Migration to Australia since federation: a guide to the statistics

Updated 29 October 2010

PDF version [350KB]

Janet Phillips and Michael Klapdor, Social Policy Section
Joanne Simon-Davies, Statistics and Mapping Section

Contents

Key points
Migration and population growth
Permanent migration statistics
Temporary migration statistics
Other
Introduction
Historical overview of Australia’s Migration Program
Australia’s Migration Program (Table 1)
Australia’s Humanitarian Program (Table 1)
Measuring permanent migration
Migration and population growth (Tables 4 and 5)
Net overseas migration (NOM) statistics (Tables 3, 4 and 5)
Settler arrival statistics (Table 6)
Migration Program statistics (Table 1)
Humanitarian Program statistics (Table 1)
Temporary migration statistics (Table 2)
Statistical appendix
Table 1: Permanent migrants: migration and humanitarian program visa grants since 1985
Table 2: Temporary migrants: overseas student and business long stay (subclass 457) visa grants since 1996
Table 3: Net overseas migration (NOM) since 1901
Table 4: Components of population growth since 1972
Table 5: Population growth rates since 1972
Table 6: Permanent and long-term overseas movement since 1925
Table 7: Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas-born population since 1901
 

Key points

Migration and population growth

  • The rate of Australia’s population growth has increased significantly over the last five years largely driven by an increase in net overseas migration (NOM). The largest contribution to NOM in recent years has been from people on temporary visas—mostly comprised of overseas students and temporary skilled migrants.
  • Although permanent migration intakes over the last few years have been high in comparison to previous years, Australia’s recent population growth predominantly reflects a significant increase in temporary, not permanent migration.

Permanent migration statistics

  • Net overseas migration (NOM) (Table 3) compiled since 1925 by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is not a measure of the number of permanent migrants arriving in any given year as it measures departures and arrivals of both permanent and (long-term) temporary entrants and the resulting increase or decrease in the population overall. In addition, the methodology for the calculation of NOM has changed significantly over the years and should be used with caution.
  • Migration Program outcome (visa grant) data (Table 1), currently recorded by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC),  provide the most accurate statistics on the number of permanent migrants to Australia—data is available back to the 1980s.
  • Humanitarian Program outcome (visa grant) data (Table 1), currently recorded by DIAC, provide the most accurate statistics on refugee and humanitarian intakes to Australia—data is available back to the 1970s (prior to that there are estimates available for the number of post war refugees).

Temporary migration statistics

  • There has been a significant increase in the number of people entering the country on temporary visas in recent years, particularly overseas students and temporary (long-term) skilled migrants. However, the number of temporary entrants can fluctuate in response to changing circumstances (for example, changes in immigration policy regarding permanent residency eligibility for graduating overseas students).[1] Data available from DIAC over the last 15 years shows the fluctuations in numbers (Table 2).[2]

Other

  • Settler arrival statistics are a better indication of permanent migration flows than NOM, but include NZ and some other temporary migrants who have indicated an intention to settle—data is available back to the 1920s in the statistical appendix (Table 6).
  • It is important to note that ABS data on overseas arrivals and departures in general may relate to the multiple arrivals and departures of individuals in any year and not the number of people. They are not an appropriate source of migration statistics.

Introduction

Since 1945, when Australia’s first immigration department was established, approximately seven million permanent migrants have settled in Australia.[3] According to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), the contribution of immigrants from all parts of the world to Australian society, culture and prosperity ‘has been an important factor in shaping our nation’.[4]

However, while Australia is often described as a ‘nation of immigrants’, there is a great deal of confusion and misinformation in the public debate on how many permanent migrants Australia has actually accepted over the years. In particular, some publicly available statistics on both permanent and temporary migration are often used interchangeably and/or incorrectly with the result that the statistics used to describe migration flows are often inaccurate or misleading.

The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on Australia’s migration programs and to define and present the relevant data in a simplified format. The paper aims to clarify which statistics are the best to use when measuring permanent migration and addresses some of the popular misconceptions that surround the debate on migration flows to Australia. It is envisaged that some of the statistics provided in the appendix will be updated at regular intervals.

Historical overview of Australia’s Migration Program

Australia’s immigration program is divided into two distinct programs for permanent migrants—the Migration Program for skilled and family migrants and the Humanitarian Program for refugees and those in refugee-like situations. There have been many changes to these programs and to data collection over the years making it difficult to compare statistics on permanent migration over time. The following background illustrates some of those changes and the corresponding tables are presented in the statistical appendix.

Australia’s Migration Program (Table 1)

At the time of federation in 1901, the states administered their own migration programs, but over time the Commonwealth Government began to assume more and more responsibility for immigration policy. After World War I the Commonwealth took active control of immigration and encouraged new settlers, with the result that in the 1920s about 300 000 settlers arrived (mostly under assisted schemes such as the Empire Settlement Scheme). Between 1901 and the beginning of World War II, approximately 700 000 new settlers arrived and Australia’s population grew to about seven million.[5]

Australia’s first federal immigration portfolio was created in 1945. The major impetus for the new portfolio, and for the implementation of a large-scale migration program, was World War II and its aftermath. After the war the Australian Government was keen to boost the population in order to stimulate post-war economic development and to increase the numbers of people able to defend the country in the event of another war, with the result that about one million migrants arrived in each of the six decades following 1950.[6]

For many years the Australian Government has reviewed and adjusted the number of places available for permanent migrants on an annual basis according to government priorities. As a result, the Government’s planned annual intakes and the numbers of permanent migrants have fluctuated markedly.

Available data on migration levels prior to the 1980s is patchy. It relies on a variety of ABS data, some of which may also include temporary arrivals; or on government planning figures that only provide an indication of migration outcomes for certain years.[7] Prior to 1959 the Government found it difficult to collect figures on permanent or net migration to Australia. Settler arrivals were not recorded separately from temporary and other arrivals.[8] In 1959 the Commonwealth Statistician began publishing separate figures for ‘settler arrivals’ and the new system began identifying and recording actual arrivals as distinct from long term visitors, returning Australians and others.[9] Similarly, government migration program planning figures were not published systematically before the 1980s and are only available for some years in historical departmental reports and records.[10]

According to departmental records, the highest number of settlers to arrive in any one year since World War II was 185 099 in 1969–70 under the Gorton Government. The lowest number in any one year was 52 752 in 1975–76 during the Whitlam and Fraser Governments.[11] After the peak of 185 000 settler arrivals in 1969, numbers declined and by 1975 the Government’s planned intake for the year was only 50 000. The migration intake gradually climbed again and by 1988 there was another peak under the Hawke Government with a planned intake of 145 000. After 1988, the migration planning levels were gradually reduced, with lows of 60 000 to 80 000 in the early 1990s.[12]

When the Howard Government came to power in 1996, there was an initial dip, followed by a gradual increase in the planned migration numbers again with an intake of 148 200 in 2006– 07. This increase continued under the Rudd Government, despite some reductions in the skilled migrant intakes due to the economic downturn.[13]

In response to these migration waves, the makeup of Australia’s overseas-born population has also fluctuated over the years from around 32 per cent in 1891 to 20 per cent in the 1980s. As of 30 June 2009, 27 per cent of the overall resident population was born overseas.[14] Statistics on the top ten countries of birth for the overseas-born population since 1901 are presented in Table 7 of the statistical appendix.

