Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and background

[1]        Fiona Myers, 'New Wodonga saleyards boycotted by processors', Weekly Times, 17 February 2015, www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/cattle/new-wodonga-saleyards-boycotted-by-processors/story-fnkeqfz1-1227222434455 (accessed 17 June 2015).

[2]        Fiona Myers, 2 March 2015, 'Barnawartha sellers call for senate inquiry into processor boycott', Weekly Times, www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/cattle/barnawartha-sellers-call-for-senate-inquiry-into-processor-boycott/story-fnkeqfz1-1227245071396 (accessed 17 June 2015).

[3]        Warwick Long, Nikolai Beilharz and Michael Condon, 'Farming groups want ACCC to investigate meat processors after Wodonga boycott', ABC Rural, 20 February 2015, www.abc.
net.au/news/2015-02-19/accc-meat-industry-investigation-push/6144616
(accessed 20 February 2015).

[4]        Victorian Farmers Federation, Victorian and NSW farmers to gather on processor boycott, 23 February 2015, www.vff.org.au/vff/Media_Centre/Latest_News/MEDIA_2015/
Processor_Boycott.aspx
(accessed 17 June 2015) and Warwick Long, Nikolai Beilharz and Michael Condon, 'Farming groups want ACCC to investigate meat processors after Wodonga boycott', ABC Rural, 20 February 2015.

[5]        Fiona Myers, 2 March 2015, 'Barnawartha sellers call for senate inquiry into processor boycott', Weekly Times, www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/cattle/barnawartha-sellers-call-for-senate-inquiry-into-processor-boycott/story-fnkeqfz1-1227245071396 (accessed 17 June 2015).

[6]        Warwick Long, Nikolai Beilharz and Michael Condon, 'Farming groups want ACCC to investigate meat processors after Wodonga boycott', ABC Rural, 20 February 2015.

[7]        Mr Graham Primmer, Submission 2; Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [3]; Merebene Pastoral Co, Submission 6; Hermit Hill Pastoral Pty Ltd, Submission 7; Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9; Bindaree Beef Australia, Submission 11; Mr Mark Wortmann, Submission 14; Mr Murray and Mrs Debbie Jones, Submission 17; Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19; Mr Shane and Mrs Maree Kennedy, Submission 20; Mr Frank Griffiths, Submission 21; Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22; Australian Beef Association, Submission 23; Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25; Mr David Blum, Submission 26; Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27; Mr Rex and Mrs Trish Forrest, Submission 44; Ms Jan McGuinness, Submission 54 and Mr Pat Larkin, Submission 60, p. 2.

[8]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 1.

[9]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 4 and Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 1.

[10]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 2.

[11]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 71060.0 – Australian Farming in Brief, 2013, Number of Businesses with Agricultural Activity, by Industry 2011–12, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/
abs@.nsf/Lookup/7106.0Main+Features22013
(accessed 22 June 2015).

[12]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 3.

[13]      Australian Meat Processor Corporation, About AMPC, www.ampc.com.au/about-ampc (accessed 21 March 2016).

[14]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 3.

[15]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 3.

[16]      Mrs Jo-Anne Bloomfield, Submission 31, p. 5.

[17]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 3.

[18]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 4.

[19]      Australian Meat Industry Council, Submission 93, p. 32.

[20]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 7.

[21]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, Attachment 1, p. 2.

[22]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 2.

[23]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[24]      Mrs Jo-Anne Bloomfield, Submission 31, p. 5.

[25]      JBS Australia, Submission 50, p. 2.

[26]      Teys Australia operates six beef processing facilities along the eastern seaboard and three feedlots in Jindalee (NSW), Condamine (QLD), and Charlton (VIC). Teys Australia, Facilities, www.teysaust.com.au/facilities/ (accessed 22 September 2015).

