Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and background

[1]        Journals of the Senate No. 90, 26 March 2015, pp 2466–2467.

[2]        Journals of the Senate No. 95, 15 June 2015, p. 2630.

[3]        Journals of the Senate No. 95, 15 June 2015, p. 2644.

[4]        Select Committee on Recent Allegations relating to Conditions and Circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, Interim report, 12 June 2015, p. 1.

[5]        Select Committee on Recent Allegations relating to Conditions and Circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, Interim report, 12 June 2015, p. 2.

[6]        The Government of the Republic of Nauru, www.naurugov.nr (accessed 27 May 2015).

[7]        Nauru Courts System Information, http://www.paclii.org/nr/courts.html (accessed 27 May 2015).

[8]        ABC Radio National, 'How Nauru threw it all away', 11 March 2014, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/rearvision/how-nauru-threw-it-all-away/5312714 (accessed 19 May 2015).

[9]        See, for example, CIA World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nr.html (accessed 19 May 2015); Asian Development Bank, http://www.adb.org/countries/nauru/main (accessed 19 May 2015).

[11]      Asian Development Bank, http://www.adb.org/countries/nauru/economy (accessed 19 May 2015)

[12]      Janet Phillips, 'The "Pacific Solution" revisited: a statistical guide to the asylum seeker caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island', Parliamentary Library, Background Note, 4 September 2012, pp 2-3.

[13]      Janet Phillips, 'The "Pacific Solution" revisited: a statistical guide to the asylum seeker caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island', Parliamentary Library, Background Note, 4 September 2012, pp 12, 14.

[14]      Janet Phillips, 'The "Pacific Solution" revisited: a statistical guide to the asylum seeker caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island', Parliamentary Library, Background Notes, 4 September 2012, pp 4-5.

[15]      Janet Phillips and Harriet Spinks, 'Immigration Detention in Australia', Parliamentary Library, Background Note, 20 March 2013, p. 11.

[16]      Australian Government, Report of the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, August 2012, terms of reference, p. 9.

[17]      Australian Government, Report of the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, August 2012, terms of reference, p. 16 (original emphasis).

[18]      Australian Government, Report of the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, August 2012, terms of reference, p. 47.

[19]      Australian Government, Report of the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, August 2012, terms of reference, p. 48.

[20]      Elibritt Karlsen & Janet Phillips, 'Developments in Australian refugee law and policy (2012 to August 2013)', Parliamentary Library Research Paper Series, 25 September 2014, pp 4-5.

[21]      Elibritt Karlsen & Janet Phillips, 'Developments in Australian refugee law and policy (2012 to August 2013)', Parliamentary Library Research Paper Series, 25 September 2014, p. 7.

[22]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 43.

[23]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 10 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[24]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 10 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[25]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 7 May 2015 (received 13 May 2015).

[26]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[27]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 30 June 2015).

[28]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 33.

[29]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 35.

[30]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: June 2015, 10 July 2015, at http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-june (accessed 15 July 2015).

[31]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, pp 55–56.

[32]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: June 2015, 10 July 2015, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-june (accessed 15 July 2015).

[33]      'First refugees from Nauru detention centre arrive in Cambodia', ABC Online, 4 June 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-06-04/refugees-from-nauru-detention-centre-arrive-in-cambodia/6521972  (accessed 4 June 2015).

[34]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 4.

[35]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 11.

[36]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 12.

[37]      Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014. Tabled in the Senate on 11 February 2015: Journals of the Senate No. 77, 11 February 2015, p. 2148.

[38]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015.

Chapter 2 - Obligations and performance of the Commonwealth in relation to the Nauru Regional Processing Centre

[1]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 4.

[2]        Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 43.

[3]        Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 93.

[4]        Professor William Maley, Submission 10, p. 4.

[5]        See ChilOut, Submission 13; Immigration Advice & Rights Centre, Submission 17; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18; UNHCR, Submission 19; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25; Law Society of South Australia, Submission 34; Law Society of New South Wales, Submission 35; Law Council of Australia, Submission 57; Human Rights Law Centre and UNICEF Australia, Submission 58; Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Submission 60.

