian contingent during the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. He also went on to serve in Somaliland in 1904 and became Aide-de-camp to Governor-General Northcote.[7]

See below for his First World War service.

Donald Charles Cameron (MP [Brisbane/Lilley, Qld], NAT/UAP, 1919–1931; 1934–1937)

Cameron was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 6th (Queensland Imperial Bushmen) Contingent in March 1901 and served in the Transvaal and Orange River during the Boer War. He was mentioned in despatches in June 1901 and returned to Australia a year later following the disbanding of his unit.[8]

See below for his First World War service.

Donald James Cameron (Senator [Vic], ALP, 1938–1962)

Cameron served in the Boer War (1901–02) as a volunteer with the 5th (Victorian) Mounted Rifles. He became a committed opponent of conscription after he was wounded, something which he described as a ‘turning point’ in his life.[9] Cameron also became president of the Western Australian Anti-Conscription League during the First World War.[10]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1941 to 1949 in the ministries of Munitions; Aircraft Production; and Postmaster-General.

Charles Cox (Senator [NSW], NAT/UAP, 1920–1938)

Cox joined the volunteers of the New South Wales Lancers in 1891 and was commissioned in 1894. Cox subsequently attended Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897 in London and in the subsequent two years was promoted to Captain and led a detachment of Lancers to England where they trained with the British Army.[11] Following this, the detachment volunteered to go to South Africa and became the first colonial troops to land at Cape Town. From 1900 onwards, he was attached to the Inniskilling Dragoons and fought in most of the Boer War’s major battles. After a year of service he returned to Australia, was promoted to Major in early 1901, and went back to South Africa in command of the newly formed 3rd New South Wales Mounted Rifles. He continued to lead them until they returned to Australia in mid–1902. During his Boer War service, he was twice mentioned in despatches, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and appointed CB.[12] Back in Australia, Cox returned to the New South Wales Lancers; after Federation, this unit was later renamed the 1st Australian Light Horse. From 1906 to 1911, Cox commanded the regiment. [13]

See below for First World War service.

Harold Elliott (Senator [Vic.], NAT, 1920–1931)

Elliot enlisted in the 4th Victorian (Imperial) Contingent in 1900, serving in the Boer War as a Private before rising to the rank of Lieutenant. Elliot returned from the war having been awarded the DCM.[14]  

See below for his First World War service.

John Gellibrand (MP [Denison, Tas.], NAT, 1925–1928)

Already an experienced military officer within the British Army, Gellibrand served in the Boer War as a Company Commander in Natal and the relief of Ladysmith. He later transferred as a Captain of the Manchester Regiment’s 3rd Battalion before deploying to St Helena as Adjutant of the Garrison with responsibility for prisoners of war.[15]

See below for his First World War service.

Thomas Glasgow (Senator [Qld], NAT, 1920–1932)

A member of the Wide Bay Mounted Infantry, Glasgow attended Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee celebrations in London in 1897 as part of the Queensland contingent before serving in the Boer War with the same unit. Then a Lieutenant, Glasgow served in South Africa from 1899-1901, was mentioned in despatches and awarded the DSO before returning to Queensland in 1902.[16]

See below for his First World War service.

Neville Howse (MP [Calare, NSW], NAT, 1922–29)

Howse served in the Boer War as a Lieutenant in the New South Wales Medical Corps, and was promoted to Captain in October 1900. On 24 July 1900 at Vredefort in Orange Free State, he ‘went out under a heavy crossfire and picked up a wounded man and carried him back to a place of shelter’.[17] He was accordingly awarded the Victoria Cross. He was later captured, but released on account of his status as a non–combatant. Howse embarked for South Africa a second time in 1902 as an honorary Major in the Australian Army Medical Corps but arrived just as the war ended.[18]

See below for his First World War service.

John Jennings (MP [South Sydney/Watson, NSW], UAP, 1931–1940)

Jennings served in the 1st Australian Contingent of the Boer War from October 1899 to January 1901.[19]

George Lawson (MP [Brisbane, Qld], FLP/ALP, 1931–1961)

Lawson served in the 5th (Queensland Imperial Bushmen) Contingent during the Boer War, where he was also mentioned in despatches.[20]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1941 to 1943 in the ministries of Postmaster-General; and Transport.

James Page (MP [Maranoa, Qld], FT/ALP, 1901–21)

At only 16 years of age, Page served as a gunner in the Royal Artillery during in the Zulu War of 1879.[21]

Ernest Roberts (MP [Adelaide, SA], ALP, 1908–1913)

Roberts volunteered to serve in the Boer War in 1900, initially as a Lieutenant in the 4th Imperial Bushmen’s Contingent. He also returned to South Africa in 1902 as a Captain in the Australian Commonwealth Horse’s 2nd Battalion and served in Western Transvaal.[22]

During his parliamentary career he was an honorary Minister from 1911 to 1913.

James Rowell (Senator [SA], NAT, 1917–1923)

Rowell joined his local cavalry unit in 1877 before being commissioned into the South Australian Mounted Rifles in 1880. Rowell ascended the ranks of the Mounted Rifles and as Lieutenant Colonel in 1897 he travelled to London with a detachment of military forces for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee celebrations in London. Rowell led the 4th Imperial Bushmen’s Regiment in the Boer War from May 1900 until August 1901. During the war he was mentioned in despatches, appointed CB and promoted to Colonel. Upon his return to Adelaide, he commanded both the South Australian Mounted Brigade and 10th Australian Infantry Regiment.[23]

See below for his First World War service

Granville Ryrie (MP [North Sydney/Warringah, NSW], LIB/NAT, 1911–1927)

Ryrie volunteered for the Boer War in 1900, where he initially served as a Captain in the 6th (New South Wales) Imperial Bushmen before being promoted to honorary Major in November 1901. During the war Ryrie served in Rhodesia, the Transvaal, Cape Colonies, Orange River and Wonderfontein, where he was severely wounded in September 1900.[24]

See below for his First World War service.

William Thompson (Senator [Qld], NAT, 1922–1932)

In 1889 Thompson joined the Queensland Mounted Infantry as a Private, before serving as Captain in charge of troops at Clermont during the shearers’ strike of 1891. In 1897 he was a member of the Queensland Mounted Infantry contingent that went to London for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee. Two years later he volunteered for the Boer War, as Commander of a Rockhampton detachment and subsequent Commander of Queensland’s 2nd Mounted Infantry Contingent. Towards the end of the Boer War, Thompson became a magistrate in Pretoria’s High Court where he administered martial law alongside two colleagues.[25] In 1901 Thompson returned to Queensland where he continued his involvement with the Light Horse – assisting in the revision of the Light Horse manual in 1909, commanding five different regiments from Lismore to Innisfail and becoming a Brigade Commander by 1914.[26]

See below for his First World War service.

Arnold Wienholt (MP [Moreton, Qld], NAT/CP, 1919–1922)

Wienholt departed for the Boer War in May 1900, as part of the 4th (Queensland Imperial Bushmen) Contingent. He served there for 12 months, during which time he was promoted to Sergeant.[27]

See below for his First World War service.

First World War

There are 119 Commonwealth Members of Parliament identified as having served in the First World War, of which 12 served with British forces. Of the 119 MPs, 72 were Members of the House of Representatives, 44 were Senators and three served in both chambers. Sixteen were MPs during the war years, including nine (Percy Abbott, Reginald Burchell, William Fleming, Edward Heitmann, David McGrath, James O’Loghlin, Alfred Ozanne, Granville Ryrie, George Yates) who served as MPs while at the same time engaged in war service. All retained their seats at the 1917 election except for Ozanne who was defeated by John Lister. O’Loghlin continued as a Senator as he was not due for re-election. Another six (William Bolton, Stanley Bruce, Edwin Corby, Hattil Foll, John Lister and James Rowell) became MPs after their war service while Alfred Hampson, who had been defeated by Billy Hughes at the 1917 election, pursued war service after leaving parliament. Two First World War veterans also went on to become prime minister: Stanley Bruce and Earle Page. Approximately one-third of the 1946–49 Parliament were First World War veterans.[28]

Charles Abbott (MP [Gwydir, NSW], CP, 1925–1929; 1931–1937)

Charles Abbott enlisted in the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force on 11 August 1914, after which he was deployed to German New Guinea. Following its capture, Abbott transferred to the 12th Light Horse Regiment of the AIF in March 1915. He subsequently served in Egypt, Gallipoli (where he was commissioned on 28 October 1915) and Sinai. In 1917 he participated in the charge at Beersheba, but was wounded in action the following year, just prior to his promotion to Captain. Abbott left the AIF in February 1920.[29]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1928 to 1929 in the ministries of Home and Territories; and Home Affairs.

Joseph Abbott (MP [New England, NSW], CP, 1940–1949)

Joseph Abbott enlisted in the AIF on 8 February 1915 and served in the 1st Field Ambulance at Gallipoli from July to September. He was discharged from the AIF to accept a commission in the Royal Field Artillery Special Reserve in December 1915. In September 1918 Abbott was awarded the MC for service on the Western Front, where he bravely extinguished a burning gun–pit, caused by enemy shelling.[30]

During his parliamentary career he served in 1941 in the ministries of Defence Co-ordination; the Army; and Home Security.

Percy Abbott (MP [New England]/Senator [NSW], LIB/NAT/CP, 1913–1919; 1925–1929)

Percy Abbott had been an Infantry and Light Horse officer since 1898 and was appointed a Lieutenant Colonel in the AIF in March 1915. Having deployed to Egypt with the 12th Light Horse Regiment, he commanded the 10th Light Horse at Gallipoli. After serving in France, he went back to the 12th Light Horse in the Middle East before commanding Australian staging camps in England, where he had been invalided in October 1915 with enteric fever. Appointed CMG in June 1917, Abbott went on to serve in France with the 30th Battalion and was mentioned in despatches. Reassuming command of the 12th Light Horse in late 1917, he returned to Australia in April 1918 due to poor health relating to returned typhoid fever, the effects of gas and a chronic eye complaint. Following the war, Abbott actively supported welfare efforts for returned soldiers in the Glen Innes and Tamworth districts.[31]

Stanley Amour (Senator [NSW], ALP N-C, 1938–1965)

Amour was just 15 years of age when he enlisted in the AIF in August 1915, despite claiming to be 18 years old at enlistment. He was assigned to the 18th Battalion and embarked for active service in early October. In late June 1916 he was badly wounded in the back while serving in France. He was hospitalised in England for two months before returning to Australia in May 1917. Amour was discharged in August as medically unfit and as a result of his injuries was unable to speak for some time.[32]

Charles Anderson (MP [Hume, NSW], CP, 1949–1951; 1955–1961)

Born in South Africa in 1897, Anderson volunteered for military service in November 1914 and subsequently joined the Calcutta Volunteer Battery and King’s African Rifles. Anderson was awarded the MC in July 1918 for outstanding leadership during fighting in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) against German colonial forces.[33]

Hubert Anthony (MP [Richmond, NSW], CP, 1937–1957)

Anthony enlisted in the AIF on 28 October 1914 and served in Gallipoli from April to August 1915, when he was evacuated due to illness. Returning to Australia in 1916, he was discharged from the AIF later that year.[34]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1940 to 1941 in the ministries of Commerce; Treasury; and Transport, and from 1949 to 1956, as Postmaster-General; and Minister for Civil Aviation.

James Arkins (Senator [NSW], UAP, 1935–1937)

Arkins enlisted in the AIF in March 1916 and commenced his military service in England in January 1917 with the Australian Army Service Corps. In April 1918, Arkins was transferred to the 1st Australian Mechanical Transport Company in France until he was discharged in October 1918.[35]

Arthur Beck (MP [Denison, Tas.], UAP, 1940–1943)

Beck enlisted as a Corporal in the AIF in February 1915 and served in the 13th Light Horse Regiment. He was also awarded the MC before returning to Australia in December 1918.[36]

Frederick Beerworth (Senator [SA], ALP, 1946–1951)

Beerworth was 30 years of age when he enlisted in the AIF in October 1916 as a Second Corporal and embarked the following May. A life-long railwayman, Beerworth served with the 4th Australian Broad Gauge Railway Operating Company as Second Corporal in England and France. Beerworth departed England in July 1919 having been hospitalised twice in the preceding two years. He was discharged from the AIF in September 1919, having already returned to Australia.[37]

George Bell (MP [Darwin, Tas.], NAT/UAP, 1919–1922; 1925–1943)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Bell enlisted in the AIF on 25 August 1914 as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 3rd Light Horse Regiment. He was promoted to Lieutenant in February 1915 and served in Gallipoli from May to November of that year. By April 1916 he had been promoted to Major and commanded his regiment’s ‘A’ squadron. He went on to fight in the decisive battle of Romani (Sinai/Palestine campaign) in August 1916 and as a newly appointed Lieutenant Colonel was given command of the 3rd Light Horse Regiment in June 1917. Praised as ‘one of the most aggressive and astute leaders produced by the light horse’, his forces played an active role in the battle of Beersheba, captured the Jordan Valley and helped take Jericho without opposition.[38] Bell was mentioned in despatches and appointed CMG in April 1918.[39]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1934 to 1940 as the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Archibald Blacklow (MP [Franklin, Tas.], UAP, 1931–1934)

Already an experienced Staff Officer for musketry training, in April 1916 Blacklow transferred to the AIF and was promoted to Major with the 36th Battalion. His service on the Western Front included operations at Armentières, Messines and Passchendaele (where he was mentioned in despatches). On 15 March 1918 he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and commanded the 3rd Machine–Gun Battalion which, as part of the 3rd Division, fought at the Somme. In May 1918 Blacklow was again mentioned in despatches and received the DSO a month later.[40]

Adair Blain (MP [Northern Territory, NT], IND, 1934–1949)

Blain enlisted as a Private in the AIF’s 51st Battalion in February 1916. While serving on the Western Front he was promoted to Corporal and transferred to the 32nd Battalion.[41] Blain also served in the Second World War. 