Australia’s Humanitarian Program (Table 1)

After the first federal immigration department was established in 1945, Australia resettled thousands of post-war refugees and displaced people, and ratified the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees on 22 January 1954. However, it was not until the late 1970s with the arrival of the Indochinese ‘boat people’ seeking asylum, that the government developed a specific refugee policy.[15]

Australia’s first planned Humanitarian Program tailored to the special needs of refugees and asylum seekers commenced under the Fraser Government in 1977. Before then, the Government’s approach was to respond to international events and crises as they arose. Now there was a program specifically designed to deal with refugee and humanitarian issues and which also included the establishment of mechanisms to determine onshore protection claims.[16]

The new program was designed to help Australia respond to the Indochinese humanitarian crisis (and any future crises) in an orderly manner.[17] According to departmental records, 108 641 Indochinese refugees were resettled in Australia between April 1975 and June 1988.[18] Most were resettled between 1979 and 1982 when there were around 20 000 Indochinese arrivals per year under the new Humanitarian Program.[19]

By the mid 1980s, the Humanitarian Program intake had reduced to 11 000–12 000 a year and has remained at around 13 000 ever since, with a couple of exceptions—for example, higher numbers of humanitarian visas were granted in 2000–01 due to a wave of boat arrivals carrying asylum seekers from the Middle East.[20]

By the 1990s, a comprehensive refugee and humanitarian system was in place within the immigration portfolio and in January 1993 a decision was made by the Keating government to separate out the Humanitarian Program from the general Migration Program.[21]

As with the general Migration Program, the Australian Government reviews and adjusts the number of places available for refugee and humanitarian entrants on an annual basis in response to humanitarian need and according to government policy. As a result, both government planning figures and the number of humanitarian entrants have fluctuated over the years. However, available data on refugee and humanitarian entrants prior to the 1970s is limited. In the 1970s and 1980s, Humanitarian Program outcomes began to be published more comprehensively. Table 1 provides figures from 1984–85.

In 1996 the Howard Government introduced the practice of separately identifying those granted protection within Australia, or ‘onshore’, from those accepted ‘offshore’.[22] This introduced some new confusion in terms of the collection and presentation of Humanitarian Program data. While offshore and onshore components were separately identified for the first time, the data was numerically linked. Under the Howard Government, this meant that those processed extraterritorially under the ‘Pacific Solution’ were mostly included and counted under the ‘offshore’ component of the Humanitarian Program. In contrast, under the current Government, places allocated to those processed offshore on Christmas Island are counted under the ‘onshore’ not ‘offshore’ category. To confuse things further, the 7750 planning places currently allocated against the offshore humanitarian category are also shared with those granted onshore protection visas (including those processed on Christmas Island). The annual visa grant outcomes are then broken down and published each year (refugee, humanitarian and onshore) to reflect the actual outcomes.

Measuring permanent migration

There are two main sources of immigration related data—DIAC and the ABS—and the limitations of the data sets need to be understood. Changes in government policy and data collection methodology by these government agencies have also added to the complexity in interpreting this data and make it very difficult to compare migration-related statistics over time. The following examples illustrate these points.

The annual statistics on Migration and Humanitarian program ‘outcomes’ (visa grants) provided by the Department of Immigration since the 1980s show the number of permanent visas granted in any given year. This is the most accurate measure of the actual number of permanent migrants. However, one limitation is that offshore visa recipients may not actually arrive and settle in the country in the year the visa was issued.[23] 

The ABS provides a figure for net overseas migration (NOM). However, in September 2006, the ABS changed the methodology for determining what is meant by a ‘long-term’ arrival or departure. As a result NOM data provided after September 2006 is not strictly comparable with previous years.[24] In particular, in 2007 the ABS introduced the ‘12/16 rule’ whereby a traveller is included in the resident population if they are in the country for a total of 12 months or more over a 16 month period and vice versa. Prior to that, a traveller had to be in (or out of) the country continuously for 12 months.[25]

The following sections describe the more commonly used categories of migration-related statistics and offer suggestions as to when it may be appropriate to use them. The corresponding tables are presented in the statistical appendix.

Migration and population growth (Tables 4 and 5)

The rate at which Australia’s population has grown has increased significantly over the last five years—faster than at any other time in the past several decades.[26] Population growth is affected by two components; natural increase (the number of births minus the number of deaths); and net overseas migration (NOM). Although Australia’s fertility rate has increased since the early 2000s, it is NOM that has been the main driver of population growth in the last few years.[27]

The largest contribution to NOM in recent years has been from people on temporary visas—mostly comprised of overseas students and temporary skilled migrants¬≠—and Australian residents returning to the country due to the economic downturn.[28] So, although permanent migration intakes over the last few years have been high in comparison to previous years, it is important to note that Australia’s recent population growth predominantly reflects a significant increase in temporary, not permanent migration, and that NOM can fluctuate considerably from year to year.

Net overseas migration (NOM) statistics (Tables 3, 4 and 5)

Net overseas migration statistics are often used as an indicator of migration flows. However, they should be used with caution as NOM data includes the movements of those who are not permanent migrants or not migrants at all, such as Australian and New Zealand citizens coming and going on a long term basis, and any long term temporary migrants who are intending to stay for a year or more.

NOM is calculated by taking into account the addition (or loss) to the population of Australia arising from the difference between those leaving permanently or on a long-term basis (12 months or longer) and those arriving permanently or on a long-term basis.[29] This data includes:

  • people who change their travel intentions, such as those who come to Australia intending to stay short-term but who actually stay longer than 12 months, and vice versa
  • permanent residents and Australian citizens either leaving the country or returning home long-term (over 12 months)
  • long term arrivals and departures of New Zealand passport holders (New Zealanders are granted a Special Category visa which remains valid for as long as the person remains in Australia), and
  • entrants on temporary visas who intend to remain in the country for longer than 12 months, such as international students, people on long-term temporary (457) business visas and other long term visitors.[30]

In recent years it has been temporary, not permanent, migration that has contributed significantly to fluctuations in net overseas migration data. The ABS states that:

The largest contribution to NOM in recent years has been from people on temporary visas. In 2007–08, these accounted for 186 500 people or two-thirds of all net migration. Students made up the largest category of temporary net migration and 39 per cent of all NOM. The number of overseas students contributing to NOM has more than doubled from 45 300 in 2004–05 to 108 700 in 2007–08. Over half of the student component of NOM was made up of students who were citizens of India (33 300) and China (25 600). The third largest source of students in 2007–08 was Nepal with a NOM contribution of 7300 (equal to 7 per cent of the total NOM of students).[31]