[27]      Sue Neales, 'Locals lose the prime cuts', The Australian, 12 March 2015, www.theaustralian.com.au/news/inquirer/locals-lose-the-prime-cuts/story-e6frg6z6-1227259061022 (accessed 22 September 2015).

[28]      Mr David Farley, Submission 35.

[29]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 2 and World Animal Protection, Submission 18, p. 1.

[30]      Australian Lot Feeders' Association, Submission 46, p. 2.

[31]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 2.

[32]      JBS Australia, Submission 50, p. 5.

[33]      Australian Lot Feeders' Association, Submission 46, p. 2.

[34]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [3].

[35]      Mrs Linda Hewitt, Australian Beef Association, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 64.

[36]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[37]      Fletcher International Exports Pty Ltd, Submission 4, p. [4].

[38]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2.

[39]      Mr David Farley, Submission 35, p. 2.

[40]      Competition and Consumer Commission, Examination of the prices paid to farmers for livestock and the prices paid by Australian consumers for red meat. A report to the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, February 2007, p. 6, https://www.accc.gov.au/system/files/Examination%20of%20livestock.pdf (accessed 24 November 2015).

[41]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[42]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6.

[43]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6.

[44]      Shire of Campaspe, Submission 53, p. 2.

[45]      World Animal Protection, Submission 18, p. 2.

[46]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[47]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[48]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 3.

[49]      World Animal Protection, Submission 18, p. 2.

[50]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 3.

[51]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 1.

[52]      Mr Neil Paulet, Submission 42.

[53]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 1.

[54]      Mayor Paul Pisasale, Submission 29, p. 2.

[55]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Examination of the prices paid to farmers for livestock and the prices paid by Australian consumers for red meat. A report to the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, February 2007, p. 18, www.accc.gov.au/
system/files/Examination%20of%20livestock.pdf
(accessed 21 January 2016).

[56]      National Farmers' Federation cited in Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 5.

[57]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6,

[58]      Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [1].

[59]      Mr Shane and Mrs Maree Kennedy, Submission 20.

[60]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, pp 5–6 and Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 18.

[61]      Mr Richard Norton, Meat and Livestock Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 29.

[62]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 8.

[63]      Australian Meat Industry Council, Submission 93, p. 13.

[64]      Australian Meat Industry Council, Submission 93, p. 13.

[65]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [2].

[66]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 2; Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3; Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 3 and Mr Peter McHugh, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 44.

[67]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 2.

Chapter 2

[1]        Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27 and Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 1.

[2]        Alpine Shire, Submission 33.

[3]        Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 1. See also Mr David and Ms Anne Wortmann, Submission 76.

[4]        Regional Infrastructure Pty Limited, Answer to question on notice from 17 November 2015 hearing, received 15 December 2015.

[5]        According to RIPL, Teys Australia had notified the Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association (ALPA) in June 2014 that Teys would not have a buyer attend the new NVLX site if it were to conduct sales on a pre-weigh basis. ALPA then notified Regional Infrastructure Pty Ltd (RIPL) and a number of livestock selling agents of this communication. Regional Infrastructure Pty Limited, Answer to question on notice from 17 November 2015 hearing, received 15 December 2015.

[6]        Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 4.

[7]        Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 1. See also, Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 1.

[8]        Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, Appendix 1 and 2 provide a summary of the ideas, comments and a summary transcript of the meeting which was moderated by the VFF and NSW Farmers.

[9]        JBS Australia, Submission 50, p. 18.

[10]      Regional Infrastructure Pty Limited, Answer to question on notice from 17 November 2015 hearing, received 15 December 2015.

[11]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 3.

[12]      Mr David Larkin, Australian Meat Industry Council, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 2.

[13]      Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 2 and Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3.

[14]      Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 4.

[15]      Mr Derek Schoen, New South Wales Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 4.

[16]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6; Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27 and Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 1.

[17]      Mr Mark Wortmann, Submission 14.

[18]      Mr Laurie Horne, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 40.