William Bolton (Senator [Vic.], NAT, 1917–1923)

A member of the Southern Rifles, Bolton was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion, Victoria. He was promoted to Captain in 1897, and following Federation, to Major in the 7th Australian Infantry Regiment in 1903 and Lieutenant Colonel in 1910. In 1912 Bolton ‘assumed command of the 70th Regiment’.[42]  

He enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and sailed for Egypt in October with the 8th Battalion before landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915. Bolton fought in the Battle of Krithia before taking command of the 2nd Infantry Brigade for a brief period that was cut short by poor health; he was invalided back to Australia in 1915. A hill and ridge were named in his honour at Gallipoli. Appointed CBE in 1918 and named an honorary Brigadier General in 1920, Bolton also commanded the Ballarat Training Depot and the Defended Ports of Victoria upon his return to Victoria.[43]

William Bostock (MP [Indi, Vic.], LIB, 1949–1958)

Bostock enlisted in the AIF on 23 November 1914 and was posted to the 2nd Signal Troop (Engineers). Landing on Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, he remained there until August when he was evacuated due to illness. After being discharged from the AIF in February 1917, Bostock began training as a pilot and in 1918 transferred to the Royal Air Force. Bostock was awarded the Belgian Croix de Guerre for his service on the Western Front.[44]  

George Bowden (MP [Gippsland, Vic.], CP, 1943–1961)

Bowden enlisted in the AIF on 6 March 1915, serving with the 24th Battalion. He was wounded at Gallipoli and on the Western Front and was later awarded the MC in September 1918 for his daring reconnaissance prior to the battle for Mont St Quentin.[45]

Charles Brand (Senator [Vic.], UAP/LIB, 1935–1947)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

In August 1914, Brand joined the AIF and was selected by Major General Sir William Bridges to be Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade of the newly raised 1st Division. In October he embarked for the Middle East and was one of the first Australians to land at Gaba Tepe on the Gallipoli Peninsula on 25 April 1915. Although wounded, he continued as the Battalion’s temporary Commander before being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in July and transferred to command the 8th Battalion at Steele’s Post. Brand was also the first Australian awarded the DSO for his actions at Gallipoli.[46]

In July 1916 Brand was promoted temporary Brigadier General and made Commander of the 4th Brigade which fought at the Somme, Pozières, Bullecourt, Messines (where he was again wounded), Polygon Wood and Passchendaele. His 4th Brigade helped contain the German advance in the spring of 1918 and had further victories before being withdrawn in September. Appointed CMG (1916), CB (1918) and seven times mentioned in despatches, Brand returned to Australia in December 1918.[47]

Later, he became Commandant of the 3rd Military District, Melbourne (1919–21); Commander of the 1st Division, Sydney (1921–25); Second Chief of the General Staff (1926–30) and Quartermaster General and third member of the Military Board (1930–32). In 1927, Brand was Defence Liaison Officer during the Royal visit, particularly the Duke of York’s Review of approximately 3,000 troops during the opening of Parliament House, Canberra. For this, he was appointed CVO. Upon retirement from the military in 1933, Brand was granted the rank of honorary Major General.[48]  

Wilfred Brimblecombe (MP [Maranoa, Qld], CP, 1951–1966)

Brimblecombe enlisted as a Private in the AIF in September 1915 and joined the 5th Light Horse Regiment. During the war he was promoted to Sergeant while serving on the Western Front and returned to Australia in June 1919.[49]

Geoffrey Brown (MP [McMillan, Vic.], LIB, 1949–1955)

Brown served with the Royal West Kent Regiment from 1914 to 1919 attaining the rank of Captain.[50]

Stanley Bruce (MP [Flinders, VIC], NAT/UAP, 1918–1929; 1931–1933)

Bruce travelled to London in December 1914 for business and was subsequently commissioned in the Worcester regiment in January 1915 and quickly seconded to the Royal Fusiliers as a temporary Captain. He was part of the Gallipoli campaign, being wounded at Helles on 3 June and later receiving the MC for his efforts at Suvla Bay. In October Bruce was again wounded and this time returned to England. He later received the Croix de Guerre avec Palme for his role in supporting French troops. Bruce was discharged from the military in June 1917. According to his biographer, the future Prime Minister (9 February 1923–22 October 1929) believed that it was ‘an unquestioned duty’ that he should give military service for his country.[51]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1921 to 1929 as Treasurer; Minister for External Affairs; Minister for Health; Minister for Trade and Customs; and Prime Minister. From 1932 to 1933 he served as Assistant Treasurer; and Minister without portfolio.

Reginald Burchell (MP [Fremantle, WA], ALP/NAT, 1913–1922)

Burchell enlisted in the AIF in January 1917 and served as a Lieutenant with the 4th Broad Gauge Railway Operating Company in France. He was awarded the MC in March 1918 for unceasing devotion to duty in controlling the railway operations involved in the evacuation of wounded, troops and rolling stock from the Etricourt–Roisel–Chaulnes sections. He was recorded as ‘continuously on duty for three days and nights and his care and watchfulness in handling the traffic with limited facilities rendered possible a successful evacuation, and saved engines and rolling stock from falling into the enemy’s hands’.[52]

Archie Cameron (MP [Barker, SA], CP/LIB/LCL, 1934–1956)

Cameron enlisted in the AIF on 17 April 1916 and through his service on the Western Front was promoted to temporary Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant by the war’s end. He discharged from the AIF in September 1919, having landed back in Australia two months earlier.[53]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1937 to 1940 in the ministries of Commerce;
Postmaster-General; and the Navy. Cameron was also Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1950 to 1956.

Cyril Cameron (Senator [Tas.], PROT, 1901–1903; 1907–1913)

See above for his service in the Afghan War and the Boer War.

Cameron travelled to England at the outbreak of First World War where he was appointed Assistant Adjutant General and adviser to General Birdwood. He landed at Gaba Tepe, Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 but was sent back to Australia within four months, having been wounded.[54]

When visiting the Parliament in Melbourne on his return, President of the Senate Thomas Givens broke with accepted protocol by proposing that Cameron be invited to come down from the gallery and sit on the floor of the Chamber. The Senators proceeded to enthusiastically cheer him, which was unprecedented.[55] This had a marked effect on Cameron as he specifically referenced the event in his Who’s Who in Australia entry published in 1941.[56]

Donald Charles Cameron (MP [Brisbane/Lilley, Qld], NAT/UAP, 1919–1931; 1934–1937)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Cameron enlisted in the AIF on 30 September 1914 and soon embarked to Egypt as second in command of the 5th Light Horse Regiment’s ‘C’ Squadron. In Gallipoli from May 1915 until the evacuation, Cameron was wounded twice. Promoted to Major in September 1915, Cameron went on to serve in Suez and Sinai in 1916, where he took part in the battle of Romani in early August. The following year he fought in Palestine and commanded his regiment in the attack on Beersheeba, having been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in October. Throughout the Palestine campaign, Cameron was mentioned in despatches three times and was awarded the DSO and Order of the Nile, in addition to his appointment to CMG.[57] 

George Cann (MP [Nepean, NSW], ALP, 1910–1913)

Cann enlisted in the AIF in March 1916 and became an acting Sergeant serving in various training groups based in England, before returning to his rank of Private in September 1917. He was discharged from the AIF in January 1918 following his return to Australia.[58]

Richard Casey (MP [Corio/La Trobe, Vic.], UAP/LIB, 1931–1940; 1949–1960)

In September 1914 Casey was appointed a Lieutenant in the AIF and served as an Orderly Officer then Aide-de-camp to Major General William Bridges, commander of the AIF’s 1st Division. Later as a Staff Captain with the 3rd Brigade at Gallipoli, Casey was evacuated due to fever. Following this, he was promoted to the AIF 1st Division General Staff Officer, 3rd grade (Intelligence) and moved to the Western Front where he fought in the Somme in 1916. He subsequently was awarded the MC and made a Brigade Major of the 8th Brigade, and was further awarded the DSO in 1918. He was twice mentioned in despatches.[59]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1933 to 1940 in the ministries of Treasurer; Development and Scientific and Industrial Research; and Supply and Development. He then served from 1949 to 1960 as Minister for Supply and Development; for Works and Housing; for National Development; for External Affairs; and in charge of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. He was appointed as Governor-General from 1965 to 1969.

John (Jack) Chamberlain (Senator [Tas.], LIB, 1951–1953)

Chamberlain enlisted in the AIF in October 1917 and served as a Private in the 12th Battalion in France.[60] He was wounded while on active service and returned to Australia in April 1919.[61]

John Clasby (MP [East Sydney, NSW], UAP, 1931–1932)

Clasby enlisted in the AIF in June 1915 as a Corporal in the 13th Light Horse Regiment. During the war he transferred to the 5th Field Artillery Brigade as a gunner, before returning to Australia in May 1917.[62]

Percy Coleman (MP [Reid, NSW], ALP, 1922–1931)

Coleman volunteered for the AIF in February 1918 and served in the Army Service Corps in both France and England. He was discharged in April 1920, having been promoted to temporary Sergeant and working within Australia House as a lecturer.[63]

Herbert Collett (Senator [WA], NAT/UAP, 1933–1947)

Collett developed an interest in military service in his late teens and joined the Metropolitan Rifle Volunteers in 1894. He continued his military service with a number of units in Western Australia before joining the AIF in April 1915. In commanding the 28th Battalion, he served in Gallipoli, Egypt, the Sinai and France until he was wounded in action at Poziéres in 1916 and evacuated to England. During his recuperation in England, Collett commanded the 4th Division Training Brigade; and then returned to France from October 1917 until March 1918, to command the 28th Battalion and 7th Infantry Brigade. In June 1918, Collett was promoted to Colonel.[64]  

Returning again to England, Collett led the demobilisation effort at No. 2 Command Depot at Weymouth until September 1919, when he discharged from the AIF. Along with being mentioned in despatches, Collett was also awarded the DSO in 1917, appointed CMG in 1919 and was promoted to Brevet Colonel in the Australian Military Forces.[65]

Upon his return to Perth, Collett continued to combine his career as a librarian with service in the Australian Military Force. At the State Library in Perth, Collett oversaw its war records and wrote the history of the 28th Battalion. He was also WA State President of the RSL from 1925 to 1933 and was later Deputy Chair of the Ryde District Soldiers’ Memorial Hospital. As a Senator, Collett sat on various joint committees that reported on veterans’ welfare entitlements.[66]  

During his parliamentary career he served from 1939 to 1941 in the ministries of War Service Homes; Repatriation; Scientific and Industrial Research; and as Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Walter Cooper (Senator [Qld], NAT/CP, 1928–1932; 1935–1968)

Cooper enlisted in the AIF in June 1915 and embarked two months later as a Second Lieutenant before arriving at the Greek island of Lemnos in October, where he joined the 15th Battalion. Serving in Gallipoli, Egypt and France, he was soon promoted to Lieutenant (March 1916) and Captain (April 1916). At Mouquet Farm in June 1916, Cooper was badly wounded in the right leg, which was amputated in September 1916. In October 1917, following his recovery in England, Cooper was transferred to the Australian Flying Corps where he served as a temporary Adjutant until September 1918, when he was again transferred to 4 Squadron, in France. Cooper was mentioned in despatches and appointed MBE for his distinguished military service in October 1919. [67] 

Following the end of the war, from November 1918 to February 1919 Cooper served with the Army of Occupation in Germany; in 1919 he completed a course as part of the AIF’s repatriation and demobilisation program, before leaving the military in 1921.[68] Cooper’s interest in repatriating servicemen and concern for their wellbeing continued while in Parliament; he served as Minister for Repatriation from 1949 to 1960, a record term at that time.[69] As part of his eulogy for Cooper, Senator Drake-Brockman, leader of the Australian Country Party in the Senate, ‘referred to Cooper’s long and respected association with ex-service organisations, which, he said, had led to Sir Walter having two nicknames: ‘Cabinet’s First Gentleman’ and ‘the Diggers’ Friend’.’[70]

Edwin Corboy (MP [Swan, WA], ALP, 1918–1919)