Over the past 25 years, the contribution of NOM to population growth has averaged around 39 per cent per year, but has significantly increased in recent years (it has doubled since 2005–06).[32] Increases in the migration intakes, along with larger numbers of Australians returning from places like the UK due to the economic downturn, have pushed the average level of NOM up.[33] The net number of New Zealand citizens in Australia increased by 75 per cent between 2004–05 and 2007–08, and New Zealanders contributed 13 per cent to NOM in 2007–08.[34]

The preliminary NOM estimate for 2008–09 is 298 900 (the highest figure on record) representing 65 per cent of population growth.[35] However, NOM can fluctuate considerably from year to year and is estimated to have dropped by around 20 per cent over the last financial year.[36]

In summary, caution should be used when using NOM—while it may be an indication of changes to the population, it is not a measure of the number of permanent migrants arriving in any given year. Instead, NOM measures departures and arrivals of both permanent and (long term) temporary entrants and the resulting increase or decrease in the population overall. Also, statistics on overseas arrivals and departures relate to the number of movements of individuals and not necessarily the number of people. The ABS states that:

Care should be taken when using permanent and long-term movement data as it is known that some individuals who travel multiple times in a year are counted each time they cross Australia's borders.[37]

It is also important to note that, although ABS net overseas migration data is available back to 1901, the methodologies used to estimate NOM have changed significantly over time and the statistics for different years are not always comparable.[38]

Settler arrival statistics (Table 6)

The definition of a ‘settler arrival’ for migration purposes is someone arriving in Australia who:

  • holds a permanent visa
  • holds a temporary visa where there is a clear intention to settle
  • is a New Zealand citizen indicating an intention to settle, and
  • is any person otherwise eligible to settle.[39]

Eligible ‘settler arrivals’ may hold a permanent visa under the family, skill or special eligibility streams of the Migration Program or a visa under the refugee, special humanitarian or special assistance streams of the Humanitarian Program. However, others not covered under the Migration or Humanitarian Programs may also be eligible, such as New Zealand citizens; children born to Australian citizens overseas; people granted Australian citizenship overseas; and residents of  Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.[40]

As noted above, ABS data on arrivals and departures, including settler arrivals, tracks the number of movements not individuals. Prior to 1959, arrivals and departures were only classified as permanent or temporary. The permanent category was subsequently subdivided into permanent and long-term movement. The data for these categories is based on the stated intentions of travellers. Recent research comparing arrivals and departures data with data obtained using the new ABS methodology for calculating NOM (which is able to track travellers’ movement history) indicates that the stated intentions and actual movements of individuals diverge significantly.[41]

In summary, settler arrival statistics are a better indication of permanent movements than NOM, but include NZ citizens and some other temporary migrants who have indicated an intention to settle. Care should be taken in using these statistics and the ABS does not consider them an appropriate source of migration statistics.[42]

Migration Program statistics (Table 1)

As part of its planned Migration Program, the federal government allocates places each year for people wanting to migrate permanently to Australia. Migration Program planning numbers fluctuate according to the priorities and economic and political considerations of the government of the day. Since the first federal immigration department was established, immigration policy has become more highly planned and in recent decades has specifically targeted skilled migration while continuing to allow a certain amount of family and humanitarian migration.

In the late 1980s, the federal government introduced the practice of dividing the immigration program into three main streams (family, skill and humanitarian).[43] Since then, data on the number of visas granted by category under Australia’s Migration Program each year has been collected and published by the Government.

Although only available since the 1980s, this data provides the best measure of the actual number of permanent migrants planning to settle in Australia.[44]

Humanitarian Program statistics (Table 1)

As discussed in detail earlier in this paper, over the years policy changes have resulted in changes to the methodology for counting humanitarian entrants. For example, onshore refugees were not counted against the Humanitarian Program until the Howard Government introduced the practice of separately identifying and quantifying offshore and onshore components of the Humanitarian Program in 1996.[45]

Despite these discrepancies, Humanitarian Program visa grants are the most accurate statistics available for refugee and humanitarian intakes to Australia back to the 1970s. Prior to the 1970s there are only estimates available for the number of post war refugees.

Temporary migration statistics (Table 2)

Although the rise in permanent migration to Australia is significant, many argue that the greatest change in immigration patterns to Australia in the last decade or so is the change in emphasis from permanent to temporary migration—with temporary migration increasingly becoming the first step towards permanent settlement in Australia for many people.[46] According to the ABS, over the last ten years onshore permanent visas have increased fourfold from 15 000 in 1998–99 to 63 400 in 2008–09.[47] Over one-third of the Migration Program in 2007–08 was made up of people granted permanent residence after initial entry to Australia on a temporary basis.[48]

Unlike the permanent migration program, the level of temporary migration to Australia is usually not determined by government, but rather is demand driven. The two most significant categories contributing to the rise in temporary migration to Australia in recent years are temporary skilled migrants and overseas students.

The most commonly used visa to sponsor temporary skilled migrants is the (subclass 457) Temporary business (long stay) visa introduced by the Howard Government in 1996.[49] There is no cap set on the number of 457 visas which may be granted in a particular year. Rather, the number of visas granted is directly related to the level of demand by employers for temporary skilled migrant workers, and their willingness to sponsor such workers. As a result, the temporary skilled migration program is highly responsive to changes in economic conditions and the demand for labour has risen (and fallen) in recent years accordingly.

Overseas students have also contributed significantly to temporary migration figures in Australia in recent years. In 2007–08 international students made up the largest group of temporary visa holders to arrive:

Australia’s immigration program has also seen an exponential increase in overseas student entrants. Indeed, by 2007 Australia accounted for 11 per cent of the international student market and had seen a three-fold increase in student numbers over the previous ten years. Figures published by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) indicate that the number of student visa holders in Australia grew at the average annual rate of 13.9 per cent every year after June 2001, rising to a total of 386 523 student visa holders in the 12 months to the end of June 2009.[50]

Since the mid 1990s, the number of overseas visitors entering Australia on a temporary long-term basis (staying for at least one year) has exceeded the number of people arriving for permanent settlement.[51] However, it is not easy to provide meaningful statistics for long-term temporary migration. Researchers McDonald and Withers point out that:

Immigrants are broadly divisible into two categories, permanent and temporary. To be included in the count of the Australian population, temporary immigrants need to stay in Australia for at least 12 months within a given 16-month period ... Statistics for long-term temporary immigrants are more difficult to describe. The main categories are overseas students, persons coming to Australia for specific employment (long stay business visa), working holiday makers, persons on bridging visas (between other visa types), persons on temporary protection visas and over-stayers (those who have remained in Australia illegally after their visa has expired). As most of these people go in and out of the country relatively frequently, statistics on their movements can be misleading. Stock data are possibly more useful than flow data.[52]

Statistical appendix

Table 1: Permanent migrants: migration and humanitarian program visa grants since 1985