[19]      Mrs Suzanne Ryder, Submission 43, p. [1].

[20]      Mr Vin O'Neill, Submission 32.

[21]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [1].

[22]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 13.

[23]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 13.

[24]      Mr Wayne Osborne, Victorian Livestock Exchange Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 17.

[25]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [2].

[26]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [2].

[27]      Mr Mark Wortmann, Submission 14; Mr Frank Griffiths, Submission 21;

[28]      Mr Mark Wortmann, Submission 14 and Mr Shane and Mrs Maree Kennedy, Submission 20

[29]      Mr Andrew Madigan, Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 38.

[30]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6; Mr Murray and Mrs Debbie Jones, Submission 17; Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27; Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 6 and Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 4.

[31]      Mr Stuart Morant, Submission 28.

[32]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 6.

[33]      Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3.

[34]      Mr Stuart Morant, Submission 28.

[35]      Mr David Blum, Submission 26.

[36]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [2].

[37]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [2].

[38]      Merebene Pastoral Co. Pty. Ltd, Submission 6; Mr Rex and Mrs Trish Forrest, Submission 44, p. 2 and Mr David and Ms Anne Wortmann, Submission 76.

[39]      Mr James Neary, Submission 34.

[40]      Mr John Dunn, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 5.

[41]      Councillor Bernard Gaffney, Indigo Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 12.

[42]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 7.

[43]      The committee's experience corroborates with the ACCC's investigation, which was unsuccessful in obtaining evidence of collusion.

[44]      Mr Vin O'Neill, Submission 32, p. 1.

[45]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 10.

[46]      As a case in point, Livestock SA acknowledged the evidence of Mr Tom Hunt who detailed a complaint about fat scores in his submission (Submission 3) despite the 'threat to his own business'. Livestock SA, Submission 81.

[47]      Councillor Bernard Gaffney, Indigo Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 13.

[48]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 3.

[49]      Livestock Saleyards Association of Victoria, Submission 30.

[50]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[51]      NSW Farmers' Association, Submission 92, p. 13.

[52]      Mr Gregory Mirabella, Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 23.

[53]      Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3 and Councillor Bernard Gaffney, Indigo Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 13. 

[54]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'Alleged Barnawartha boycott concerns investigated', Media release, 9 December 2015, www.accc.gov.au/media-release/alleged-barnawartha-boycott-concerns-investigated (accessed 9 December 2015).

[55]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'Alleged Barnawartha boycott concerns investigated', Media release, 9 December 2015. www.accc.gov.au/media-release/alleged-barnawartha-boycott-concerns-investigated (accessed 9 December 2015).

[56]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'Alleged Barnawartha boycott concerns investigated', Media release, 9 December 2015, www.accc.gov.au/media-release/alleged-barnawartha-boycott-concerns-investigated (accessed 9 December 2015).

[57]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'Alleged Barnawartha boycott concerns investigated', Media release, 9 December 2015. www.accc.gov.au/media-release/alleged-barnawartha-boycott-concerns-investigated (accessed 9 December 2015).

[58]      Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 4.

[59]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, pp 22–23.

[60]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, pp 22–23.

[61]      Competition and Consumer Act 2010, section 46.

[62]      Competition and Consumer Act 2010, section 44ZZRF(4).

[63]      Competition and Consumer Act 2010, section 44ZZRF(3).

[64]      Ms Gabrielle Ford, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 22.

[65]      Australian Government the Treasury, Australian Government response to the Competition Policy Review, November 2015, p. 2.

[66]      Australian Government the Treasury, Australian Government response to the Competition Policy Review, November 2015, p. 25.

[67]      Prime Minister of Australia, Joint Press Conference with the Treasurer and Minister for Small Business and Assistant Treasurer, 16 March 2016, www.pm.gov.au/media/2016-03-16/joint-press-conference-treasurer-and-minister-small-business-and-assistant (accessed 21 March 2016). 

[68]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 26.