Corboy enlisted in the AIF in June 1915 and served as a Corporal in the 28th Battalion. During the war he transferred to the 70th Battalion before returning to Australia in May 1917.[71]

Charles Cox (Senator [NSW], NAT/UAP, 1920–1938)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Cox was appointed a Lieutenant Colonel and raised the AIF’s 6th Light Horse Regiment at the beginning of the war. Wounded at Gallipoli in May 1915, Cox took command of the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade in November 1915. After a period of sick leave in England, he later led the Brigade in Palestine and Syria until the end of the war.[72] As a Brigade Commander he had over two years of consistent military success and was appointed CMG, awarded the DSO, and had numerous mentions in despatches. [73]

Returning to Australia, Cox remained active in the military, commanding the 4th Light Horse Brigade and later, the 1st Cavalry Division. Cox retired from the military in 1923 as an honorary Major General; in 1929 he became an honorary Colonel of the New South Wales Lancers — the 1st/21st Light Horse Regiment.[74]

John Critchley (Senator [SA], ALP, 1947–1959)

Critchley enlisted in the AIF in January 1916 as a Private, embarking from Australia in March with the 10th Battalion. Critchley served on the Western Front until November 1917, after which he was invalided to England and returned to Australia in December 1917.[75]  

Richard Crouch (MP [Corio/Corangamite, Vic.], PROT/ALP, 1901–1910; 1929–1931)

Crouch had been a commissioned officer since 1892 and in March 1915 he took command of the AIF’s 22nd Battalion. He landed at Gallipoli in early September 1915 and subsequently took command of the Base Camp at Mudros. Suffering illness, he returned to Australia in March 1916.[76]

Charles Davidson (MP [Capricornia/Dawson, Qld], LIB–CP/CP, 1946–1963)

Davidson enlisted in the AIF in February 1916 and served on the Western Front with the 42nd Battalion. Having been promoted to Lieutenant in July 1918, he was subsequently wounded two months later. Davidson also re-enlisted in the AIF during the Second World War.[77]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1956 to 1963 in the ministries of Postmaster-General; and the Navy.

John Dedman (MP [Corio, Vic.], ALP, 1940–1949)

Dedman was commissioned into the British Army in March 1915 and served in Gallipoli, Egypt and later France. During 1917 he was wounded and subsequently transferred to the Indian Army, which was operating in Afghanistan and Iraq.[78]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1941 to 1949 in the ministries of War Organisation of Industry; in charge of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; Post-war Reconstruction; Trade and Customs; Aircraft Production; Munitions; and Defence.

Edmund Drake–Brockman (Senator [WA], NAT, 1920–1926)

Drake–Brockman joined the AIF in August 1914 as a Major following previous training with the Imperial Forces at the Staff College, Quetta, India. Commanding the 11th Battalion at the landing at Gallipoli, Drake-Brockman was injured in July 1915 and evacuated to Malta and England before returning to Australia in October 1915. While in Australia, he was appointed CMG for his service in Gallipoli and returned to Egypt in 1916.[79]

On his return to the war, Drake-Brockman was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and took command of the 16th Battalion on the Western Front. The Battalion served in a number of strategic battles under the command of Drake-Brockman, including ‘Pozières for the possession of the German strongpoint at Mouquet Farm, and at Bullecourt…[and] the battles at Hébuterne, Villers-Bretonneux and Hamel.’[80]

Following this, in August 1918 Drake-Brockman was temporarily put in command of the 4th Brigade and by October 1918 he was the Brigade’s Commanding Officer and temporary Brigadier General, participating in the ‘last great allied offensive, which resulted in the armistice of November 1918’.[81] Accordingly, Drake-Brockman was mentioned five times in despatches, awarded the DSO, Montenegrin Order of Danilo (Fourth Class) and appointed CB. Following his return to Australia, Drake-Brockman continued to be involved with the military as a member of the Citizen Forces, where he was promoted to Major General in 1937 and continued to command the 3rd Division militia unit until 1942.[82]

Walter Duncan (Senator [NSW], NAT, 1920–1931)

Duncan enlisted in the AIF in December 1917 as a Private. He served in the 17th Battalion for four months in late 1918, having embarked from Sydney in July.[83] Remaining a soldier following his return to Australia and leading up to the December 1919 Senate election, Duncan:

…campaigned in press advertisements as ‘Private’ Duncan, a serious figure in slouched hat under the first-ranked Nationalist, Brigadier General Charles Frederick (‘Fighting Charlie’) Cox. Duncan had been posted as a sergeant, but his war service in any event was seen to be ‘distinguished’.[84]

John Duncan-Hughes (MP [Boothby/Wakefield]; Senator [SA], LIB/NAT/UAP, 1922–1928; 1931–1938; 1940–1943)

Travelling to England after the outbreak of the First World War, Duncan-Hughes was commissioned in the Royal Field Artillery (Special Reserve) in September 1915. He served in France and Belgium, rising to the rank of acting Major. He was awarded the MC in 1918 and the Belgian Croix de Guerre. In 1920 he was appointed
Aide-de-camp, then private secretary to the Governor–General, Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson. Attached to the staff of the Prince of Wales during the 1920 Royal Visit to Australia, Duncan-Hughes was made a Member of the Royal Victorian Order.[85]

James Dunn (Senator [NSW], ALP/LANG–LAB, 1929–1935)

Dunn joined the Royal Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force in New Guinea following the outbreak of the First World War before enlisting in the AIF in November 1915 and serving in France and the Middle East. Gassed in France in 1918, Dunn returned to Australia and was discharged in November 1919.[86]

John Eldridge (MP [Martin, NSW], ALP/LANG–LAB, 1929–1931)

Eldridge enlisted in the AIF in November 1916 and served as a gunner in the Field Artillery Brigade. However, his time of active service was limited, as he only left Australia in June 1918.[87]

Harold (Pompey) Elliott (Senator [Vic.], NAT, 1920–1931)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Elliott commanded the 7th Battalion of the AIF at the outset of the war. Wounded during the Gallipoli landings on 25 April 1915, he returned to Lone Pine in August. Four of the seven VC recipients during the battle for Lone Pine were from Elliott’s Battalion. Promoted to Brigadier General in 1916, he was critical of some of the commanders assigned to his Brigade. At the Western Front he was deeply affected by what he believed was a badly mishandled attack at Fromelles, an operation he had tried to stop. He restored his Brigade and was credited by historian CEW Bean with having ‘snatched complete success from an almost desperate situation’ at the battle of Polygon Wood.[88] He also played a significant role in the famous counterattack at
Villers–Bretonneux in April 1918.[89] During the war he had been appointed CB and CMG, awarded the DSO, the Russian Order of St Anne and the French Croix de Guerre, and mentioned in despatches seven times.[90]  

In 1919 Elliot returned to Melbourne a well-known soldier due to his leadership of the 7th Battalion at Gallipoli and 15th Brigade at the Western Front. Accordingly, he received support from leaders of the Nationalist party to nominate as a candidate for the upcoming federal election.[91]

Biographer Ross McMullin said of Elliott:

His reputation as one of the AIF’s most famous commanders was founded on his capacity and temperament. He was intelligent, well informed, energetic and decisive. His own bravery was exceptional, but he was vigilant and frank when assessing the advisability of proposed enterprises involving the men under him. It became an article of faith that he would never send a man anywhere he was not prepared to go himself. Emotional and tempestuous, he was also a real character. Anecdotes about him flourished, amusing the men he led and sometimes disconcerting his superiors.[92]

James Fairbairn (MP [Flinders, Vic.], UAP, 1933–1940)

Fairbairn was commissioned as a Flying Officer in the Royal Flying Corps in July 1916. In February 1917 he was captured by German forces following his plane being shot down between Cambrai and Mont St Quentin in France. With his arm badly injured by the incident, Fairbairn remained a prisoner until the end of the war, when he returned to Australia in 1919.[93]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1939 to 1940 in the ministries of Civil Aviation; Air; and as Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Alexander Finlay (Senator [SA], ALP, 1944–1953)

At 30 years of age, Finlay enlisted in the AIF in May 1918 as a Private in the 10th Battalion. Embarking from Australia in July 1918, Finlay served in Britain and France until the end of the war.[94]

Archibald Fisken (MP [Ballarat, Vic.], UAP, 1934–1937)

Fisken had been commissioned in the Royal Field Artillery in August 1916 and served in the Western Front with the 281st (London) Brigade. In 1918 he was promoted to Lieutenant, wounded in battle and awarded the MC.[95]

William Fleming (MP [Robertson, NSW], LIB/NAT/NAT&FARMERS/CP, 1913–1922)

Fleming enlisted in the AIF in October 1916, following news that the previous representative of Robertson, William Johnson, had been killed in action. He served as a driver in the Australian Army Service Corps Training Depot in England, transporting reinforcements across to France. Fleming was promoted to Sergeant and gassed at Péronne in France before being discharged in December 1918.[96]

Hattil Foll (Senator [Qld], NAT/UAP, 1917–1947)

Foll enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and was part of the 3rd Field Artillery Brigade. He landed at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 and was wounded in May before rejoining his unit in July. He returned to Australia and was discharged on medical grounds in February 1916.[97]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1937 to 1941 in the ministries of Repatriation; War Service Homes; Health; the Interior; and Information.

George Foster (Senator [Tas.], NAT, 1920–1925)

Foster enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and served as a Private in the 3rd Light Horse Regiment in Gallipoli, then Egypt. During the war he was promoted to Sergeant before returning to Australia in July 1916.[98] Upon his return from war, Foster became Secretary of the Tasmanian Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League of Australia, who supported him during his term in the Tasmanian House of Assembly in 1917.[99]

Elected as a ‘Digger Senator’ for Tasmania in 1919, Foster honed his skill in debate by discussing his favourite topics, notably the repatriation of returned soldiers, especially in relation to employment, housing and pensions.[100]

Josiah Francis (MP [Moreton, Qld], NAT/UAP/LIB, 1922–1955)

Francis was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the AIF in April 1916 and served with the 15th Battalion on the Western Front. He was wounded in March 1918 and was promoted to Captain just prior to the conclusion of the war.[101] He later chaired the appeal for the Anzac Memorial Chapel at Duntroon.[102]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1932 to 1934 in the ministries of Defence; War Service Homes; and Repatriation and then from 1949 to 1955 in the ministries of the Army; and the Navy.

Alexander Fraser (Senator [Vic.], LIB, 1946)

Fraser enlisted in the AIF during July 1915, was later commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in March 1916 and posted to the 10th Machine-Gun Company which served on the Western Front. At Messines in June 1917 he was seriously wounded but continued fighting, for which he received the MC. He returned to Australia in early 1918 and was discharged in January 1919.[103]

John Gellibrand (MP [Denison, Tas.], NAT, 1925–1928)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Already an experienced military officer who had served in the Boer War, at the early stages of the First World War Gellibrand was made Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster General of the 1st Australian Division. Landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, he was wounded twice in the following month. In early 1916 Gellibrand was given command of the 6th Infantry Brigade in France and had been promoted to Brigadier General. He was active in such battles as Pozières, Mouquet Farm, Bapaume and Bullecourt. In November 1917 Gellibrand took command of the 12th Brigade, and six months later was promoted to Major General as he led the 3rd Division. Through this he was able to make significant gains in operations along the Somme from Hamel to the Hindenburg line. By the war’s end Gellibrand had been appointed CB and KCB, awarded the DSO with Bar, American Distinguished Service Medal, French Croix de Guerre and Légion d’honneur, and mentioned in despatches several times.[104]   

The war historian CEW Bean said of Gellibrand that he was a distinctive figure, usually wearing an old ‘Aussie’ tunic topped by a soft felt hat, and ‘living as simply as his men’.[105] He also said that he was ‘one of those officers whose bravery was conspicuous’.[106] He was also widely admired by fellow MPs. On one occasion the House of Representatives was congratulated by John Duncan-Hughes MP for having amongst its members ‘so distinguished a soldier’.[107] Gellibrand also formed the Remembrance Club in Hobart in 1923, which was the genesis of Legacy, caring for widows, widowers and the children of ex–servicemen and women.[108]

William Gibbs (Senator [NSW], ALP, 1925)

Gibbs enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and served as a Lance Sergeant in the 2nd Battalion at Gallipoli and in Egypt.[109] During the war he was promoted to Company Quartermaster Sergeant before returning to Australia in 1916.[110]

Thomas Glasgow (Senator [Qld], NAT, 1920–1932)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Glasgow had previous military experience, including service in the Boer War and was appointed a Major and second-in command of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment at the outset of the war. He landed at Gallipoli on 12 May 1915, and subsequently commanded the Regiment as a newly commissioned Lieutenant Colonel. After the evacuation of Gallipoli, Glasgow took command of the newly-created 13th Infantry Brigade, which served on the Western Front at Pozières, Messines, Passchendaele, Mouquet Farm and Dernancourt. By the end of 1917 Glasgow had been appointed both CMG and CB. In April 1918 his Brigade was instrumental in the recapture of Villers-Bretonneux, and following this success he was promoted to Major General to command the 1st Division in Flanders. Throughout the remainder of the war he served at the Somme, Lihons, Chuignes and Hargicourt. Appointed KCB, Glasgow was also mentioned nine times in despatches and received the French Légion d’honneur and Croix de Guerre, as well as the Belgian Croix de Guerre.[111]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1926 to 1929 as Minister for Home and Territories; and Minister for Defence.