[6]        Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Submission 60, p. 10.

[7]        Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 1.

[8]        Law Council of Australia, Submission 57, p. 9.

[9]        Human Rights Law Centre and UNICEF Australia, Submission 58, p. 6.

[10]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 3; Law Council of Australia, Submission 25, p. 14.

[11]      Mr Geoffrey Eames, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 69-70.

[12]      Mr Geoffrey Eames, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 72.

[13]      Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951, and Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967.

[14]      UNHCR, Submission 19, p. 4.

[15]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 2.

[16]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014, December 2014, p. 151.

[17]      Immigration Advice & Rights Centre, Submission 17, p. 7; Law Society of New South Wales, Submission 35, p. 3.

[18]      Migration Amendment (Regional Processing Arrangements) Bill 2015, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 10.

[19]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 57, p. 7.

[20]      Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia relating to the Transfer to and Assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 3 August 2013, clause 4; cited in Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 14; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, pp 2-3.

[21]      Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 12.

[22]      Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 14.

[23]      See Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, A report on visits to immigration detention centres, June 2001, pp 94-95 and Appendix H. Cited in Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 3 and footnote 2; Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 15.

[24]      SBEG v Commonwealth of Australia [2012] FCAFC 189, cited in Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, p. 30.

[25]      S v Secretary, Department of Immigration Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs [2005] FCA 549, at 213; cited in Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, p. 34.

[26]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14; Mr Max Costello & Ms Paddy McCorry, Submission 26.

[27]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Annual Report 2013-14, September 2014, p. 280.

[28]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, p. 39 and attachment ('Document 1').

[29]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, pp 40-41; Mr Max Costello and Ms Paddy McCorry, Submission 26, p. 11.

[30]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, pp 43-44 and attachment ('Document 2').

[31]      Mr Max Costello and Ms Paddy McCorry, Submission 26, p. 35.

[32]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, p. 6.

[33]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 14, p. 42.

[34]      Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia relating to the Transfer to and Assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 3 August 2013.

[35]      Law Students for Refugees, Submission 23, p. 2.

[36]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 25, p. 10.

[37]      Mr Peter Law, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 15.

[38]      Mr Geoffrey Eames, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 73.

[39]      See Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 24.

[40]      Mr Lee Gordon, Head of Nauru Programs, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 53.

[41]      Mr Michael Pezzullo and Ms Cindy Briscoe, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 45.

[42]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice of 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[43]      The Hon Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 6.

[44]      Mr Peter Law, Submission 28, p. 2.

[45]      Mr Peter Law, Submission 28, pp 1-2.

[46]      The Hon Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 8.

[47]      The Hon Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 1, 2, 3-4.

[48]      The Hon Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 6.

[49]      Mr Peter Law, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 18.

[50]      Professor William Maley, Submission 10, p. 4.

[51]      New Zealand House of Representatives, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), Uncorrected Daily, Volume 706, Week 21, 2 July 2015, p. 5059.

[52]      'Australia seeks update on prosecution of Nauru opposition MPs from visiting president, Julie Bishop says', ABC Online, 10 July 2015.

[53]      'Foreign minister Julie Bishop "seeks assurances" from president Baron Waqa that Nauru adhering to rule of law', ABC Online, 11 July 2015.

[54]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 26; Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[55]      This issue is discussed at paragraph 4.85.

[56]      This issue is discussed at paragraph 4.52.

[57]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[58]      Ms Angela Williams, Commercial, Strategy and Systems Director, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 5-6.

[59]      Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 2 June 2015).

[60]      Submission 62, pp 2-4.

[61]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 62, p. 5.

[62]      Submission 62, p. 3; Mr Jon Nichols, Submission 95, p. 1.

[63]      Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 2.

[64]      Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 18.

[65]      Submission 69, p. 3.

[66]      Submission 82, p. 6.

[67]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 7.

[68]      Submission 81, pp [12, 14].

[69]      Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 1.

[70]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, p. 3.

[71]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, pp 7-8.

[72]      Mr Mark Isaacs, Submission 67, p. 4.

[73]      Ms Samantha Betts, Submission 85, p. 2.

[74]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 85, p. 10.