[69]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 26.

[70]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 4.

[71]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 5.

[72]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 5.

[73]      Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 5.

[74]      Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, pp 4–5.

[75]      Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 7.

[76]      Professor Ian Harper, et al, Competition Policy Review: Final Report, March 2015, p. 9 and Recommendation 29 – Price signalling, p. 60, http://competitionpolicyreview.gov.au/files/
2015/03/Competition-policy-review-report_online.pdf
(accessed 7 March 2016).

[77]      Professor Ian Harper, et al, Competition Policy Review: Final Report, March 2015, p. 60.

[78]      Professor Ian Harper, et al, Competition Policy Review: Final Report, March 2015, p. 370.

[79]      Professor Ian Harper, et al, Competition Policy Review: Final Report, March 2015, p. 369.

[80]      Australian Government the Treasury, Government response to the Competition Policy Review, November 2015, p. 24, www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media
/Publications/2015/Government%20response%20to%20the%20Competition%20Policy%20Review/Downloads/PDF/Govt_response_CPR.ashx
(accessed 4 May 2016).

[81]      Teys Australia, Submission 55, p. 18.

[82]      Mr Peter Hall, Cattle Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 35.

[83]      Mr Greg Chappell, Submission 89, p. 1.

[84]      NSW Farmers' Association, Submission 92, p. 13.

[85]      Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 4.

[86]      Ms Jane Carney, Submission 66

[87]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 13.

[88]      Mr Shahriar Mofakhami, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 24.

[89]      Ms Jane Carney, Submission 66.

[90]      Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 2.

[91]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 10.

[92]      Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, ACCC releases issues paper for cattle and beef market study, 7 April 2016, www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-releases-issues-paper-for-cattle-and-beef-market-study (accessed 11 April 2016).

[93]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 3. Further information about the market study and how to make a submission is at www.accc.gov.au/about-us/information-for/agriculture/cattle-and-beef-market-study.

[94]      Mr Marcus Bezzi, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 18.

[95]      Pastoralists & Graziers Association of Western Australia (Inc), Submission 82, pp 1­– 2; Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Submission 59, pp 8–10.

[96]      Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Submission 59, pp 8–10.

[97]      New South Wales Farmers' Association, Submission 92, p. 14.

[98]      New South Wales Farmers' Association, Submission 92, p. 14.

[99]      Mr John Dunn, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 5.

[100]    Pastoralists & Graziers Association of Western Australia (Inc), Submission 82, p. 2.

[101]    Indigo Shire Council, Submission 94.

[102]    Mr Rod Sims, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 11.

Chapter 3 - Saleyards and price discovery

[1]        Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [2].

[2]        Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 21; Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 8 and Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [1].

[3]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 8.

[4]        Fletcher International Exports Pty Ltd, Submission 4, p. [4].

[5]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 4.

[6]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 4.

[7]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 11. 

[8]        Victorian Livestock Exchange, Submission 49, p. 3. VLE made the point that in parts of northern Australia, farmers produce livestock in volumes that provide them with better bargaining power with meat buyers.

[9]        Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 7.

[10]      Mrs Jane Carney, Submission 66, p. [3].

[11]      Rockhampton Regional Council, Submission 36.

[12]      Mr Robert Reid and Mr Jason Reid, Submission 38.

[13]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 6.

[14]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, pp 2–3.

[15]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 3.

[16]      Mr Robert Reid and Mr Jason Reid, Submission 38.

[17]      Livestock Saleyards Association of Victoria, Submission 30.

[18]      Livestock Saleyards Association of Victoria, Submission 30.

[19]      Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 7.

[20]      Teys Australia, Submission 55, p. 2.

[21]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 9.

[22]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 9.

[23]      Mayor Bill Ludwig, Livingstone Shire Council, Submission 58, p. [2]; Mr Newman and Mrs Shirley Patmore, Submission 64, p. 2. Mrs Jane Carney stated that her selling costs amount to approximately 9.5 per cent of the sale price, after the cost of production, Submission 66, p. [3].