Year

Migration Program

Humanitarian Program

Family

Skill

Special Eligibility

Total

1984–85

44 200

10 100

200

54 500

14 207

1985–86

63 400

16 200

400

80 000

11 700

1986–87

72 600

28 500

600

101 700

11 291

1987–88

79 500

42 000

600

122 100

11 392

1988–89

72 700

51 200

800

124 700

11 309

1989–90

66 600

52 700

900

120 200

12 415

1990–91

61 300

49 800

1 200

112 200

11 284

1991–92

55 900

41 400

1 700

98 900

12 009

1992–93

43 500

21 300

1 400

67 900

11 845

1993–94

43 200

18 300

1 300

62 800

14 070

1994–95

44 500

30 400

1 600

76 500

14 858

1995–96

56 700

24 100

1 700

82 500

16 252

1996–97

44 580

27 550

1 730

73 900

11 902

1997–98

31 310

34 670

1 110

67 100

12 055

1998–99

32 040

35 000

890

67 900

11 356

1999–00

32 000

35 330

2 850

70 200

15 860

2000–01

33 470

44 730

2 420

80 610

13 733

2001–02

38 090

53 520

1 480

93 080

12 349

2002–¬≠03

40 790

66 050

1 230

108 070

12 525

2003–04

42 230

71 240

890

114 360

13 823

2004–05

41 740

77 880

450

120 060

13 178

2005–06

45 290

97 340

310

142 930

14 144

2006–07

50 080

97 920

200

148 200

13 017

2007–08

49 870

108 540

220

158 630

13 014

2008–09

56 366

114 777

175

171 318

13 507

2009–10

60 254

107 868

501

168 623

13 770

2010–11 (planned)

54 550

113 850

300

168 700

13 750

 

Sources: Migration Program: DIAC advice supplied to the Parliamentary Library in July 2010 taken from Population flows: immigration aspects, various editions since 1992; Migration Program Statistics web page and C Evans (Minister for Immigration and Citizenship), Budget: Migration Program, media release, 11 May 2010 for the planning figures.

Humanitarian Program: DIAC, Population flows: immigration aspects 2008–09, source data, chapter 4, 2010.

Table 2: Temporary migrants: overseas student and business long stay (subclass 457) visa grants since 1996

Year

Overseas students

Temporary business (long stay) 457 visas

1996–97

113 000

25 786

1997–98

108 827

30 880

1998–99

110 894

29 320

1999–00

119 806

31 070

2000–01

146 577

36 900

2001–02

151 894

33 510

2002–03

162 575

36 800

2003–04

171 616

39 500

2004–05

174 786

49 590

2005–06

190 674

71 150

2006–07

228 592

87 310

2007–08

278 180

110 570

2008–09

320 368

101 280

Sources:  DIAC, various years of annual reports, population flows publications and migration statistics web pages; and Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee, Migration Legislation Amendment (Worker Protection) Bill 2008 report, 2008, pp. 17–18 (for 457 visa grants).

Table 3: Net overseas migration (NOM) since 1901

Year

NOM (a) (b)

Year

NOM (a) (b)

Year

NOM (a) (b)

Series Break Information

1901

2 959

1938

8 145

1975

13 515

Prior to July 1922 crew members were included

Prior to July 1925 figures are total overseas arrivals and departures from Australia                                                      

1902

-4 293

1939

12 527

1976

33 997

1903

-9 876

1940

10 676

1977

68 030

1904

-2 983

1941

5 136

1978

47 394

1905

-2 600

1942

8 536

1979

68 611

1906

-5 049

1943

1 587

1980

100 940

1907

5 195

1944

-1 761

1981

123 066

1908

5 437

1945

-3 273

1982

102 709

From July 1925 figures are Net Permanent and Long Term migration

1909

21 783

1946

-11 589

1983

54 995

1910

29 912

1947

12 186

1984

59 823

1911

74 379

1948

48 468

1985

89 319

Break in series from September quarter 1971 to June quarter 2006 inclusive, Net Overseas Migration (NOM) was the difference between permanent and long-term arrivals and permanent and long-term departures.

1912

91 892

1949

149 270

1986

110 661

1913

63 227

1950

153 685

1987

136 093

1914

-8 226

1951

110 362

1988

172 794

1915

-84 410

1952

97 454

1989

129 478

1916

-128 737

1953

42 883

1990

97 131

1917

-17 822

1954

68 565

1991

81 669

1918

23 359

1955

95 317

1992

51 358

1919

166 303

1956

102 105

1993

34 822

1920

27 606

1957

77 622

1994

55 506

1921

17 525

1958

64 879

1995

106 864

1922

40 157

1959

83 578

1996

97 444

For September quarter 2006 onwards estimates for NOM are the difference between the number of incoming travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more and are added to the population (NOM arrivals) and the number of outgoing travellers who leave Australia for 12 months or more and are subtracted from the population (NOM departures)

1923

39 714

1960

92 776

1997

72 402

1924

46 069

1961

65 439

1998

88 781

1925

39 762

1962

64 638

1999

104 210

1926

42 282

1963

76 844

2000

111 441

1927

49 401

1964

103 999

2001

136 076

1928

28 864

1965

111 609

2002

110 475

1929

10 087

1966

95 931

2003

110 104

1930

-9 833

1967

96 558

2004

106 425

1931

-12 117

1968

123 452

2005

137 009

1932

-4 608

1969

140 331

2006

182 200

1933

-1 364

1970

138 382

2007

244 100

1934

- 388

1971

103 553

2008p

301 200

1935

1 251

1972

56 320

2009p

277 700

1936

1 283

1973

67 494

p = preliminary estimates

1937

5 075

1974

87 248

   

(a)  Estimates for September quarter 2006 onwards use an improved methodology and are not comparable with NOM estimates prior to this.

(b)  An adjustment for category jumping (later referred to as migration adjustments) was included for estimates for September quarter 1976 to June quarter 2006, except for September quarter 1997 to June quarter 2001 when it was set to zero.

Sources:  Data for 1901–1924: DIAC, Immigration: Federation to Century’s End, DIAC, Canberra, 2001.

Data for 1925–2005: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat. no. 3105.0.65.001, 2008.

Data for 2006 onwards: ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, cat. no. 3101.0, 2010.

Table 4: Components of population growth since 1972

Year

Births (b)

Deaths (b)

Natural Increase (Births - Deaths)

Net Overseas Migration (c)

Estimated resident population (ERP) (d)

1971–72 (a)

271 960

110 191

161 769

75 672

13 303 664

1972–73 (a)

255 848

111 336

144 512

56 562

13 504 538

1973–74 (a)

243 658

110 179

133 479

82 926

13 722 571

1974–75 (a)

239 794

114 501

125 293

44 675

13 892 995

1975–76 (a)