[75]      See Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 21; Submission 84, pp 2-3.

[76]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 84, p. 1.

[77]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 27. See also Submission 63.

[78]      Submission 83, p. 4.

[79]      See Submission 83, p. 5; Mr James Harris, Submission 93, p. 7; Submission 94, p. 12.

[80]      Submission 94, p. 7.

[81]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 94, p. 2.

[82]      Submission 62, p. 2.

[83]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 62, p. 4.

[84]      Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager, Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 42.

[85]      'Spying and abuse described by Nauru detention centre's former staff', 7.30, http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2015/s4293119.htm  (accessed 14 August 2015).

[86]      Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015); Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

[87]      Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager, Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 33.

[88]      Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 34.

[89]      Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

[90]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

[91]      This issue is discussed at paragraph 5.32.

[92]      Submission 71, p. 1.

[93]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 71, p. 1.

[94]      Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 19.

[95]      Wilson Security, response to Supplementary Submission 71, p. 2.

[96]      Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015)

[97]      Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 39.

[98]      Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 38.

[99]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 38.

[100]    Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

[101]    This issue is discussed at paragraph 5.33.

[102]    Submission 94, pp 7-8.

[103]    Professor David Isaacs, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 39.

[104]    Mr Mark Isaacs, Submission 67, p. 1.

[105]    Mr James Harris, Submission 93, p. 3.

[106]    Mr Mark Isaacs, Submission 67, p. 3.

[107]    Submission 69, p. 1.

[108]    Submission 69, pp 2-3. See also Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 4.

[109]    Transfield Services, response to Submission 69, pp 2-3; The Salvation Army, response to Submission 69, p. 1; Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 69, p. 2.

[110]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 1.

[111]    Submission 84, p. 5.

[112]    Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, pp 14-16.

[113]    Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. 16.

[114]    Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

[115]    Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 34.

[116]    Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. (5).

[117]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 1.

[118]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 15.

[119]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 55.

[120]    Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 47.

[121]    Wilson Security, response to Submission 83, p. 10.

[122]    Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. 6.

[123]    See Wilson Security, Submission 21, pp 5-8; Transfield Services, Submission 29, pp 9-15.

[124]    Ms Erin O'Sullivan, Commercial and Strategy Manager, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 31.

[125]    Ms Angela Williams, Commercial, Strategy and Systems Director, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 7.

[126]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice (BE15/023) from Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee Budget Estimates, 25 May 2015 (received 16 July 2015).

[127]    Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 2 June 2015).

[128]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[129]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations, Logistics, Construction and Consulting, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 14.

[130]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations, Logistics, Construction and Consulting, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 15.

[131]    Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager, Southern Pacific, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 32.

[132]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015), Annexure 1.

[133]    Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 29.

[134]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015), Annexure 1.

[135]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015), Annexure 1.

[136]    Transfield Services, Submission 29, p. 4.

[137]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations, Logistics, Construction and Consulting, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 5.

[138]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[139]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations, Logistics, Construction and Consulting, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 4, 23.

[140]    Prior to 21 February 2014, the complaints management framework was managed by the Salvation Army. Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[141]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[142]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[143]    Ms Angela Williams, Commercial, Strategy and Systems Director, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 18-19.

[144]    Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 6.

[145]    Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 53.

[146]    Wilson Security, response to Submission 79, pp 2-3.

[147]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 2.

[148]    Mr Derek Osborn, Executive General Manager Logistics and Facilities Management, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 15.

[149]    Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, pp 28-29.

[150]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 55.

[151]    Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 46.

[152]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 68.

[153]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 29.

[154]    Submission 62.

[155]    Submission 62, p. 1.

[156]    Wilson Security, response to Submission 62, pp 1-2.

[157]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 26 June 2015).

[158]    'Hanson-Young wasn't spied on, Dutton says', Sky News, 5 June 2015, http://www.skynews.com.au/news/politics/national/2015/06/05/hanson-young-wasn-t-spied-on--dutton-says.html (accessed 12 July 2015).