Roland Green (MP [Richmond, NSW], CP, 1922–1937)

Green enlisted in the AIF in October 1914 and served as a Corporal in the 6th Light Horse Regiment.[112] He was wounded at Menin Road, Belgium in September 1917 which resulted in his leg being amputated. Following the war Green founded and was Vice-President of the Limbless and Maimed Soldiers’ Association.[113]

Henry Gullett (MP [Henty, Vic.], NAT/UAP, 1925–1940)

Gullett served as official Australian war correspondent with the British and French armies in 1915 on the Western Front. In July 1916 he joined the AIF as a gunner. From early 1917 he worked with Charles Bean in England collecting war records. Bean had him commissioned in August 1917 to command a sub-section of the Australian War Records Section in Egypt. After a short time with Bean in France he sailed to Egypt in November where the AIF took him on as their war correspondent in Palestine. His appointment in August 1918 was just in time for the final offensive. He returned to Australia in July 1919 and was briefly director of the Australian War Museum. He wrote volume VII of The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 which covered the Sinai, Palestine and Syrian campaigns.[114]

During his parliamentary career he was Minister for Trade and Customs from 1928 to 1929 and again from 1932 to 1933. He was also Minister without portfolio, directing negotiation for trade treaties from 1934 to 1937. He further served from 1939 to 1940 in the ministries of External Affairs; Information; Scientific and Industrial Research; and as Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Leonard Hamilton (MP [Swan/Canning, WA], CP, 1946–1961)

Hamilton enlisted in the AIF in July 1917 and served as a sapper in the 9th Field Company Engineers. He embarked from Australia in March 1918 before returning in July the following year.[115]

Alfred Hampson (MP [Bendigo, Vic.], ALP, 1915–1917)

After his loss to Prime Minister Billy Hughes in the seat of Bendigo in the 1917 election, Hampson enlisted in the AIF in October 1917 and served as a Second Corporal in the 2nd Australian Light Railway Operating Company.[116]  

Charles Hardy (Senator [NSW], CP, 1932–1938)

Hardy enlisted in the AIF in January 1917 and served in the 1st Pioneer Training Battalion and 1st Field Company, Australian Engineers as a sapper. In March 1918 he was gassed but stayed on and was promoted to Lance Corporal just before the war ended.[117]

John Harris (Senator [WA], ALP, 1947–1951; 1953–1959)

Harris enlisted in the AIF in January 1916, embarking in early June. He later served with the 3rd Tunnelling Company in France, where he was promoted to Sergeant in April 1918. He was gassed in 1918 but rejoined his unit before returning to Australia in October 1919. Years later, in Parliament, Harris spoke of the plight of many soldiers returning from the First World War:

We received a miserable gratuity and found that no jobs were available. Many unfortunate returned soldiers expended their gratuities on board and lodgings, and finished up visiting soup kitchens or asking the police for food and shelter. Hundreds carried their ‘swags’ through the bush looking for work in the farming areas.[118]

Eric F Harrison (MP [Bendigo, Vic.], UAP; 1931–1937)

Harrison was a highly experienced military officer prior to the war, and was notably the first Australian to attend the Staff College at Quetta in January 1910. After serving in various roles at Army Headquarters and the Royal Military College Duntroon from 1914, in November 1917 he enlisted in the AIF. He served with the 1st Division Headquarters during its Western Front operations at Hazebrouck, Strazeele, Flêtre and the Somme. Moving to the 3rd Division in September 1918, he supported operations against the Hindenberg line.[119] 

Eric J Harrison (MP [Wentworth, NSW], UAP/LIB, 1931–1956)

Harrison enlisted in the AIF in October 1916 and served on the Western Front in the 5th Field Artillery Brigade. In May 1918 he was promoted to Sergeant.[120]

During his parliamentary career he was Minister for the Interior in 1934. He then served from 1938 to 1941 in the ministries of External Territories; assisting the Prime Minister; Repatriation; Postmaster-General; Trade and Customs. Harrison further served from 1949 to 1956 as Minister for Post-war Reconstruction; for Defence; for the Interior; for Defence Production; for the Army; for the Navy; and Vice President of the Executive Council.

Charles Hawker (MP [Wakefield, SA], NAT/UAP, 1929–1938)

Hawker enlisted for war service in 1914 while in England and became a temporary Lieutenant in the 6th (Service) Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry. He was wounded at Ypres in May 1915 and again at Loos the following month, in which he lost an eye. Despite being classified medically unfit, he insisted on returning to the Western Front. Hawker was again wounded in October 1917 at the 3rd battle of Ypres and was paralysed from the waist down. Numerous operations allowed him to walk with the aid of sticks, although his legs were to remain in surgical irons for the rest of his life.[121]

During his parliamentary career he served in 1932 as Minister for Repatriation; for Markets; and for Commerce.

Alexander Hay (MP [New England, NSW], NAT&FARMERS/CP/IND, 1919–1922)

Hay enlisted in the AIF in October 1915 and served as a Captain in the 2nd Remount Unit. After being promoted to Major during his deployment, he returned to Australia in June 1916.[122]

Leslie Haylen (MP [Parkes, NSW], ALP, 1943–1963)

Haylen enlisted in the AIF in July 1918 but saw no active service as his troopship which left for Europe in October was soon recalled following the Armistice.[123]

Edward Heitmann (MP [Kalgoorlie, WA], NAT, 1917–1919)

Heitmann enlisted in the AIF in April 1918 as a Private in the 10th General (Victorian) Reinforcements. He embarked from Australia in August 1918 but arrived too late for active service. He returned to Australia five months later.[124]

Albion Hendrickson (Senator [Vic.], ALP, 1947–1971)

Hendrickson enlisted in the AIF in October 1915 as a Private in the 22nd Battalion. During the war he transferred to the 2nd Pioneer Battalion.[125] He served in France before being wounded in May 1917 and was hospitalised in England before returning to Australia in December 1917. He was discharged from the AIF in March 1918 due to his injuries.[126]

Neville Howse (MP [Calare, NSW], NAT, 1922–1929)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Already a VC recipient in the Boer War, in August 1914 Howse was appointed a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force to German New Guinea as the principal medical officer. Following this he joined the AIF as a Staff Officer to Surgeon General WCD Williams, who was Director of Medical Services with the first convoy. In December 1914 Howse was made a Colonel and Assistant Director of Medical Services for the 1st Australian Division where he was instrumental in supporting wounded soldiers at the Gallipoli landings.[127]

After establishing the Anzac Medical Society at Gallipoli, by September 1915 Howse commanded the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps medical services and was appointed CB. Later in November 1915 he was made Director of Medical Services for the entire AIF. In 1916 Howse joined the administrative AIF Headquarters in London but frequently visited troops at the front. In January 1917 he was promoted to Major-General and appointed KCB. At the end of the war, Howse had been mentioned in despatches and appointed KCMG.[128]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1925 to 1929 as Minister for Defence; for Health; and for Home and Territories.

Arthur Hutchin (MP [Denison, Tas.], UAP, 1931–1934)

Already an experienced army officer, during the war Hutchin served as Brigade Major in the 3rd Infantry Brigade. He was awarded a DSO and was mentioned in despatches.[129]

William Johnson (MP [Robertson, NSW], ALP, 1910–1913)

Johnson enlisted as an AIF Private in August 1915. He died of wounds on 30 July 1916 at Pozières (France) and was buried at Etaples Military Cemetery.[130] Prime Minister Billy Hughes paid tribute to Johnson, stating that:

I am very sorry indeed to hear of the death of my old friend and colleague, Mr. W. J. Johnson. His name will be inscribed on the long roll of brave men who freely gave their lives for Australia. I knew him for many years, and always found him staunch and true, resolute in upholding the rights of the people, always to the front in the hottest political battles as he was on the grim battlefield of war.[131]

Roy Kendall (Senator [Qld], LIB, 1949–1965)

Kendall entered the Thames Nautical Training College, HMS Worcester, at the age of 12. At the outbreak of war he became a naval cadet on the Kinpurney which was torpedoed in January 1917 while enroute to South Africa. Kendall was also fortunate to escape the destruction of the second ship he served on. His last post in 1917 was on the Kilmallie, which travelled between Cape Town and the United States. Kendall was demobilised after returning to England in 1918.[132]

Wilfred Kent Hughes (MP [Chisholm, Vic.], LIB, 1949–1970)

Kent Hughes enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and entered the 7th Battalion prior to being commissioned the following April and transferred to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, which was commanded by his uncle Frederic Godfrey Hughes. Kent Hughes went on to serve at Gallipoli, Sinai, Palestine and Syria and was awarded the MC in 1917 as a Staff Captain. Later on he was promoted to Major and made Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster General of the Australian Mounted Division. Kent Hughes was mentioned in despatches four times during the war and wrote the book Modern Crusaders about the Light Horse, of which he had been a part. He also served in the Second World War.[133] 

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 to 1956 as Minister for Works and Housing; for the Interior; and for Works.

Edwin Kerby (MP [Ballarat, Vic.], NAT, 1919–1920)

Kerby enlisted in October 1914 and was appointed Captain in the AIF (1st Reinforcements, 5th Battalion) in November 1914. He embarked in late December to serve in Egypt, Gallipoli and on the Western Front. He was twice wounded and invalided to Australia in January 1916, being unfit for duty for six months. He re-embarked from Melbourne in July and rejoined his battalion in October, before again being wounded. Kerby was promoted to Major in May 1917 before returning to Australia at the end of 1918.[134]

Charles Lamp (Senator [Tas.], ALP, 1938–1950)

Being only 15 years of age at the time, Lamp added a year to his age upon enlistment in the AIF’s 92nd Infantry in January 1916. Lamp completed active duty in France; in March 1918 he joined the 9th Field Company Engineers, but was wounded in June of the same year. He was repatriated to England and discharged to Australia in 1918.[135]

Charles Latham (Senator [WA], CP, 1942–1943)

Latham enlisted in the AIF in March 1916 as a Private in the 16th Battalion, serving overseas from October 1916. By the end of 1916 he was an acting Corporal within the 4th Training Battalion and was promoted to Corporal early in 1917. Transferring to the 16th Battalion in October 1917, he served in France but was wounded in March 1918. Later in September Latham was attached to the U.S. Army and returned to Australia in 1919.[136]

Hugh Leslie (MP [Moore, WA], CP, 1949–1958; 1961–1963)

Leslie served in the South African armed forces from 1916–1919.[137]

John Lister (MP [Corio, Vic.], NAT, 1917–1929)

Lister enlisted in the AIF in November 1914 and served as a Private in the 2nd Light Horse Field Ambulance. He returned to Australia in August 1916.[138]

John McCallum (Senator [NSW], LIB, 1949–1962)

McCallum enlisted in the AIF in September 1915 and served with the 55th Battalion in Egypt, France and Belgium. In September 1917 he was wounded at Polygon Wood, evacuated to England, discharged from the AIF and repatriated to Australia in 1919.[139]

James McCay (MP [Corinella, Vic.], PROT, 1901–1906)

An experienced military officer prior to the First World War, McCay was initially put in charge of censorship before his appointment to command the AIF’s 2nd Infantry Brigade in August 1914. Landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, McCay’s Brigade was reduced by half its strength in the first two days. In early May he was wounded in the leg, however his return to action too soon led to the bone snapping in mid-July, again at Gallipoli. Upon returning to Australia he was promoted to temporary Major General and Inspector General of the AIF in Australia, as well as being appointed CB and awarded the Légion d’honneur. In March 1916 McCay once again returned to the Western Front, as commander of the newly created 5th Division. He then served at Fromelles and the Somme. He was relieved of his command in January 1917 and transitioned to overseeing the base depots in England until the end of the war. His appointments included KCMG in 1918 and KBE the following year.[140]  

During his parliamentary career he served from 1904 to 1905 as Minister for Defence.

Allan MacDonald (Senator [WA], LIB/UAP, 1935–1947)

MacDonald enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and joined the 8th Battery of the Australian Field Artillery. He served at Gallipoli but was evacuated due to ill health and spent his remaining war service in Egypt where he became a Warrant Officer Class One in the Australian Army Pay Corps.[141] He was demobilised in 1919 to serve with the American Red Cross Commission to Palestine; between June and October 1919 and served with the Commission in Palestine, Syria, Armenia, Mesopotamia and Turkey.[142]  

During his parliamentary career he served from 1937 to 1939 in the ministries of Commerce; and the Treasurer.  