231 135

110 610

120 525

21 239

14 033 083

1976–77

226 954

111 490

115 464

57 897

14 192 234

1977–78

226 359

108 059

118 300

62 715

14 359 255

1978–79

223 370

108 315

115 055

55 137

14 515 729

1979–80

223 664

106 654

117 010

75 941

14 695 356

1980–81

230 920

109 429

121 491

119 175

14 923 260

1981–82

237 076

110 990

126 086

128 117

15 184 247

1982–83

241 764

112 918

128 846

73 295

15 393 472

1983–84

240 544

110 887

129 657

49 098

15 579 391

1984–85

241 814

114 197

127 617

73 708

15 788 312

1985–86

239 115

116 069

123 046

100 359

16 018 350

1986–87

242 797

116 139

126 658

125 730

16 263 874

1987–88

246 200

120 463

125 737

149 341

16 532 164

1988–89

250 155

118 767

131 388

157 436

16 814 416

1989–90

257 521

125 112

132 409

124 647

17 065 128

1990–91

261 158

119 572

141 586

86 432

17 284 036

1991–92

259 186

120 836

138 350

68 580

17 494 664

1992–93

259 959

121 338

138 621

30 042

17 667 093

1993–94

258 314

123 496

134 818

46 549

17 854 738

1994–95

258 210

126 232

131 978

80 125

18 071 758

1995–96

250 438

126 400

124 038

104 137

18 310 714

1996–97

253 660

127 298

126 362

87 079

18 517 564

1997–98

249 105

129 255

119 850

79 162

18 711 271

1998–99

249 965

128 278

121 687

96 483

18 925 855

1999–00

249 310

128 392

120 918

107 275

19 153 380

2000–01

247 500

128 913

118 587

135 673

19 413 240

2001–02

247 288

130 253

117 035

110 556

19 651 438

2002–03

246 663

132 239

114 424

116 498

19 895 435

2003–04

249 082

133 231

115 851

99 966

20 127 363

2004–05

255 934

131 354

124 580

123 763

20 394 791

2005–06

263 540

134 041

129 499

146 753

20 697 880

2006–07

277 724

135 976

141 748

232 824

21 072 452

2007–08

289 492

140 736

148 756

277 332

21 498 540

2008–09

300 936

143 144

157 792

298 924

21 955 256

(a) Between 1971 and 1976 inconsistencies exist between the components of growth of the population and estimates of the population. Estimates of category jumping were made only from September quarter 1976.

(b)  Births and deaths figures used to compile natural increase for population estimates are based on year of occurrence and may differ from births and deaths based on year of registration.

(c) Estimates for net overseas migration (NOM) contain a break in time series. Estimates for September quarter 2006 onwards use an improved methodology and are not comparable with NOM estimates prior to this.

(d)  The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 out of 16 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 out of 16 months. See ABS, ‘Glossary’, Australian Demographic Statistics, cat. no. 3101.0, December 2009, viewed 4 August 2010. For 1994, the sum of the components of population change for Australia does not equal the difference between the 1994 and 1993 ERPs due to the inclusion of the September quarter 1993 populations of Christmas Island (1470 persons) and  Cocos (Keeling) Islands (625 persons) in the Australian population for the first time.

Sources: Data for 1971–72 to 2005-06: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat. no. 3105.0.65.001, 2008. Data for 2006–07 to 2008-09: ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, cat. no. 3101.0, 2010.

Table 5: Population growth rates since 1972

Year

Natural increase rate

Net overseas migration rate

Total population growth rate (a)

1971–72

1.24

0.58

1.81

1972–73

1.09

0.43

1.51

1973–74

0.99

0.61

1.61

1974–75

0.91

0.33

1.24

1975–76

0.87

0.15

1.01

1976–77

0.82

0.41

1.13

1977–78

0.83

0.44

1.18

1978–79

0.80

0.38

1.09

1979–80

0.81

0.52

1.24

1980–81

0.83

0.81

1.55

1981–82

0.84

0.86

1.75

1982–83

0.85

0.48

1.38

1983–84

0.84

0.32

1.21

1984–85

0.82

0.47

1.34

1985–86

0.78

0.64

1.46

1986–87

0.79

0.78

1.53

1987–88

0.77

0.92

1.65

1988–89

0.79

0.95

1.71

1989–90

0.79

0.74

1.49

1990–91

0.83

0.51

1.28

1991–92

0.80

0.40

1.22

1992–93

0.79

0.17

0.99

1993–94

0.76

0.26

1.06

1994–95

0.74

0.45

1.22

1995–96

0.69

0.58

1.32

1996–97

0.69

0.48

1.13

1997–98

0.65

0.43

1.05

1998–99

0.65

0.52

1.15

1999–00

0.64

0.57

1.20

2000–01

0.62

0.71

1.36

2001–02

0.60

0.57

1.23

2002–03

0.58

0.59

1.24

2003–04

0.58

0.50

1.17

2004–05

0.62

0.61

1.33

2005–06

0.63

0.72

1.49

2006–07

0.68

1.12

1.81

2007–08

0.71

1.32

2.02

2008–09

0.73

1.39

2.12

(a) Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.

Sources:  Data for 1971-72 to 2005-06: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat. no. 3105.0.65.001, 2008.

Data for 2006-07 to 2008-09: ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, cat. no. 3101.0, 2010.

Table 6: Permanent and long-term overseas movement since 1925

Arrivals

Departures

Year

Permanent Settler Arrivals (a)

Long term: more than one year

TOTAL: Permanent and Long-term Arrivals

Permanent departures (a)

Long term: more than one year

TOTAL: Permanent and Long-term departures

Residents returning (a)

Visitors arriving (a)

Residents departing (a)

Visitors departing (a)