[24]      Capricorn Enterprise, Submission 52, p. 2.

[25]      Mr Richard Wilson, Submission 56, p. [2].

[26]      Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 28.

[27]      AgForce Queensland, Submission 85, p. 2.

[28]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 7.

[29]      Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3.

[30]      Victorian Livestock Exchange, Submission 49, p. 1.

[31]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 5.

[32]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [2].

[33]      Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27.

[34]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3 and Mr Max and Ms Pamela McKimmie, Submission 67, p. 2.

[35]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[36]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[37]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[38]      Mr Ian Feldtmann, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 30.

[39]      Dressing percentage refers to the carcass weight after trimming of fat as a proportion of liveweight.

[40]      Victorian Livestock Exchange, Submission 49, p. 7.

[41]      Mr Wayne Osborne, Victorian Livestock Exchange, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 16.

[42]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 2.

[43]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 2.

[44]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [3]; Mr Eddie and Mrs Jan Hooper, Submission 16; Mr James Neary, Submission 34 and Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 4.

[45]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 4.

[46]      Mr David Blum, Submission 26

[47]      Mr James Neary, Submission 34.

[48]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [3]

[49]      Mr Stuart Morant, Submission 28.

[50]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [1].

[51]      Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [1].

[52]      Mr Eddie and Mrs Jan Hooper, Submission 16.

[53]      Mr Eddie and Mrs Jan Hooper, Submission 16.

[54]      Mr Eddie and Mrs Jan Hooper, Submission 16.

[55]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 4.

[56]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [3].

[57]      Mr Rod Mitchell, Submission 57 and Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27.

[58]      Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 2.

[59]      Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27.

[60]      Mr James Neary, Submission 34; Mr Rex and Mrs Trish Forrest, Submission 44, p. 2; Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 3 and Mrs Jane Carney, Submission 66, p. [2].

[61]      Mr Eddie and Mrs Jan Hooper, Submission 16; Mr James Neary, Submission 34; Victorian Farmers Federation Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 5 and Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[62]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 3.

[63]      Animal Health Australia, Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines - Livestock at Saleyards and Depots, Saleyard Welfare Standards, Edition One, Version One, 21 December 2015, p. 48.

[64]      Animal Health Australia, Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines - Livestock at Saleyards and Depots, Saleyard Welfare Standards, Edition One, Version One, 21 December 2015, p. 30.

[65]      Animal Health Australia, Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines - Livestock at Saleyards and Depots, Saleyard Welfare Standards, Edition One, Version One, 21 December 2015, p. 31.

[66]      Mr Derek Schoen NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3.

[67]      Mr Norman Sharp, Submission 27 and Mr Stuart Morant, Submission 28.

[68]      Mr Don Nevin, Submission 47.

[69]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [3]

[70]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[71]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[72]      Mr Pat Larkin, Submission 60, p. 2.

[73]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 7.

[74]      Australian Meat Industry Council, Submission 93, p. 30.

[75]      Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 3; Victorian Livestock Exchange, Submission 49, p. 3 and Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 7.

[76]      Ms Ford, ACCC, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 12.

[77]      Victorian Livestock Exchange, Submission 49, p. 3.

[78]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 12.

[79]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 12.

[80]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2; Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 6 and Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 3.

[81]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 9 and Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 16.

[82]      Mr Wayne Osborne, Victorian Livestock Exchange, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 18.

[83]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 21.

[84]      Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 8.

[85]      Mr Newman and Mrs Shirley Patmore, Submission 64, p. 1.

[86]      Mr Max and Ms Pamela McKimmie, Submission 67, p. 1.

[87]      Ms Loretta Carroll, Submission 63, p. 2.

[88]      Mr Julian Carroll, Submission 48, p. 3.