Allan McDonald (MP [Corangamite, Vic.], UAP/LIB, 1940–1953)

McDonald enlisted in the AIF in April 1916 and joined the 14th Battalion on the Western Front. He served at Bullecourt where he was wounded in the arm and Polygon Wood; and was promoted to Sergeant in October 1916. However a month later he was invalided from the front due to ongoing issues with his arm and was discharged from the AIF in October 1918.[143]

During his parliamentary career he served in 1941 in the ministries of the Interior; and External Territories.

David (Charles) McGrath (MP [Ballarat, Vic.], ALP/UAP, 1913–1919; 1920–1934)

McGrath enlisted in the AIF in March 1916 and became a Staff Sergeant with the 22nd Army Service Corps. He was promoted to Warrant Officer at the end of the year and transferred to Australian Imperial Headquarters. McGrath deployed the following year to France, where he served in the 1st Company, 1st Army Service Corps and returned to Australia in April 1918.[144]

Sydney McHugh (MP [Wakefield, SA], ALP, 1938–1940)

McHugh enlisted in the AIF in February 1916 as a Private in the 5th Pioneer Battalion.[145]

John McLeay (MP [Boothby, SA], LIB/LCL, 1949–1966)

McLeay enlisted in the AIF in May 1915 and served in medical units in Greece, Egypt and the Western Front. His bravery as a stretcher bearer in the 13th Field Ambulance during fighting near the French town of
Villers-Bretonneux in April 1918 led McLeay to be awarded the MM.[146]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1956 to 1966 as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Donald McLeod (MP [Wannon, Vic.], ALP, 1940–1949; 1951–1955)

McLeod enlisted in the AIF in 1915 and served in France with the Royal Australian Artillery. He was discharged in 1919.[147]

Walter McNicoll (MP [Werriwa, NSW], CP, 1931–1934)

In August 1914 McNicoll was appointed second-in-command of the 7th Battalion, though he soon transferred to the 6th Battalion. He commanded this group during the Gallipoli landings, where he was one of the first Australians in the war to receive the DSO. In May 1915 he was severely wounded in the abdomen and after treatment in London returned to Australia later that year. In February 1916 McNicoll took command of the 10th Infantry Brigade on the Western Front and served at Messines, the 3rd battle of Ypres and Passchendaele. In 1918 his Brigade fought at Amiens and then along the Hindenberg line. By the end of the war McNicoll had been mentioned in despatches four times and was appointed both CMG and CB.[148] 

Walter Marks (MP [Wentworth, NSW], NAT/IND, 1919–1931)

Marks joined the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve in 1914 and served as a Lieutenant in the North Sea and English Channel. Prior to his return to Australia in March 1918, Marks was also a gunnery school commander in Wales.[149]

Charles Marr (MP [Parkes, NSW], NAT/UAP, 1919–1929; 1931–1943)

Marr was a Lieutenant in the Royal Australian Navy Wireless Radio Service in 1914 and subsequently enlisted in the AIF in April 1916 and joined the Australian and New Zealand Wireless Signals Squadron. A month later he was promoted to Major and commanded the squadron in Mesopotamia until the end of the campaign. His war service awards included the MC, the DSO and mention in despatches twice.[150]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1925 to 1929 as an Honorary Minister; and as Minister for Home and Territories. From 1932 to 1934 he served as Minister for Works and Railways; Health; Repatriation; and was Minister in charge of the Royal Visit.

Edward Mattner (Senator [SA], LIB, 1944–1946; 1949–1968)

Mattner enlisted in the AIF in September 1915 and joined the 18th Battery, 6th Army Brigade, Australian Field Artillery as a gunner, serving on the Western Front.[151] He was awarded the MM and promoted to Sergeant for his bravery while fighting at Ploegsteert, Belgium in June 1917. He received the DCM three months later for his leadership at Hooge and awarded the MC in October at Zillebeke. He was promoted to Lieutenant in January 1918 and discharged from the AIF in 1919.[152] 

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 to 1953 as President of the Senate.

Arthur Morgan (MP [Darling Downs, Qld], NAT, 1929–1931)

Morgan enlisted in the AIF in 1914 and served at Gallipoli and Palestine. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 11th Light Horse Regiment in March 1915 and Lieutenant in November. He returned to Australia in March 1917.[153]

Theophilus Nicholls (Senator [SA], ALP, 1944–1968)

Nicholls enlisted in the AIF in August 1915 and served as a Private in the 5th Pioneer Battalion. While at an AIF training camp in Adelaide, Nicholls was informed that his pregnant wife was struggling to care for his seriously ill daughter; he left the camp without leave and returned to them in Wallaroo. As a result of this, Nicholls was court-martialled for desertion, to which he plead guilty. This charge was later reduced to ‘being absent without leave’, and he served 28 days detention.[154]

Nicholls embarked from Australia in September 1916, but was discharged for medical reasons soon after, returning to Australia in May 1917.[155]

Lewis Nott (MP [Herbert, QLD; Australian Capital Territory, ACT], NAT/IND, 1925–1928; 1949–1951)

Nott was living in Scotland at the outset of the war and enlisted in August 1914 with the Royal Scots Greys and was drafted to the Lovat’s Scouts. In May 1915 he was made an officer in the Royal Horse Artillery before his transfer in October to the 15th Battalion, Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) as a Captain. In 1916 he was wounded while serving on the Western Front and was mentioned twice in despatches. Nott returned to Scotland in December 1916 and relinquished his commission to resume medical studies.[156]

James O’Loghlin (Senator [SA], ALP, 1907; 1913–1920; 1923–1925)

O’Loghlin’s interest in the military began in 1883 as a member of the Terowie Volunteer Corps. In 1895 he joined the South Australian Militia (of which he was appointed Captain); in 1904 was appointed Major in the 10th Australian Infantry Regiment  and retired from the Commonwealth Military Forces in 1909, at the age of 57. He also led the South Australian Parliamentary Rifle Team, winning multiple awards.[157]

O’Loghlin was the only sitting Senator to serve overseas in the war, at the age of 62 in 1915. He reportedly declared to his fellow Senator and Minister for Defence, George Pearce, that if ‘you cannot put me in the firing line, put me as near to it as you can’, Loghlin was appointed a temporary Lieutenant Colonel, commanding troopships disembarking in Egypt in April and September 1916.[158] 

Alfred Ozanne (MP, [Corio, Vic.], ALP, 1910–1913; 1914–1917)

Ozanne enlisted in the AIF in January 1916 and served as Quartermaster Sergeant in the 22nd Company, Australian Army Service Corps. He embarked from Australia in June 1916 and returned the following March.[159]

Ozanne’s words prior to his embarkation were greeted rapturously by members of both houses at a dinner in Queen’s Hall in Parliament House, Melbourne:

If they asked him, ‘What did you do as a legislator responsible for Australia’s part in the war? Did you stay in your soft cushioned seat, drawing your salary, and asking others to give up their lives so that you might stay here in safety?’ he wanted to be in a position to say, ‘No; when my country asked me to do my duty I heard the call, and I went.’ (Cheers.)[160]

Earle Page (MP [Cowper, NSW], FSU/CP, 1919–1961)

Page enlisted in the AIF in 1916 served in the Australian Army Medical Corps as a doctor in Egypt and England. He then served five months with the 3rd Casualty Clearing Station in France in 1916–17, before securing an early discharge.[161]

During his parliamentary career he was Treasurer from 1923 to 1929. He then served from 1934 to 1939 as Minister for Commerce and Minister for Health. He was Prime Minister for 20 days from 7–26 April 1939. He further served as Minister for Commerce from 1940 to 1941, and again Minister for Health from 1949 to 1956.

Edmund Piesse (Senator [WA], CP, 1949–1952)

Piesse enlisted in the AIF in June 1918 and served as a Private in the 3rd Western Australian Reinforcement. He embarked from Australia in October 1918, returning in December of that year before being discharged in January 1919.[162]

Reginald Pollard (MP [Ballarat/Lalor, Vic.], ALP, 1937–1966)

Pollard enlisted in the AIF in July 1915 and joined the 6th Battalion in Egypt before transferring to France in April 1917. He was promoted to Lieutenant in March 1918 and was severely wounded three months later in the chest and abdomen and was invalided back to Australia.[163] He was Minister for Commerce and Agriculture from 1946 to 1949.

George Rankin (MP [Bendigo]/Senator [Vic.], ST CP/UCP/CP, 1937–1949; 1949–1956)

In August 1914 Rankin was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the AIF and posted to the 4th Light Horse Regiment. Landing at Gallipoli in May 1915 he was wounded there two months later. He was promoted to Captain in December 1915, then Major in March 1916, Rankin later served in the Sinai, the battle for Beersheba, Jerusalem and the capture of Damascus. He was awarded the DSO with Bar and was mentioned in despatches.[164]  Following the end of the war, Rankin remained in Egypt until 1919, assisting to quash a rebellion against British rule. He returned to Australia as commander of the 4th Light Horse Regiment, continuing to serve in the Militia until the 1940s.[165] According to historian Malcolm Saunders:

George James Rankin was a soldier first and a politician second. In some ways he was representative of the politics of his day. His status as a soldier—indeed a war hero—gave him an advantage in gaining entry into the federal Parliament during the late 1930s.[166]

Albert Reid (Senator [NSW], CP, 1949–1962)

Reid enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 and served as a Second Lieutenant in the 1st Light Horse Regiment, departing in the first convoy to leave Australia.[167] Reid served in Gallipoli until August 1915, when he was wounded and evacuated to Egypt and later Australia. Returning to his unit in January 1917, Reid was transferred to the 4th Light Horse Regiment during the Palestine campaign and in October 1917 he was promoted to Major. Leading the 2nd Squadron of the 4th Light Horse Brigade in the ‘dramatic cavalry charge at the Battle of Beersheba’, Reid’s leadership significantly contributed to the success of the Allied forces in the Palestine Campaign.[168] For this, Reid was awarded the MC and mentioned in despatches in September 1918.[169] He was demobilised and returned to Australia in 1919.[170]

Edward Riley (MP [Cook, NSW], ALP/FLP, 1922–1934)

Riley enlisted for active service in September 1916 and returned from the war in July 1919.[171]

James Rowell (Senator [SA], NAT, 1917–1923)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

An experienced military officer before the war, Rowell acted briefly as Military Commandant of South Australia in 1916. From 1915 to 1917, Rowell commanded AIF reinforcements on troop transport ships between Australia, England and Egypt.[172]

Rupert Ryan (MP [Flinders, Vic.], UAP/LIB, 1940–1952)

Living in England at the outbreak of the war, Ryan served with ‘T’ Battery, Royal Horse Artillery which fought on the Western Front as part of the 7th Division. He was wounded in Festubert in May 1915, having recently transferred to 7th Division headquarters. For the remainder of the war he served as a Staff Officer in the XIII Corps, Reserve (Fifth) Army, Cavalry Corps and First Army. He was also awarded the DSO, three foreign honours and was mentioned in despatches six times.[173]

Granville Ryrie (MP [North Sydney, Werringah NSW], LIB/NAT, 1911–1927)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Ryrie was a military officer as well as an MP when Australia went to war in 1914. On 4 August 1914 he wrote to his wife saying that, ‘after thinking for 11 hours’, he felt he had to volunteer. Confessing that he was ‘worried to death about it’, and ‘would do almost anything’ to avoid leaving her and their children, he cited the basis for his decision as:

I couldn’t look men in the face again, especially some of my political opponents whom I have accused of disloyalty, if I didn’t offer to go. I simply cannot hold back…if the Empire is at war—I do not care what the cause of the quarrel may be or who created it—we, as an integral part of the British Empire, are at war and must take our own part in it.[174]

Ryrie was made a Brigadier General in command of the AIF’s 2nd Light Horse Brigade in September 1914. Ryrie landed at Gallipoli in May 1915 and was twice wounded while holding its southern most position, including Ryrie’s Post, which was named after him. In 1916 he moved to the Sinai but was on leave attending the Empire Parliamentary Conference while his troops fought the battle of Romani. Upon his return he served in Gaza, Beersheeba, Palestine, Amman and the Es Salt. By the end of the war Ryrie had been appointed CMG and CB, awarded the Order of the Nile (second class) and was mentioned in despatches five times.[175]  

He has been described as an MP who felt ‘an enormous sense of responsibility to veterans’ and served as Assistant Minister for Defence from 1920 to 1921.[176]

Burford Sampson (Senator [Tas.], NAT/UAP/LIB, 1925–1938; 1941–1947)

Sampson was commissioned into the AIF in December 1914 as a Second Lieutenant. He served at Gallipoli in April 1915, was injured in May, and evacuated to England for a period of convalescence. Sampson rejoined the 15th Battalion in May 1917 in France, where he was again wounded in action. He was promoted to Major in September 1917 and was acting Commander of the 15th Batallion during August and September of 1918. Sampson was eventually sent to Aldershot, the senior officers’ school in England from October 1918, where he stayed until the end of the war. He was then appointed Officer Commanding AIF troops in Paris, returning to Australia by the end of 1919. He was mentioned in dispatches in 1918, awarded the DSO in 1919 and upon returning to Australia became President of the Launceston Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia and a founding member of the Launceston Remembrance (later Legacy) Club.[177]