1925

56 477

n/a

n/a

56 477

16 715

n/a

n/a

16 715

1926

59 464

n/a

n/a

59 464

17 182

n/a

n/a

17 182

1927

67 078

n/a

n/a

67 078

17 677

n/a

n/a

17 677

1928

48 233

n/a

n/a

48 233

19 369

n/a

n/a

19 369

1929

31 698

n/a

n/a

31 698

21 611

n/a

n/a

21 611

1930

17 537

n/a

n/a

17 537

27 370

n/a

n/a

27 370

1931

9 441

n/a

n/a

9 441

21 558

n/a

n/a

21 558

1932

9 868

n/a

n/a

9 868

14 476

n/a

n/a

14 476

1933

10 749

n/a

n/a

10 749

12 113

n/a

n/a

12 113

1934

11 778

n/a

n/a

11 778

12 166

n/a

n/a

12 166

1935

12 608

n/a

n/a

12 608

11 357

n/a

n/a

11 357

1936

12 653

n/a

n/a

12 653

11 370

n/a

n/a

11 370

1937

16 291

n/a

n/a

16 291

11 216

n/a

n/a

11 216

1938

19 548

n/a

n/a

19 548

11 403

n/a

n/a

11 403

1939

24 068

n/a

n/a

24 068

11 541

n/a

n/a

11 541

1940

16 152

n/a

n/a

16 152

5 476

n/a

n/a

5 476

1941

8 940

n/a

n/a

8 940

3 804

n/a

n/a

3 804

1942

10 145

n/a

n/a

10 145

1 609

n/a

n/a

1 609

1943

3 516

n/a

n/a

3 516

1 929

n/a

n/a

1 929

1944

2 511

n/a

n/a

2 511

4 272

n/a

n/a

4 272

1945

7 512

n/a

n/a

7 512

10 785

n/a

n/a

10 785

1946

18 217

n/a

n/a

18 217

29 806

n/a

n/a

29 806

1947

31 765

n/a

n/a

31 765

19 579

n/a

n/a

19 579

1948

65 739

n/a

n/a

65 739

17 271

n/a

n/a

17 271

1949

167 727

n/a

n/a

167 727

18 457

n/a

n/a

18 457

1950

174 540

n/a

n/a

174 540

20 855

n/a

n/a

20 855

1951

132 542

n/a

n/a

132 542

22 180

n/a

n/a

22 180

1952

127 824

n/a

n/a

127 824

30 370

n/a

n/a

30 370

1953

74 915

n/a

n/a

74 915

32 032

n/a

n/a

32 032

1954

104 014

n/a

n/a

104 014

35 449

n/a

n/a

35 449

1955

130 795

n/a

n/a

130 795

35 478

n/a

n/a

35 478

1956

123 822

n/a

n/a

123 822

21 717

n/a

n/a

21 717

1957

118 695

n/a

n/a

118 695

41 073

n/a

n/a

41 073

1958

109 857

n/a

n/a

109 857

44 978

n/a

n/a

44 978

1959

97 777

 15 285

 10 960

124 022

12 900

21 296

6 248

40 444

1960

110 079

 16 495

 12 797

139 371

10 853

25 331

10 411

46 595

1961

95 407

 18 602

 13 577

127 586

14 777

32 157

12 213

59 147

1962

90 464

 20 580

 13 941

124 985

15 429

31 781

13 137

60 347

1963

108 150

 22 205

 13 813

144 168

16 278

38 317

12 729

67 324

1964

134 464

 23 641

 15 020

173 125

15 083

40 958

13 085

69 126

1965

147 507

 26 260

 17 497

191 264

20 913

46 313

12 429

79 655

1966

141 033

 28 292

 19 234

188 559

26 308

54 321

11 999

92 628

1967

135 019

 35 655

 21 637

192 311

30 804

52 148

12 801

95 753

1968

159 270

 36 387

 23 473

219 130

31 675

51 386

12 617

95 678

1969

183 416

 38 308

 26 867

248 591

33 631

59 027

15 602

108 260

1970

185 325

 42 099

 31 194

258 618

37 294

64 215

18 727

120 236

1971

155 525

 47 782

 30 500

233 807

41 122

67 699

21 433

130 254

1972

112 468

 54 278

 26 559

193 305

45 881

66 853

24 251

136 985

1973

105 003

 65 021

 27 370

197 394

43 430

64 964

21 506

129 900

1974

121 324

 63 320

 26 984

211 628

33 751

66 228

24 401

124 380

1975

54 119

 58 354

 19 858

132 331

29 084

66 406

23 326

118 816

1976

58 287

 59 881

 23 312

141 480

26 732

68 527

20 631

115 890

1977

75 640

 57 701

 27 472

160 813

22 762

64 088

19 181

106 031

1978

68 419

 57 938

 28 390

154 747

24 961

58 519

19 644

103 124

1979

72 236

 61 441

 33 450

167 127

23 420

54 266

20 422

98 108

1980

94 503

 58 760

 31 025

184 288

20 843

50 713

19 306

90 862

1981

118 735

 59 401

 34 552

212 688

19 852

46 738

19 013

85 603

1982

107 171

 53 766

 34 265

195 202

22 493

46 892

22 956

92 341

1983

78 392

 47 806

 27 376

153 574

25 870

48 182

26 455

100 507

1984

73 108

 51 556

 28 868

153 532

22 311

50 780

23 266

96 357

1985

82 000

 55 669

 34 883

172 552

18 620

51 027

23 793

93 440

1986

103 326

 55 307

 38 049

196 682

18 817

48 358

25 269

92 444

1987

128 288

 53 590

 39 737

221 615

20 415

49 977

27 377

97 769

1988

151 549

 54 986

 47 327

253 862

20 320

54 118

30 326

104 764

1989

131 064

 53 442

 53 543

238 049

24 829

59 218

35 993

120 040

1990

121 563

 56 365

 56 120

234 048

30 365

66 296

40 807

137 468

1991

116 647

 61 259

 59 326

237 232

29 898

66 127

47 684

143 709

1992

94 246

 66 155

 60 052

220 453

28 135

66 984

48 540

143 659

1993

65 675

 73 428

 58 829

197 932

28 074

64 301

48 051

140 426

1994

77 937

 78 064

 65 912

221 913

27 020

66 365

48 291

141 676

1995

96 969

 78 794

 78 172

253 935

27 873

69 083

52 406

149 362

1996

92 503

 80 004

 88 826

261 333

28 479

70 964

58 820

158 263

1997

78 229

 81 797

 100 191

260 217

30 343

77 181

69 039

176 563

1998

81 065

 75 318

 112 000

268 383

33 433

81 057

65 112

179 602

1999

88 010

 76 133

 125 731

289 874

38 225

83 428

64 011

185 664

2000

97 178

 80 306

 140 076

317 560

43 824

88 087

74 208

206 119

2001

100 888

 85 127

 170 393

356 408

47 600

93 457

75 074

216 131

2002

89 348

 92 396

 180 244

361 988

49 081

89 992

83 867

222 940

2003

103 887

 98 835

 185 727

388 449

54 119

83 986

86 780

224 885

2004

117 473

 98 240

 196 851

412 564

61 853

87 626

94 189

243 668

2005

128 753

 103 909

 209 618

442 280

64 398

94 084

93 302

251 784

2006

133 879

 107 035

 238 565

479 479

69 399

101 211

94 933

265 543

2007

141 645

 108 513

 285 569

535 727

74 963

102 250

113 698

290 911

2008

161 520

 113 750

 358 820

634 090

79 410

100 120

142 070

321 600

2009

148 410

 117 120

 377 250

642 780

82 710

76 010

180 430

339 150

 

(a) Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures, previously classified as permanent, to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories: permanent movement; and long-term movement.

‘Statistics on overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than the number of travellers. Care should be taken when using permanent and long-term movements data as it is known that some individuals who travel multiple times in a year are counted each time they cross Australia's borders. Permanent and long-term movements in this release are not an appropriate source of migration statistics’. For further information see ABS, Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia, cat. no. 3401.0, 2010.

Source:  ABS, Overseas Arrivals and Departures, cat no. 3401.0, June 2010.