[89]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2 and Mr David and Ms Anne Wortmann, Submission 76

[90]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2.

[91]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 6.

[92]      Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2.

[93]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Wangaratta Branch, Submission 45, p. 2.

[94]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[95]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3 and Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 17. 

[96]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 9.

[97]      Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [2].

[98]      Mr Shahriar Mofakhami, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 30.

[99]      Mr David Picker, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 25.

[100]    Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[101]    Mr David Hill, DL & EM Hill, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 18.

[102]    Mr Roger McDowell, Submission 61, p. 2.

[103]    Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [3].

[104]    Mr Craig Cross, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 10.

[105]    AuctionsPlus, Submission 65, p. [3].

[106]    Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee, Industry structures and systems governing levies on grass-fed cattle, September 2014, pp 73–74.

[107]    Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee, Industry structures and systems governing levies on grass-fed cattle, September 2014, Recommendation 7, p. 86.

[108]    Mr Andrew Norton, Meat and Livestock Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 29.

[109]    Mr Andrew Norton, Meat and Livestock Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 November 2015, p. 29.

[110]    Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, Attachment 1; Mr David Hill, Submission 86, p. [5] and Mudgegonga and District Landcare Group Inc, Submission 88, p. 3.

Chapter 4

[1]        Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 6.

[2]        Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 3.

[3]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 11.

[4]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 10.

[5]        Teys Australia, Submission 55, pp 6 and 11.

[6]        Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [3].

[7]        Teys Australia, Submission 55, p. 11.

[8]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 4.

[9]        Teys Australia, Submission 55, p. 11. 

[10]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[11]      Mr Newman and Mrs Shirley Patmore, Submission 64, p. 2.

[12]      Mr Richard Wilson, Submission 56, p. 1.

[13]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 3.

[14]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, pp 3–4.

[15]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 10.

[16]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 5.

[17]      Mr David Farley, Submission 35, p. 3.

[18]      Mr Howard Smith, Cattle Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 48.

[19]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 16. 

[20]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 16. 

[21]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 5.

[22]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 4.

[23]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 13.

[24]      Australian Meat Industry Council, Submission 93, p. 17.

[25]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 13.

[26]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, pp 8–9.

[27]      Mr David Hill, Submission 96, p. [7] and Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 9.

[28]      Mr Andrew Hunter, Submission 75, p. [1] and Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 9.

[29]      Mr Andrew Hunter, Submission 75, p. [1].

[30]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, pp 8–9.

[31]      Mr James Maclean, Allied Beef, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 59.

[32]      Competition and Consumer Commission, Examination of the prices paid to farmers for livestock and the prices paid by Australian consumers for red meat. A report to the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, February 2007, p. 8, www.accc.gov.au/system/files/
Examination%20of%20livestock.pdf
(accessed 24 November 2015).

[33]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 6.

[34]      Mrs Josie Angus, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 17.

[35]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 3.

[36]      Gulf Cattlemen's Association, Submission 41, p. 4.

[37]      Mr P.J. McHugh, Submission 73, Attachment 2, p. [2]. See also Mr Craig Cross, personal capacity, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 9.

[38]      Mr Peter Kennedy, Gulf Cattleman's Association, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 12.

[39]      Mr P.J. McHugh, Submission 73, Attachment 2, p. [2] and Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 4.

[40]      Mr P.J. McHugh, Submission 73, Attachment 2, p. [2] and Mr Craig Cross, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 11.

[41]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 17.

[42]      Mr Gary Warren, Submission 24, p. 3.

[43]      Mrs Jo-Anne Bloomfield, Submission 31, p. 7.

[44]      Mr Tom Hunt, Submission 3;

[45]      Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [3].

[46]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 7.

[47]      Mr Stephen Kelly, Australian Meat Processor Corporation, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 32.

[48]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 4.

[49]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 61.

[50]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 22.

[51]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 6.

[52]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 6.

[53]      Mr Ian McCamley, Submission 90, p. [3].