Sampson’s political success was at least partly attributed to his military service, as:

his success was due at least in part to the votes of returned soldiers, whose support he had sought. He considered that, ‘irrespective of party, a returned soldier, ably qualified, [should] be regarded, in the main, as more worthy of the people’s franchise than a non-soldier’. In one of his campaign speeches he attributed the birth of his political aspirations to an encounter with W. M. Hughes at a Gallipoli dinner during the 1919 Peace Conference in Paris, at which Hughes had told Sampson that he could best serve Australia in peacetime by entering the federal Parliament.[178]

Charles Sandford (Senator [Vic.], ALP, 1947–1956; 1957–1966)

Sandford was nearly 19 years of age when he enlisted in the AIF in August 1914. He began as a driver in the 6th Battery, Australian Field Artillery, having already served in the militia with the 31st Battery Field Artillery for 18 months. In October 1914 he left Australia to serve in Egypt from late that year until April 1915. Sandford also served in Gallipoli—where the 6th Battery landed at Cape Helles in May—and later in France and Belgium. In early 1916, he successfully requested a transfer from driver to gunner, returning to Australia in November 1918 and discharged in Melbourne in February 1919.[179]

Thomas Scholfield (MP [Wannon, Vic.], UAP, 1931–1940)

Scholfield enlisted in the AIF in January 1915 and initially served as a Private in the 21st Battalion. He was commissioned in July 1917 as a Second Lieutenant and later promoted in October 1917 to Lieutenant. Scholfield was awarded the MM in November 1917 and MC for bravery at Mont St. Quentin in September 1918. His brother John was killed in action in April 1918.[180]

Harrie Seward (Senator [WA], CP, 1951–1958)

Seward enlisted in the AIF in August 1915 and served as a Private in the 58th Battalion. He embarked in February 1916 for France where he broke his ankle. In July 1917 he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 59th Battalion and served on the Western Front, where he incurred head and leg injuries and was subsequently evacuated to England. In January 1918 he embarked for Australia and on the way served as Adjutant to the ship’s Quartermaster.[181]

Wilfred Simmonds (Senator [Qld], LIB, 1949–1951)

Simmonds was a Cairns Shire councillor when he cut short his term for service as a Private with the 15th Battalion from August 1917 to September 1919, during which he was wounded in France. Actively involved in recruitment campaigns during the First World War, Simmonds was also involved in civil defence initiatives during the Second World War. In 1950 Simmonds was made a life member of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia.[182]

Miles Smith (Senator [WA], FT, 1901–1906)

Smith enlisted in the AIF in January 1916 as a Warrant Officer with the 44th Battalion. Commissioned in September 1916, he became an Intelligence Officer in the Battalion but was wounded the following June. For the remainder of the war Smith served as a Staff Officer located in Britain. He was appointed MBE in 1919. His biographer noted: ‘Colleagues would remember him as a plucky intelligence officer, who ‘never shirked the front line’.[183] His experiences led him to write a short account of Australian campaigns in the war.[184]

William Spooner (Senator [NSW], LIB, 1949–1965)

Spooner enlisted in the AIF in June 1915 and served as a stretcher bearer with the 5th Field Ambulance at Gallipoli, Egypt, France and Belgium. He was awarded the MM at Bellewaarde Ridge, Belgium, in September 1917, for dashing under heavy fire to attend to a badly wounded man. He was wounded himself the following month at Polygon Wood and in 1918 transferred to the Australian Flying Corps.[185] He returned to Australia in June 1919 and was discharged in August.[186]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1949 to 1964 as Minister for Social Services; for National Development; and Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Geoffrey Street (MP [Corangamite, Vic.], UAP, 1934–1940)

In August 1914, Street initially enlisted as a Private in the Australian Naval, Military and Expeditionary Force before transferring to the AIF’s 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry Brigade. After being commissioned the following month, Street landed at Gallipoli on 25 April and was wounded. However, Street returned to the peninsula in time for the battle of Lone Pine. Throughout the war he served in the Middle East, France and Belgium until he was wounded in the wrist in September 1918. He was awarded the MC in December 1917.[187]

During his parliamentary career he served from 1938 to 1940 as Minister for Defence; for the Army; and for Repatriation.

William Thompson (Senator [Qld], NAT, 1922–1932)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

Thompson had previously served as an officer in the Boer War and continued as a commander of the Light Horse on his return from South Africa, responsible for five regiments in northern Queensland until the First World War. Volunteering for enlistment, Thompson was rejected due to his age, as he was in his mid-50s at that time. Subsequently, Thompson trained troops at the Enoggera army base for a year, then served in the AIF’s overseas transport service on four return voyages to England.[188]

Thomas Treloar (MP [Gwydir, NSW], CP, 1949–1953)

Treloar enlisted in the AIF in June 1915 as a Private in the 19th Battalion.[189]

Robert Wardlaw (Senator [Tas.], LIB, 1953–1962)

Wardlaw enlisted in the AIF in December 1916, embarking from Sydney in May 1917 for Suez. Wardlaw served with the 2nd and 7th Light Horse Brigade in the Middle East but his service was hampered by recurring bouts of malaria. Discharged in January 1920, Wardlaw returned to Tasmania after the war.[190]

David Watkins (MP [Newcastle, NSW], FLP/ALP, 1935–1958)

Watkins enlisted in the AIF in September 1915 and served as a driver in the Wireless Signal Troop. He embarked from Australia in February 1916 and returned a year later.[191]

Thomas White (MP [Balaclava, Vic.], NAT/UAP/LIB, 1929–1951)

In August 1914 White was selected as one of the first officers to train at Point Cook, Victoria, in the Australian Flying Corps and eight months later was appointed a Captain in the AIF. He served with the Indian Army in Basra but was later captured in November 1915 while on mission near Baghdad and was taken to Turkey. He escaped from Constantinople in July 1918 and successfully returned to London in December 1918. Here he met his future wife, Vera Deakin, daughter of former Prime Minister Alfred Deakin, and founder of the Australian Red Cross’ Wounded and Missing Inquiry Bureau. For his service during the war White received the DFC and was twice mentioned in despatches.[192] In 1932, he published an account of his remarkable war service, Guests of the Unspeakable. He also served in the Second World War.[193]

During his parliamentary career he was Minister for Trade and Customs from 1933 to 1938, and then from 1949 to 1951 Minister for Air; and for Civil Aviation.

Arnold (Arthur) Wienholt (MP [Moreton, Qld], NAT/CP, 1919–1922)

See above for his service in the Boer War.

In 1915 Wienholt enlisted in the East Africa Mounted Rifles, before being promoted to Warrant Officer in the Intelligence Branch. He was subsequently wounded and captured in July 1916 while patrolling in German East Africa (Tanzania) but escaped six months later. For performing many successful reconnaissance missions throughout the war, Wienholt was awarded the MC and Bar, a DSO and promoted to Captain.[194]

John Wilson (MP [Corangamite, Vic.], FT/ANTI–SOC, 1903–1910)

Wilson enlisted in the AIF in April 1916 and served as a Captain in the Australian Army Medical Corps.[195]

Robert Wordsworth (Senator [Tas.], LIB, 1949–1959)

After completing high school, Wordsworth joined the 41st Infantry of the local militia at Cowra, which later became the 9th Light Horse. Commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the AIF’s 1st Light Horse Regiment at the outbreak of the First World War, Wordsworth was promoted to lieutenant in December 1916. He subsequently commanded the 4th Australian Machine Gun Squadron from February 1917 and was discharged at the end of the war to transfer to a cavalry regiment in the Indian Army. After serving at Gallipoli and Palestine, Wordsworth was later involved in two campaigns on the north-west frontier of India from 1919-20 and 1930.[196]

George Yates (MP [Adelaide, SA], ALP, 1914–1919; 1922–1931)

Yates was a gunner in the 13th Field Artillery Brigade on the Western Front during 1918 but fell ill and was evacuated before the war’s end. Yates was on a troopship that arrived at Adelaide in January 1919, where the South Australian troops among them were soon expressing their frustration at the length of time they remained in quarantine within sight of shore. Yates—himself still an MP— took the lead in meetings called by the troops and speaking on their behalf, threatened to take possession of some boats to go ashore. Yates was court-martialled, and while his defence argued that he and the others were merely expressing their hard won rights, ‘not as soldiers, but as citizens as well’, he was found guilty of ‘conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline’, in that he had encouraged the troops to mutiny. He was sentenced to 60 days detention. Yates retained his parliamentary seat, for the sentence did not fall foul of section 44 (ii) of the Australian Constitution, which would have seen him stripped of the seat if the imprisonment had been for one year or longer.[197]

Appendix 1: MPs who enlisted but do not appear on the Australian War Memorial’s Embarkation Roll

Eldred Eggins (MP [Lyne, NSW], CP, 1949–1952) who enlisted with the AIF in August 1918 and was discharged in November that year.[198]

John Latham (MP [Kooyong, Vic.], LIB/NAT/UAP, 1922–1934) who was appointed head of Naval Intelligence as a Lieutenant Commander in 1917 and the following year was an adviser to the Minister for the Navy, Sir Joseph Cook.[199]

John McEwen (MP [Echuca/Indi, Vic.], LIB/LCL, 1934–1971) who enlisted in the AIF in August 1918; however, he did not undertake active service in France due to the end of the war.[200]

Frederick Pratten (MP [Martin, NSW], NAT, 1928–1929) who was Lieutenant 2–5th Australian General Hospital, AIF.[201]

Thomas Sheehy (MP [Boothby, SA], ALP, 1943–1949) who was a signalman in the Royal Australian Naval Reserve and was mobilised for active service within Australia in 1917, he was demobilised in 1918.[202]

Percy Spender (MP [Warringah, NSW], IND–UAP/UAP/LIB, 1937–1951) who enlisted in the AIF in September 1918 but was discharged two months later following the end of the war.[203]

Cornelius Wallace (MP [West Sydney, NSW], ALP, 1917–1919) who enlisted in June 1918 but the war ended before he could embark for service overseas.[204]

Keith Wilson (MP [Sturt, SA]/Senator [SA], UAP/LIB/LCL, 1938–1944; 1949–1954; 1955–1966) who enlisted in the AIF on 19 October 1918 but was discharged the following month on account of the end of the war. However, Wilson would later serve in the Second World War.[205]

Appendix 2: Locations of places and battles referenced within the text

Locations of places and battles referenced within the text 

Appendix 3: MPs who served in war and conflict by state and chamber

Please note that some Parliamentarians may appear more than once as they may have represented more than one electorate or may have served in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Legend

B      Boer War
W        First World War
Z          Zulu War


New South Wales
Senate House of Representatives
  • Percy Abbott, LIB/NAT/CP, 1925–1929W
  • Stanley Amour, ALP N–C, 1938–1965W
  • James Arkins, UAP, 1935–1937W
  • William Ashley, ALP, 1937–1958B
  • Charles Cox, NAT/UAP, 1920–1938BW
  • Walter Duncan, NAT, 1920–1931W
  • James Dunn, ALP/LANG–LAB, 1929–1935W
  • William Gibbs, ALP, 1925W
  • Charles Hardy, CP, 1932–1938W
  • John McCallum, LIB, 1949–1962W
  • Albert Reid, CP, 1949–1962W
  • William Spooner, LIB, 1949–1965W
Calare
  • Neville Howse, NAT, 1922–29BW
Cook
  • Edward Riley, ALP/FLP, 1922–1934W
Cowper
  • Earle Page, FSU/CP, 1919–1961W
East Sydney
  • John Clasby, UAP, 1931–1932W
Gwydir
  • Charles Abbott, CP, 1925–1929; 1931–1937W
  • Thomas Treloar, CP, 1949–1953W
Hume
  • Charles Anderson, CP, 1949–1951; 1955–1961W
Martin
  • John Eldridge, ALP/LANG–LAB, 1929–1931W
Nepean
  • George Cann , ALP, 1910–1913W
Newcastle
  • David O Watkins, FLP/ALP, 1935–1958W
New England 
  • Percy Abbott, LIB/NAT/CP, 1913–1919W
  • Alexander Hay, NAT&FARMERS/CP/IND, 1919–1922W
  • Joseph Abbott, CP, 1940–1949W
North Sydney
  • Granville Ryrie, LIB/NAT, 1911–1922BW
Parkes
  • Charles Marr, NAT/UAP, 1919–1929; 1931–1943W
  • Leslie Haylen, ALP, 1943–1963W
Reid
  • Percy Coleman, ALP, 1922–1931W
Richmond
  • Roland Green, CP, 1922–1937W
  • Hubert Anthony, CP, 1937–1957W
Robertson
  • William Johnson, ALP, 1910–1913W
  • William Fleming, LIB/NAT/NAT&FARMERS/CP, 1913–1922W
South Sydney
  • John Jennings, UAP, 1931–1934B