Table 7: Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas-born population since 1901

 

1901 Census

 

1911 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

495 074

57.7

1. United Kingdom (b)

 451 288

59.6

2. Ireland (b)

184 085

21.5

2. Ireland (b)

 139 434

18.4

3. Germany

38 352

4.5

3. Germany

 32 990

4.4

4. China

29 907

3.5

4. New Zealand

 31 868

4.2

5. New Zealand

25 788

3.0

5. China

 20 775

2.7

6. Sweden & Norway

9 863

1.2

6. Italy

 6 719

0.9

7. India

7 637

0.9

7. India

 6 644

0.9

8. USA

7 448

0.9

8. USA

 6 642

0.9

9. Denmark

6 281

0.7

9. Denmark

 5 663

0.7

10.Italy

5 678

0.7

10. Sweden & Norway

 5 586

0.7

Top ten total

810 113

94.5

Top ten total

 707 609

93.5

Other

47 463

5.5

Other

 49 256

6.5

Total overseas born

857 576

100

Total overseas born

 756 865

100.0

Total population (a)

3 788 123

 

Total population (a)

4 455 005

 

% of Australian born overseas

22.6

% of Australian born overseas

17.0

 

 

1921 Census

 

1933 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

 568 370

67.7

1. United Kingdom (b)

 633 806

70.2

2. Ireland (b)

 105 033

12.5

2. Ireland (b)

 78 652

8.7

3. New Zealand

 38 611

4.6

3. New Zealand

 45 963

5.1

4. Germany

 22 396

2.7

4. Italy

 26 756

3.0

5. China

 15 224

1.8

5. Germany

 16 842

1.9

6. Italy

 8 135

1.0

6. China

 8 579

0.9

7. India

 6 918

0.8

7. Greece

 8 337

0.9

8. USA

 6 604

0.8

8. India

 6 774

0.7

9. Denmark

 6 002

0.7

9. South Africa

 6 179

0.7

10. South Africa

 5 408

0.6

10. USA

 6 066

0.7

Top ten total

 782 701

93.2

Top ten total

 837 954

92.8

Other

 56 878

6.8

Other

 65 319

7.2

Total overseas born

 839 579

100.0

Total overseas born

 903 273

100.0

Total population (a)

5 455 136

 

Total population (a)

6 629 836

 

% of Australian born overseas

15.4

% of Australian born overseas

13.6

 

 

1947 Census

 

1954 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

 496 454

66.7

1. United Kingdom (b)

 616 532

47.9

2. Ireland (b)

 44 813

6.0

2 Italy

 119 897

9.3

3. New Zealand

 43 610

5.9

3. Poland

56594

4.4

4. Italy

 33 632

4.5

4. Netherlands

 52 035

4.0

5. Germany

 14 567

1.7

5. Germany

 50 855

4.0

6. Greece

 12 291

1.1

6. Ireland (b)

 44 673

3.5

7. India & Sri Lanka

 8 160

0.9

7. New Zealand

 43 350

3.4

8. Poland

 6 573

0.9

8. Yugoslavia

 22 856

1.8

9. China

 6 404

0.8

9. Greece

 25 862

2.0

10. USA

 6 232

0.8

10. Malta

 19 988

1.6

Top ten total

 672 736

90.4

Top ten total

1 052 642

81.8

Other

 71 451

9.6

Other

 233 824

18.2

Total overseas born

 744 187

100.0

Total overseas born

1 286 466

100.0

Total population (a)

7 579 358

 

Total population (a)

8 986 530

 

% of Australian born overseas

9.8

% of Australian born overseas

14.3

 

 

1961 Census

 

1971 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

 718 345

40.4

1. United Kingdom (b)

1 046 356

40.6

2. Italy

 228 296

12.8

2. Italy

 289 476

11.2

3. Germany

 109 315

6.1

3. Greece

 160 200

6.2

4. Netherlands

 102 083

5.7

4. Yugoslavia

 129 816

5.0

5. Greece

 77 333

4.3

5. Germany

 110 811

4.3

6. Poland

 60 049

3.4

6. Netherlands

 99 295

3.8

7. Yugoslavia

 49 776

2.8

7. New Zealand

 80 466

3.1

8. New Zealand

 47 011

2.6

8. Poland

 59 700

2.3

9. Malta

 39 337

2.2

9. Malta

 53 681

2.1

10. Ireland

 37 057

2.1

10. Ireland

 41 854

1.6

Top ten total

1 468 602

82.6

Top ten total

2 071 655

80.3

Other

 310 178

17.4

Other

 507 663

19.7

Total overseas born

1 778 780

100.0

Total overseas born

2 579 318

100.0

Total population (a)

10 508 186

 

Total population

12 755 638

 

% of Australian born overseas

16.9

% of Australian born overseas

20.2

 

 

1981 Census

 

1991 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

1 086 625

36.5

1. United Kingdom (b)

1 107 119

30.0

2. Italy

 275 883

9.3

2. New Zealand

 264 094

7.2

3. New Zealand

 176 713

5.9

3. Italy

 253 332

6.9

4. Yugoslavia

 149 335

5.0

4. Yugoslavia

 160 479

4.4

5. Greece

 146 625

4.9

5. Greece

 136 028

3.7

6. Germany

 110 758

3.7

6. Viet Nam

 121 813

3.3

7. Netherlands

 96 044

3.2

7. Germany

 111 975

3.0

8. Poland

 59 441

2.0

8. Netherlands

 94 692

2.6

9. Malta

 57 001

1.9

9. China

 77 799

2.1

10. Lebanon

 49 623

1.7

10. Philippines

 73 144

2.0

Top ten total

2 208 048

74.2

Top ten total

2 400 475

65.1

Other

 765 786

25.8

Other

1 288 653

34.9

Total overseas born

2 973 834

100.0

Total overseas born

3 689 128

100.0

Total population (b) (c)

17 752 824

 

Total population (c) (d)

16 770 635

 

% of Australian born overseas

16.8

% of Australian born overseas

22.0

 

 

2001 Census

 

2006 Census

Birthplace

No.

%

Birthplace

No.

%

1. United Kingdom (b)

1 036 261

25.2

1. United Kingdom (b)

1 038 162

23.5

2. New Zealand

 355 762

8.7

2. New Zealand

389 467

8.8

3. Italy

 218 722

5.3

3. China

206 593

4.7

4. Viet Nam

 154 818

3.8

4. Italy

199 124

4.5

5. China

 142 807

3.5

5. Viet Nam

159 848

3.6

6. Greece

 116 431

2.8

6. India

147 111

3.3

7. Germany

 108 214

2.6

7. Philippines

120 534

2.7

8. Philippines

 103 915

2.5

8. Greece

109 989

2.5

9. India

 95 445

2.3

9. Germany

106 528

2.4

10. Netherlands

 83 290

2.0

10. South Africa

104 132

2.4

Top ten total

2 415 665

58.8

Top ten total

2 581 488

58.5

Other

1 689 803

41.2

Other

1 834 548

41.5

Total overseas born

4 105 468

100.0

Total overseas born

4 416 036

100.0

Total population (c) (d)

18 769 249

 

Total population (b) (c)

19 855 288

 

% of Australian born overseas

21.9

% of Australian born overseas

22.2

(a) Excludes full-blood Indigenous persons
(b) Prior to the 1954 Census persons born in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are recorded together under Ireland
(c) Excludes overseas visitors
(d) Includes birthplace not stated

Sources: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat no. 3105.0.65.001, 2008.
ABS, Census of Population and Housing, 1971, 1981, 2001, 2006.
DIAC, Immigration: Federation to Century's End 1901–2000, October 2001


[1].       For more details see; E Koleth, Overseas students: immigration policy changes 1997–May 2010, Parliamentary Library, Background note, Canberra, 2010, viewed 20 July 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/Library/pubs/BN/sp/OverseasStudents.pdf

[2].       DIAC’s statistical publications (in particular Population flows) provide the best sources of information for temporary and permanent migration outcomes since the 1980s. See DIAC’s statistical publication web page http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/

[3].       An additional 700 000 people settled in Australia between 1905 and 1945. Source: Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), Key facts in immigration, fact sheet no. 2, DIAC, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/02key.htm

[4].       Ibid.