[54]      Mr Robert Atkinson, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, pp 8–9.

[55]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [8].

[56]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 5.

[57]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 13.

[58]      Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 5.

[59]      Mrs Jo-Anne Bloomfield, Submission 31, p. 6.

[60]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 17.

[61]      Mrs Josie Angus, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 18.

[62]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 17.

[63]      Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 6.

[64]      The committee was informed that in northern Australia, such as Townsville, bookings can be three and four months out from the kill. Mr Robert Atkinson, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, pp 6–7.

[65]      Mr Gary Warren, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, pp 6–7 and Mr Robert Atkinson, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, pp 6–7.

[66]      While a booking is made weeks or even months in advance, processors will usually put out a grid on a Friday night for the following week. In effect, producers are given the price a week before the kill and therefore just prior to loading.

[67]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [2].

[68]      Mr Gary Warren, personal capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 7.

[69]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 17.

[70]      Mr John Berry, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 17.

[71]      Mr John Berry, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 17.

[72]      Mr Brent Eastwood, JBS Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 18.

[73]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [3].

[74]      Hermit Hill Pastoral Pty Ltd, Submission 7.

[75]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 9.

[76]      Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 6.

[77]      Mr Shahriar Mofakhami, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 22. 

[78]      Mr Shahriar Mofakhami, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 25.

[79]      Mr Mark Richie, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 26.

[80]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 9.

[81]      Mr Thomas Maguire, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 5.

[82]      Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 11.

[83]      AuctionsPlus, Submission 65, p. [1].

[84]      Victorian Farmers Federation – Ovens Valley Branch, Submission 62, p. 5.

[85]      Mr Andrew Hunter, Submission 75, pp [2–3].

[86]      Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [2].

[87]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 5.

[88]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 6.

[89]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 8.

[90]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 10.

[91]      Mr Mark Ritchie, Victorian Farmers Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 26.

[92]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 13.

[93]      Shire of Campaspe, Submission 53, p. 2.

[94]      Shire of Campaspe, Submission 53, p. 2.

[95]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 8.

[96]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 8.

[97]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 8.

[98]      Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [3].

[99]      Nanthes' Park British White Cattle Stud, Submission 19, p. [3].

[100]    Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [3].

[101]    Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 2.

[102]    Mr Peter Kennedy, Gulf Cattleman's Association, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 16.

[103]    Mr Richard Wilson, Submission 56, p. [2].

[104]    Mr Rob Atkinson, Submission 22, p. [2].

[105]    Mr Peter Gregory, Submission 10

[106]    Department of Industry and Science, Submission 39, p. 4.

[107]    Mr Alexander MacLachlan, Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 74

[108]    Mrs Jo-Anne Bloomfield, Submission 31, p. 4.

Chapter 5 - Grading systems and regulatory environment

[1]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[2]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[3]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[4]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[5]        Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 4.

[6]        Mr Ashley Sweeting, Submission 1, p. 7.

[7]        Mr Gary Warren, Submission 24, p. 3.

[8]        Mr Gary Warren, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 9 and Mr David Hill, Submission 86, p. [6].

[9]        Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 15.

[10]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83.

[11]      Teys Australia, Submission 55, p. 16.

[12]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 2.

[13]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 4.

[14]      Mr Neil Paulet, Submission 42.

[15]      Mr David and Ms Anne Wortmann, Submission 76.

[16]      Mr Neil Paulet, Submission 42.

[17]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 5.

[18]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 1.

[19]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 4.

[20]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 2.

[21]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 1.

[22]      Mr Gary Warren, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 9.

[23]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 2.

[24]      Meat and Livestock Australia, MSA requirements for handling cattle, www.mla.com.au/Mark
eting-beef-and-lamb/Meat-Standards-Australia/MSA-beef/Supplying
(accessed 24 June 2015).

[25]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 3.