Warringah
  • Granville Ryrie, LIB/NAT, 1911–1927BW
Watson
  • John Jennings, UAP, 1934–1940B
Wentworth
  • Walter Marks, NAT/IND, 1919–1931W
  • Eric J Harrison, UAP/LIB, 1931–1956W
Werriwa
  • Walter McNicoll, CP, 1931–1934W
Victoria
Senate House of Representatives
  • William Bolton, NAT, 1917–1923W
  • Charles Brand, UAP/LIB, 1935–1947BW
  • Donald J Cameron, ALP, 1938–1962B
  • Harold Elliot, NAT, 1920–1931BW
  • Alexander Fraser, LIB, 1946W
  • Albion Hendrickson, ALP, 1947–1971W
  • George Rankin, CP, 1949–1956W
  • Charles Sandford, ALP, 1947–1956; 1957–1966W
Balaclava
  • Thomas White, NAT/UAP/LIB, 1929–1951W
Ballaarat
  • David (Charles) McGrath, ALP/UAP, 1913–1919; 1920–1934W
  • Edwin Kerby, NAT, 1919–1920W
  • Archibald Fisken, UAP, 1934–1937W
  • Reginald Pollard, ALP, 1937–1949W
Bendigo
  • Alfred Hampson, ALP, 1915–1917W
  • Eric F Harrison, UAP; 1931–1937W
  • George Rankin, ST CP/UCP, 1937–1949W
Chisholm
  • Wilfred Kent-Hughes, LIB, 1949–1970W
Corinella
  • James McCay, PROT, 1901–1906W
Corio
  • Richard Crouch, PROT, 1901–1910W
  • Alfred Ozanne, 1910–1913; 1914–1917W
  • John Lister, NAT, 1917–1929W
  • Richard Casey, UAP, 1931–1940W
  • John Dedman, ALP, 1940–1949W
Corangamite
  • John Wilson, FT/ANTI–SOC, 1903–1910W
  • Richard Crouch, ALP,  1929–1931W
  • Geoffrey Street , UAP, 1934–1940W
  • Allan McDonald, UAP/LIB, 1940–1953W
Flinders
  • Stanley Bruce, NAT/UAP, 1918–1929; 1931–1933W
  • James Fairbairn, UAP, 1933–1940W
  • Rupert Ryan, UAP/LIB, 1940–1952W
Gippsland
  • George Bowden, CP, 1943–1961W
Henty
  • Henry Gullett, NAT/UAP, 1925–1940W
Indi
  • William Bostock, LIB, 1949–1958W
Lalor
  • Reginald Pollard, ALP, 1949–1966W
La Trobe
  • Richard Casey, LIB, 1949–1960W
McMillan
  • Geoffrey Brown, LIB, 1949–1955W
Wannon
  • Thomas Scholfield, UAP, 1931–1940W
  • Donald McLeod, ALP, 1940–1949; 1951–1955W
Queensland
Senate House of Representatives
  • Walter Cooper, NAT/CP, 1928–1932; 1935–1968W
  • Hattil Foll, NAT/UAP, 1917–1947 W
  • Thomas Glasgow, NAT, 1920–1932BW
  • Roy Kendall, LIB, 1949–1965W
  • Wilfred Simmonds, LIB, 1949–1951W
  • William Thompson, NAT, 1922–1932BW
Brisbane
  • Donald C Cameron, NAT/UAP, 1919–1931; 1934–1937BW
  • George Lawson, FLP/ALP, 1931–1961B
Capricornia
  • Charles Davidson, LIB–CP/CP, 1946–1949W
Darling Downs
  • Arthur Morgan, NAT, 1929–1931W
Dawson
  • Charles Davidson CP, 1949–1963W
Herbert
  • Lewis Nott, NAT, 1925–1928W
Lilley
  • Donald C Cameron, NAT/UAP, 1919–1931; 1934–1937BW
Maranoa
  • James Page, FT/ALP, 1920-21Z
  • Wilfred Brimblecombe, CP, 1951–1966W
Moreton
  • Arnold (Arthur) Wienholt, NAT/CP, 1919–1922BW
  • Josiah Francis, NAT/UAP/LIB, 1922–1955W
South Australia
Senate
  • Frederick Beerworth, ALP, 1946–1951W
  • John Critchley, ALP, 1947–1959W
  • John Duncan-Hughes, UAP, 1931–1938W
  • Alexander Finlay, ALP, 1944–1953W
  • Theophilus Nicholls, ALP, 1944–1968W
  • Edward Mattner, LIB, 1944–1946; 1949–1968W
  • James O’Loghlin, ALP, 1907; 1913–1920; 1923–1925W
  • James Rowell, NAT, 1917–1923BW
House of Representatives
Adelaide
  • Ernest Roberts, ALP, 1908–1913B
  • George Yates, ALP, 1914–1919; 1922–1931W
Barker
  • Archie Cameron, CP/LIB/LCL, 1934–1956W
Boothby
  • John Duncan-Hughes, LIB/NAT, 1922–1928; 1940–1943W
  • John McLeay, LIB/LCL, 1949–1966W
Wakefield
  • Charles Hawker, NAT–UAP, 1929–1938W
  • Sydney McHugh, ALP, 1938–1940W
  • John Duncan-Hughes, UAP, 1940–1943W
Northern Territory
Senate House of Representatives
  Northern Territory
  • Adair Blain, IND, 1934-1949W

[1]            M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war. Research brief, 10, 2006–07, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2007.

[2].          D Lee, ‘Ashley, William Patrick (Bill) (1881–1958)’, Australian dictionary of biography (ADB), accessed 23 June 2014.; J Graham, ‘Ashley, William Patrick (1881–1958)’ The biographical dictionary of the Australian Senate (BDAS) online edition, accessed 23 June 2014.

[3].          W Bell, ‘Bell, Sir George John (1872–1944)’,  ADB, op. cit.

[4].          D Bennet, ‘Brand, Charles Henry (1873–1961)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[5].          S Bennett, ‘Cameron, Cyril St Clair (1857–1941)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[6].       Ibid.

[7].       Ibid.

[8].          SW Wigzell, ‘Cameron, Sir Donald Charles (1879–1960)’, ADB, op. cit.

[9].          G Osborne, ‘Cameron, Donald James (1878–1962)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[10].        Ibid.

[11].        J Connor, ‘Cox, Charles Frederick (1863–1944)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[12].        Ibid; AJ Hill, ‘Cox, Charles Frederick (1863-1944)’, ADB, op. cit.

[13].        Ibid.

[14].        R McMullin, ‘Elliott, Harold Edward (1878–1931)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[15].        AW. Bazley, ‘Gellibrand, Sir John (1872–1945)’, ADB, op. cit.

[16].        P Edgar, ‘Glasgow, Sir Thomas William (1876–1955)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[17].        AJ Hill, ‘Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863–1930)’, ADB, op. cit.

[18].        Ibid.

[19].        Parliamentary handbook and record of elections for the Commonwealth of Australia, ninth issue, 1931 to 1938, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 1938, p. 119.

[20].        M Cross, ‘Lawson, George (1880–1966)’, ADB, op. cit.

[21].        M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 5.

[22].        R Thornton, ‘Roberts, Ernest Alfred (1868–1913)’, ADB, op. cit.

[23].        D Drinkwater, ‘Rowell, James (1851–1940)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; SF Rowell, ‘Rowell, James (1851–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.

[24].        AJ Hill, ‘Ryrie, Sir Granville de Laune (1865–1937)’, ADB, op. cit.

[25].        R Sullivan, ‘Thompson, William George (1863–1953)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[26].        Ibid.

[27].        PJ Greville, ‘Wienholt, Arnold (1877–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.

[28].        M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 6.

[29].        D Carment, ‘Abbott, Charles Lydiard Aubrey (1886–1975)’, ADB, op. cit.; G Souter, Acts of Parliament: a narrative history of the Senate and House of Representatives Commonwealth of Australia, Melbourne University Press, Victoria, 1988, p. 159.

[30].        K Tsokhas, ‘Abbott, Joseph Palmer (Joe) (1891–1965)’, ADB, op. cit.

[31].        T Hogan, ‘Abbott, Percy Phipps (1869–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 17.

[32].        M Consandine, ‘Amour, Stanley Kerin (1900–1979)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘Stanley Kerin Amour’, AIF database, accessed 23 June 2014.

[33].        C Clark, ‘Anderson, Charles Groves Wright (1897–1985)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 12.

[34].        L Brodrick, ‘Anthony, Hubert Lawrence (Larry) (1897–1957)’, ADB, op. cit.

[35].        D Clune, ‘Arkins, James Guy Dalley (1887–1980)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘James Guy Dalley Arkins’, AIF database, op. cit.

[36].        ‘Arthur James Beck’, AIF database, op. cit.

[37].        PC Grundy, ‘Beerworth, Frederick Hubert (1886–1968)’,  BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘Frederick Hubert Beerworth’, AIF database, op. cit.

[38].        W Bell, ‘Bell, Sir George John (1872–1944)’, ADB, op. cit.

[39].        Ibid.

[40].        HJ Zwillenberg, ‘Blacklow, Archibald Clifford (1879–1965)’, ADB, op. cit.

[41].        ‘Macalister Adair Blain’, AIF database, op. cit.

[42].        B Wimborne, ‘Bolton, William Kinsey (1860–1941)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[43].         JNI Dawes, ‘Bolton, William Kinsey (1860–1941)’, ADB, op. cit.

[44].        AD. Garrisson, ‘Bostock, William Dowling (1892–1968)’, ADB, op. cit.

[45].        BJ Costar, ‘Bowden, George James (1888–1962)’, ADB, op. cit.

[46].        AJ Sweeting, ‘Brand, Charles Henry (1873–1961)’, ADB, op. cit.

[47].        Ibid.

[48].        D Bennet, ‘Brand, Charles Henry (1873–1961)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[49].        ‘Wilfred John Brimblecombe’, AIF database, op. cit.

[50].        Parliamentary handbook and record of elections for the Commonwealth of Australia, eleventh edition, 1945 to 1953, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 1953, p. 52.

[51].        H Radi, ‘Bruce, Stanley Melbourne (1883–1967)’, ADB, op. cit.; Lumb, Bennett and Moremon, op cit., p. 7.

[52].        ‘Reginald John Burchell’, AIF database, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 14; Souter, op. cit., p. 159.

[53].        J Playford, ‘Cameron, Archie Galbraith (1895–1956)’, ADB, op. cit.

[54].        CL Cameron, ‘Cameron, Cyril St Clair (1857–1941)’, ADB, op. cit.

[55].        S Bennett, ‘Cameron, Cyril St Clair (1857-1941)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[56].      S Bennett, ‘Cyril St Clair Cameron: Soldier and Senator’, Papers and Proceedings: Tasmanian Historical Research Association, 47 (4), 2000, pp. 210–11; Argus, 2 September 1915; Lumb, Bennett and Moremon, op. cit., p. 14.

[57].        SW Wigzell, ‘Cameron, Sir Donald Charles (1879–1960)’, ADB, op. cit.

[58].        B Nairn, ‘Cann, George (1871–1948)’, ADB, op. cit.

[59].        WJ Hudson, ‘Casey, Richard Gavin Gardiner (1890–1976)’, ADB, op. cit.; Lumb, Bennett and Moremon, op. cit., p. 13.

[60].        M Roe, ‘Chamberlain, John Hartley (1884-1953)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[61].        Ibid; ‘John Hartley Chamberlain’, AIF database, op. cit.

[62].        ‘John Clasby’, AIF database, op. cit.

[63].        F Farrell, ‘Coleman, Percy Edmund Creed (1892–1934)’, ADB, op. cit.

[64].        D Black, ‘Collett, Herbert Brayley (1877–1947)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[65].        Ibid; D Black, ‘Collett, Herbert Brayley (1877–1947)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 17.

[66].        Ibid.

[67].        B Stevenson, ‘Cooper, Sir Walter Jackson (1888–1973)’,  BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[68].        Ibid; M Cribb, ‘Cooper, Sir Walter Jackson (1888–1973)’, ADB, op. cit.

[69].        T Drake-Brockman, ‘Obituaries’, Senate, Hansard, 21 August 1973.

[70].        B Stevenson, ‘Cooper, Sir Walter Jackson (1888–1973)’, op. cit.

[71].        ‘Edwin Wilkie Corboy’, AIF database, op. cit.

[72].        AJ Hill, ‘Cox, Charles Frederick (1863–1944)’, ADB, op. cit.

[73].        J Connor, ‘Cox, Charles Frederick (1863–1944)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[74].        Ibid.

[75].        ‘John Owen Critchley’, AIF database, op. cit.; C Haskett, ‘Critchley, John Owen (1892–1964)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[76].        A. McCallum, ‘Crouch, Richard Armstrong (1868–1949)’, ADB, op. cit.

[77].        D Bennet, ‘Davidson, Sir Charles William (1897–1985)’, ADB, op. cit.

[78].        A Spaull, ‘Dedman, John Johnstone (1896–1973)’, ADB, op. cit.

[79].        IG Sharp, ‘Drake-Brockman, Edmund Alfred (1884–1949)’, ADB, op. cit.