[5].       Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA), Immigration–federation to century’s end, Canberra, 2001, pp. 1–3, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/federation/

[6].       DIAC, Key facts in immigration, op. cit.

[7].       DIMA, Immigration–federation to century’s end, op. cit., provides some indication of the planning figures for certain years, but it is not comprehensive.

[8].       Department of Labor and Immigration, 1788–1975 Australia and immigration, AGPS, Canberra, 1975, p. 7; and Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, Australia and immigration 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, 1988, p. 43.

[9].       Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, Australia and immigration 1788 to 1988, op. cit.

[10].     For some detail on planning intakes prior to the 1980s see Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, Australia and immigration 1788 to 1988, op. cit.; and DIMA, Immigration–federation to century’s end, op. cit.

[11].     DIAC, Key facts in immigration, op. cit.

[12].     DIMA, Immigration–federation to century’s end, op. cit.

[13].     C Evans (Minister for Immigration and Citizenship), Migration Program: the size of the skilled and family programs, media release, 12 May 2009, http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/media/media-releases/2009/ce02-budget-09.htm

[14].     See ABS, Migration Australia, 2008–09, cat. no. 3412.0, Canberra, 2010, pp. 45–47, viewed 2 August 2010, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/
3A3EB923A8CBB55CCA25776E001762A6/$File/34120_2008-09.pdf

[15].     J Phillips, Australia’s Humanitarian Program, Research note, no. 9, 2005–06, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2005, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/2005-06/06rn09.pdf

[16].     DIAC, Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia’s response, June 2009, p. 21, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/refugee/ref-hum-issues/pdf/
refugee-humanitarian-issues-june09.pdf

[17].     D McMaster, Asylum seekers: Australia’s response to refugees, Melbourne University Press, 2001, p. 70.

[18].     Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs (DILGEA), 'Indochinese Refugees', Statistical Note, no. 37, Statistics Section, Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, October 1988.

[19].     DIAC, Population flows: immigration aspects 2008–09, source data, chapter 4, 2010, viewed 27 July 2010, 
http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/popflows2008-09/

[20].     DIAC, Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia’s response, op. cit.

[21].     Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Refugee and humanitarian issues: the focus for Australia, Canberra, 1994; and DIAC, Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia’s response, op. cit.

[22].    P Ruddock (Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs), 1996–97 Humanitarian Program, media release, Canberra, 3 July 1996.

[23].     DIAC, Population flows: immigration aspects, 2006–07, Canberra, 2008, p. 4, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/popflows2006-7/

[24].     ABS, Statistical implications of improved methods for estimating net overseas migration, information paper, Canberra, 2007, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf
/0/1B5B665D7B575C40CA2572E5002216FD/$File/3107055005_2007.pdf

[25].     ABS, Migration Australia, op. cit., p. 16.

[26].     ABS, ‘Population growth: past, present and future’,  Australian social trends 2010, Canberra, 2010, viewed 20 July 2010, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/LookupAttach/
4102.0Publication30.06.102/$File/41020_PopulationGrowth.pdf

[27].     Ibid.

[28].     Ibid.

[29].     DIAC, Population projections, fact sheet no. 15, DIAC web page, viewed 25 May 2010,
http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/15population.htm

[30].     DIAC, Population projections, op. cit.; and ABS, Information Paper: Improving net overseas migration estimation, March 2010, viewed 16 July 2010,
http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3412.0.55.001Main+
Features1Mar%202010?OpenDocument

[31].     ABS, ‘Population growth: past, present and future’, op. cit.

[32].     ABS, Migration, op. cit., p. 7.

[33].     DIAC, Population projections, op. cit.

[34].     ABS, Migration, op. cit., p. 28.         

[35].     Ibid., p. 7.

[36].     C Evans (Minister for Immigration and Citizenship), Net overseas migration on track to fall by 20 per cent, media release, 30 June 2010, viewed 16 July 2010, http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/media/media-releases/2010/ce10055.htm

[37].     ABS, Overseas arrivals and departures, Australia, January 2010, Canberra, February 2010, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3401.0Main%20Features2Jan%202010?
opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3401.0&issue=Jan%202010&num=&view

[38].     For example, in 2006 the ABS changed its definition of ‘long term’. For a discussion of the complexities affecting the reliability of NOM in earlier periods see: P McDonald, S Khoo and R Kippen, Alternative net migration estimates for Australia: exploding the myth of a rapid increase in numbers, Working papers in demography no. 89, ANU, Canberra, 2003, viewed 20 July 2010,  http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/41502/4/89.pdf. For more information on the 2006 changes and its effects on the final NOM estimate see B Birrell and E Healy, ‘Net overseas migration: why is it so high’, People and Place, vol. 18, no. 2, 2010, pp. 56–65.

[39].     DIAC, Settler arrivals 2008–2009, Canberra, 2009, p. 62, viewed 25 May 2010, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/settler-arrivals/settler_arrivals0809.pdf

[40].     Ibid., pp. 62–63.

[41].      B Birrell and E Healy, op. cit. p. 57, 62¬≠–63.

[42].     ABS, ‘Explanatory Notes’, Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2008, cat. no. 3105.0.65.001, Canberra, August, 2008, viewed 27 July 2010, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3105.0.65.001Main
+Features12008?OpenDocument
 

[43].     B York, Australia and refugees 1901–2002: an annotated chronology based on official sources, Parliamentary Library, 2003, viewed 1 June 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/online/Refugees_contents.htm

[44].     Note: ABS (NOM) data on permanent visa holders does not correlate with DIAC data and should be used with caution. For more detail see ABS, Migration Australia, op. cit., p. 31.

[45].     P Ruddock (Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs), 1996–97 Humanitarian Program, media release, Canberra, 3 July 1996; and DIAC, Population flows: immigration aspects, 2006–07, op. cit., p. 69.

[46].     G Hugo, Temporary migration: a new paradigm of international migration, Research note no. 55, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2004, viewed 3 August 2010,  http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/2003-04/04rn55.htm

[47].     ABS, Migration, op. cit., p. 30.

[48].     DIAC, Population Flows: immigration aspects 2007–08, chapter 2, p.22, 2008, viewed 20 July 2010,
http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/popflows2007-08/PopFlows_09_chp2.pdf

[49].     J Phillips, Temporary (long stay) business visas: subclass 457, Research note, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2007, viewed 20 July 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/2006-07/07rn15.pdf

[50].    E Koleth, op. cit. See also ABS, Migration, op. cit., p. 29.

[51].     G. Hugo, A new paradigm of international migration: implications for migration policy and planning for Australia, Research paper no. 10, Parliamentary Library 2003–04, p. 19, viewed 20 July 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/2003-04/04rp10.pdf

[52].     P. McDonald and G. Withers, Population and Australia’s future labour force, 2008, p. 11, viewed 20 July 2010, http://dpl/Books/2008/McDonaldWithers_Population.pdf

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