[26]      Hot standard carcase weight or HSCW often describes the weight of an animal sold over the hooks, Meat and Livestock Australia, Glossary, www.mla.com.au/general/glossary (accessed 4 May 2016).

[27]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 4.

[28]      Agriculture Victoria, Selling and Marketing, Beef Cattle, http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/beef/selling-and-marketing/beef-cattle (accessed 18 April 2016).

[29]      Mr Ian McCamley, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 18.

[30]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13, Gulf Cattleman's Association, Submission 41, p. 4 and Mr Blair Angus, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 22.

[31]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 18.

[32]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [7].

[33]      Mrs Josie Angus, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, pp 24–25.

[34]      Livestock SA, Submission 81, p. 1.

[35]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13.

[36]      Mrs Linda Hewitt, Australian Beef Association, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 67.

[37]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13.

[38]      Mr Blair and Mrs Josie Angus, Submission 80, p. [3] and Mr Ian McCamley, Submission 90, p. [3].

[39]      Mr David Hill, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 24.

[40]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 56.

[41]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 62.

[42]      Red Meat Industry Memorandum of Agreement, Clause 4.2(d), 2009.

[43]      Mr David Hill, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 23.

[44]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 61.

[45]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 61.

[46]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 61.

[47]      Mr Howard Smith, Cattle Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 47.

[48]      Mr Blair Angus, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 17.

[49]      Mr Gregory Chappell, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 48.

[50]      Victorian Farmers Federation, Submission 87, p. 18.

[51]      Mr John Dunn, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 5.

[52]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 58.

[53]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13.

[54]      Mr Ian McCamley, Submission 90, p. [3].

[55]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13.

[56]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 13.

[57]      Mrs Maureen Cottam, Submission 25, p. 5.

[58]      Mr Stephen Kelly, Australian Meat Processor Corporation, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 35.

[59]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 58.

[60]      Mr Ian King, Aus-Meat, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 59.

[61]      Mr Ian McCamley, Submission 90, p. [3].

[62]      Mr John Carpenter, Submission 9, p. 5.

[63]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 14.

[64]      Australian Beef Association, Submission 23, p. 16.

[65]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 8.

[66]      Mr David Hill, Submission 86, p. [4].

[67]      Mr Ian McCamley, Submission 90, p. [2].

[68]      Mr David Hill, Submission 86, p. [5].

[69]      Mr Howard Smith, Cattle Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 48.

[70]      Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83, p. 8.

[71]      Beef Language White Paper Consortium, Australian Beef Language White Paper – Final Draft, January 2016, p. 28.

[72]      Amy McCosker, 'Meat and Livestock Australia welcomes $4.8m to research x-ray and infrared technology measuring meat quality', ABC Rural, 14 April 2016, www.abc.net.au/news/2016-04-14/nrn-barnaby-beef-research/7327194?WT.mc_id=newsmail (accessed 18 April 2016).

[73]      Australian Livestock and Property Agents Association, Submission 79, p. 9.

[74]      Sheepmeat Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 7.

[75]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 39, p. 5.

[76]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 39, p. 5.

[77]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 39, p. 5.

[78]      Mr David Evans, Submission 15, p. [4].

Chapter 6

[1]        Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 1.

[2]        Cattle Council of Australia, Submission 83; AgForce Queensland, Submission 85.

[3]        Mr Bradley Teys, Teys Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 August 2015, p. 8 and Mr David Warriner, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 33.

[4]        Department of Agriculture, Submission 74, p. 13.

[5]        Mr John Buxton, Submission 5, p. [2].

[6]        Mr Derek Schoen, NSW Farmers' Federation, Committee Hansard, 2 September 2015, p. 6.

[7]        Mr Peter Kennedy, Gulf Cattleman's Association, Committee Hansard, 4 August 2015, p. 15.

[8]        Beef Language White Paper Consortium, Australian Beef Language White Paper—Final Draft, January 2016.

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