[80].        J McCarthy, ‘Drake-Brockman, Edmund Alfred (1884–1949)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[81].        Ibid.

[82].        I G Sharp, ‘Drake-Brockman, Edmund Alfred (1884–1949)’, ADB, op. cit.

[83].        ‘Walter Leslie Duncan’, AIF database; G Hawker, ‘Duncan, Walter Leslie (1893–1947)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[84].        G Hawker, ‘Duncan, Walter Leslie (1883-1947)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[85].        B Oliver, ‘Duncan–Hughes, John Grant (1882–1962)’,  BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[86].        D Clune, ‘Dunn, James Patrick Digger (1887–1945)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; D Stephens, ‘Dunn, James Patrick Digger (1887–1945)’, ADB, op. cit.

[87].        ‘John Chambers Eldridge’, AIF database, op. cit.

[88].        R McMullin, ‘Elliott, Harold Edward (1878–1931)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[89].        Ibid.

[90].        AJ Hill, ‘Elliott, Harold Edward (Pompey) (1878–1931)’, ADB, op. cit.

[91].        R McMullin, ‘Elliott, Harold Edward (1878–1931)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[92].        Ibid.

[93].        MD DeB Collins Persse, ‘Fairbairn, James Valentine (Jim) (1897–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.

[94].        ‘Alexander Finlay’, AIF database; A Pyle, ‘Finlay, Alexander (1887-1963)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[95].        G Browne, ‘Fisken, Archibald Clyde (1897–1970)’, ADB, op. cit.

[96].        S Piggin, ‘Fleming, William Montgomerie (1874–1961)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 9; Souter, op. cit., p. 160.

[97].        E Brown, ‘Foll, Hattil Spencer (Harry) (1890–1977)’, ADB, op. cit.; R Laing, ‘Foll, Hattil Spencer (1890–1977)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[98].        ‘George Foster’, AIF database, op. cit.

[99].        S Breen, ‘Foster, George Matthew (1884-1956)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[100].      Ibid.

[101].      J Rees, ‘Francis, Sir Josiah (1890–1964)’, ADB, op. cit.

[102].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 17.

[103].      LHS Thompson, ‘Fraser, Alexander John (1892–1965)’, ADB, op. cit.; D Drinkwater, ‘Fraser, Alexander John (1892-1965)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[104].      AW Bazley, ‘Gellibrand, Sir John (1872–1945)’, ADB, op. cit.

[105].      CEW Bean, The Australian Imperial Force in France 1916, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1939, pp. 601–2.

[106].      AW Bazley, ‘Gellibrand, Sir John (1872–1945)’, ADB, op. cit.

[107].      J Duncan-Hughes, ‘Estimates: Defence Department’, House of Representatives, Debates, 10 August 1926, p. 5185, accessed 12 August 2014.

[108].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 17.

[109].      G Hawker, ‘Gibbs, William Albion (1879-1944)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[110].      ‘William Albion Gibbs’, AIF database, op. cit.

[111].      R Harry, ‘Glasgow, Sir Thomas William (1876–1955)’, ADB, op. cit.; P Edgar, ‘Glasgow, Sir Thomas William (1876-1955)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[112].      ‘Ronald Frederick Herbert Green’, AIF database, op. cit. The AIF database is directly transcribed from written AIF records; consequently, spelling mistakes are automatically transferred from one record from another. This record is believed to be for Roland Frederick Herbert Green as the age and location of residence are extremely similar.

[113].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 17.

[114].      AJ Hill, ‘Gullett, Sir Henry Somer (Harry) (1878–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.; ‘Henry Somer Gullett’, AIF database, op. cit.

[115].      ‘Leonard William Hamilton’, AIF database, op. cit.

[116].      Psephos: Adam Carr’s election archives, 1917 legislative election, House of Representatives, ‘Victoria’, accessed 16 June 2014; ‘Alfred John Hampson’, AIF database, op. cit.

[117].      A Moore, ‘Hardy, Charles Downey (1898–1941)’, ADB, op. cit.; G Hawker, ‘Hardy, Charles (1898–1941)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[118].      B Oliver, ‘Harris, John (1890–1974)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; J Harris, ‘Estimates and Budget Papers 1947-48’, Senate, Debates, 16 October 1947, p. 856, accessed 12 August 2014.

[119].      C Clark, ‘Harrison, Eric Fairweather (1880–1948)’, ADB, op. cit.

[120].      S Macintyre, ‘Harrison, Sir Eric John (1892–1974)’, ADB, op. cit.

[121].      D van Dissel, ‘Hawker, Charles Allan (1894–1938)’, ADB, op. cit.

[122].      ‘Alexander Hay’, AIF database, op. cit.

[123].      RE Northey, ‘Haylen, Leslie Clement (Les) (1898–1977)’, ADB, op. cit.

[124].      ‘Edward Ernest Heitmann’, AIF database, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 9; Souter, op. cit., pp. 162–3.

[125].      ‘Albion Hendrickson’, AIF database, op. cit.

[126].      B York, ‘Hendrickson, Albion (1897–1977)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[127].      AJ Hill, ‘Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863–1930)’, ADB, op. cit.

[128].      Ibid.

[129].      ‘The Australian Light Horse, some features of squadron training: Arthur William Hutchin’, Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, website, accessed 16 June 2014.

[130].      ‘William James Johnson’, AIF database, op. cit.

[131].      ‘Late Corporal WJ. Johnson’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 August 1916, p. 8.

[132].      DB Waterson, ‘Kendall, Roy (1899–1972)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[134]        ‘Edwin Thomas John Kerby’, AIF database, op. cit.; Commonwealth parliamentary handbook, 1901–1923, Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, Melbourne, 1923, p. 194.

[135].      ‘Charles Adcock Lamp’, AIF database; R Davis, ‘Lamp, Charles Adcock (1895–1972)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[136].      L Layman, ‘Latham, Sir Charles George (1882–1968)’, ADB, op. cit.; D Black, ‘Latham, Sir Charles George (1882–1968)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[137].      D Black, ‘Leslie, Hugh Alan (1900–1974)’, ADB, op. cit.

[138].      ‘John Henry Lister’, AIF database, op. cit.

[139].      M Easson, ‘McCallum, John Archibald (1892–1973)’, ADB, op. cit.; A Curthoys, ‘McCallum, John Archibald (1892–1973)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[140].      G Serle, ‘McCay, Sir James Whiteside (1864–1930)’, ADB, op. cit.

[141].      D Black, ‘MacDonald, Allan Nicoll (1892–1978)’, ADB, op. cit.

[142].      M Steven, ‘MacDonald, Allan Nicoll (1892–1978)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[143].      IC Cochran, ‘McDonald, Allan Mckenzie (1888–1953)’, ADB, op. cit.

[144].      P Love, ‘McGrath, David Charles (1872–1934)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 9; Souter, op. cit., p. 160.

[145].      ‘Sydney McHugh’, AIF database, op. cit.

[146].      LM Barlin, ‘McLeay, Sir John (1893–1982)’, ADB, op. cit.

[147]        Parliamentary handbook and record of elections for the Commonwealth of Australia, 1945–1953, Australian Parliamentary Library Committee, Canberra, 1953, p. 208.

[148].      R McNicoll, ‘McNicoll, Sir Walter Ramsay (1877–1947)’, ADB, op. cit.

[149].      CJ Lloyd, ‘Marks, Walter Moffitt (1875–1951)’, ADB, op. cit.

[150].      CJ Lloyd, ‘Marr, Sir Charles William Clanan (1880–1960)’, ADB, op. cit.

[151].      G Gould, ‘Mattner, Edward William (1893-1977)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[152].      F Bongiorno, ‘Mattner, Edward William (1893–1977)’, ADB, op. cit.

[153]        Biographical handbook and record of elections for the Parliament of the Commonwealth, sixth issue, 1901 to 1930, Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, Melbourne, 1930, p. 217.

[154].      D Jaensch, ‘Nicholls, Theophilus Martin (1894-1977)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[155].      ‘Theophilus Martin Nicholls’, AIF database, op. cit.

[156].      J Farquharson, ‘Nott, Lewis Windermere (1886–1951)’, ADB, op. cit.

[157].      G Powell, ‘O’Loghlin, James Vincent (1852-1925)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[158].      Ibid; P Travers, ‘O’Loghlin, James Vincent (1852–1925)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 5; Souter, op. cit., p. 159; G Powell, Ibid.

[159].      ‘Alfred Thomas Ozanne’, AIF database, op. cit.; Souter, op. cit., p. 160–1.

[160].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 16.

[161].      C Bridge, ‘Page, Sir Earle Christmas (1880–1961)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 5.

[162].      ‘Edmund Stephen Roper Piesse’, AIF database; E Kwan, ‘Piesse, Edmund Stephen Roper (1900-1952)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[163].      BO Jones, ‘Pollard, Reginald Thomas (1894–1981)’, ADB, op. cit.

[164].      M Saunders, ‘Rankin, George James (1887–1957)’, ADB, op. cit.

[165].      M Saunders, ‘Rankin, George James (1887–1957)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; Saunders, Ibid.

[166].      Ibid.

[167].      C Beauchamp, ‘Reid, Albert David (1886-1962)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[168].      Ibid.

[169].      ‘Albert David Reid’, AIF database; Beauchamp, op. cit.

[170].      Beauchamp, op. cit.

[171].      F Johns (ed), Who’s who in Australia, 1927–8, Hassell Press, Adelaide, 1927, p. 217.

[172].      SF Rowell, ‘Rowell, James (1851–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.; D Drinkwater, ‘Rowell, James (1851–1940)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[173].      D Langmore, ‘Ryan, Rupert Sumner (1884–1952)’, ADB, op. cit.

[174]        P Vincent, My darling Mick: The life of Granville Ryrie 1865–1937, National Library of Australia, Canberra, 1997, pp. 71, 204.

[175].      AJ Hill, ‘Ryrie, Sir Granville de Laune (1865–1937)’, ADB, op. cit.

[176].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 16.; Souter, op cit. p. 159.

[177].      T Marshall, ‘Burford Sampson (1882–1959)’,  BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[178].      Ibid.

[179].      P Clarke, ‘Sandford, Charles Walter (1895–1966)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘Charles Walter Sandford’, AIF database, op. cit.

[180].      ‘Thomas Hallet Scholfield’, AIF database, op. cit.

[181].      HCJ Phillips, ‘Seward, Harrie Stephen (1844–1958)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘Harrie Stephen Seward’, AIF database, op. cit.

[182].      D Drinkwater, ‘Simmonds, Wilfred Mylchreest (1889–1967)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[183].      B de Garis, ‘Smith, Miles Staniforth Cater (1869–1934)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[184].      HJ Gibbney, ‘Smith, Miles Staniforth Cater (1869–1934)’, ADB, op. cit.

[185].      G Starr, ‘Spooner, Sir William Henry (1897–1966)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 13.

[186].      H Boxall, ‘Spooner, Sir William Henry (1897–1966)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[187].       C Hazlehurst, ‘Street, Geoffrey Austin (1894–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 13.

[188].      R Sullivan, ‘Thompson, William George (1863–1953)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; LL McDonald, ‘Thompson, William George (1863–1953)’, ADB, op. cit.

[189].       ‘John Thomas Treloar’, AIF database, op. cit.

[190].      T Payne, ‘Wardlaw, Robert (1888–1964)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.; ‘Robert Wardlaw’, AIF database, op. cit.

[191].      ‘David Oliver Watkins’, AIF database, op. cit.

[192].      J Rickard, ‘White, Sir Thomas Walter (1888–1957)’, ADB, op. cit.

[193]        M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 10.

[194].      PJ Greville, ‘Wienholt, Arnold (1877–1940)’, ADB, op. cit.

[195].      ‘John Gratton Wilson’, AIF database, op. cit.

[196].      ‘Robert Harley Wordsworth’, AIF database, op. cit.; G Winter, ‘Wordsworth, Robert Hurley (1894–1984)’, BDAS online edition, op. cit.

[197].      M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 15; Records of court martial, Series A471, File 1106, National Archives of Australia; Souter, op. cit., pp. 161–2.

[198].      Parliamentary handbook and record of elections for the Commonwealth of Australia, 1945–1953, op. cit., p. 108.

[199].      S Macintyre, ‘Latham, Sir John Greig (1877–1964)’, ADB, op. cit.

[200].      C J Lloyd, ‘McEwen, Sir John (1900–1980)’, ADB, op. cit.

[201].      J S Legge (ed), Who’s Who in Australia, nineteenth edition, 1968, The Herald and Weekly Times Limited, Melbourne, 1968, p. 700.

[202].      Parliamentary handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1938–1945, Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, Canberra, 1945, p.146.

[203].      D Lowe, ‘Spender, Sir Percy Claude (1897–1985)’, ADB, op. cit.

[204].      Commonwealth parliamentary handbook, 1901–1923, op. cit., p. 344; M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, op. cit., p. 9; Souter, op. cit., p. 162.

[205].      J M Brown, ‘Wilson, Sir Keith Cameron (1900–1987)’, ADB, op. cit.

 

 

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