[159]    'Abbott Response 'Creepy' As More Evidence Emerges Nauru Contractors Spied on Sarah Hanson-Young', New Matilda, 5 June 2015,  https://newmatilda.com/2015/06/05/abbott-response-creepy-more-evidence-emerges-nauru-contractors-spied-sarah-hanson-young#sthash.0pRBt2RI.dpuf (accessed 12 July 2015).

[160]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 26 June 2015).

[161]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 26 June 2015).

[162]    Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Infrastructure and Services Division, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 52.

[163]    Wilson Security, answer to questions on notice, 10 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[164]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 54.

[165]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 63.

[166]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 64.

[167]    Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 84.

[168]    Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Infrastructure and Services Division, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 86.

[169]    Mr Jon Nichols, Submission 95, p. 2.

[170]    Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 6.

[171]    Submission 99, p. 1.

[172]    Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia relating to the Transfer to and Assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 3 August 2013, clause 9.

[173]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 6. The first asylum seekers to be transferred to the Regional Processing Centre were single adult males, with familes and single adult females transferred from 21 August 2013.

[174]    Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 6.

[175]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 4. See also: Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1, p. 11.

[176]    Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 3.

[177]    Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 3.

[178]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 29 June 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[179]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 4.

[180]    DASSAN, Submission 61, Attachment 1, p. 4.

[181]    RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 10.

[182]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 9.

[183]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[184]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p.12.

[185]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p.52.

[186]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 7.

[187]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 52.

[188]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 7 May 2015 (received 13 May 2015).

[189]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[190]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: June 2015, 10 July 2015, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-june (accessed 15 July 2015).

[191]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p.53.

[192]    Amnesty International, Submission 33, p. 7.

[193]    Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, pp 28-29.

[194]    Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia relating to the Transfer to and Assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 3 August 2013, clauses 12-14.

[195]    Submission 82, p. 8.

[196]    Submission 82, pp 7-8.

[197]    Submission 82, p. 8.

[198]    ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 6.

[199]    Submission 80, p. 4.

[200]    Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia relating to the Transfer to and Assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 3 August 2013, clause 6.

[201]    Reporting period is Year to Date to 30 April 2015.

[202]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[203]    AusTender, Senate Order on Confidentiality in Procurement Contracts by Agency, https://www.tenders.gov.au/?event=public.senateOrder.list (accessed 27 May 2015).

[204]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 23 February 2015 (received 21 April 2015).

[205]    Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. 13.

[206]    The Hon Peter Dutton, MP, Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, 'Nauru visit reaffirms regional processing partnership', Media release, 19 February 2015.

[207]    Government of Nauru, 'Nauru commences open centre arrangements', Media release, 25 February 2015.

[208]    Government of Nauru, 'Nauru commences open centre arrangements', Media release, 25 February 2015.

[209]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.1.

[210]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.v.

[211]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.4.

[212]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.4.

[213]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.4.

[214]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, pp  4-5.

[215]    Public Works Committee Act 1969, s18(9)(a).

[216]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.6.

[217]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.8.

[218]    Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Procedure Manual-Edition 8, March 2010, p.8.

[219]    Senator Dean Smith, Chair, Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, letter to Senator Alex Gallacher, Chair, Select Committee on Recent Allegations relating to Conditions and Circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 11 June 2015.

[220]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 65.

[221]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 26 June 2015).

[222]    Mr Daniel Sloper, First Assistant Secretary, Pacific Division, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Committee Hansard, 3 June 2015, p. 52.

[223]    Select Committee on Recent Allegations relating to Conditions and Circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, Interim Report, 12 June 2015.

Chapter 3 - Living conditions at the Regional Processing Centre on Nauru

[1]        Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 43.

[2]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015, (received 5 June 2015).

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015, (received 5 June 2015).

[4]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015, (received 5 June 2015).

[5]        This issue is discussed at paragraph 5.11.

[6]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 27 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[7]        Mrs Munnings, Mr Osborn, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, pp 9-10.

[8]        Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 28 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[9]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice of 29 June 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[10]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 33. These facilities were noted in Chapter 1.

[11]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[12]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 33.

[13]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, pp 33-34.

[14]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 34.

[15]      Submission 82, p. 3.

[16]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 4.

[17]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[18]      NetAct, Submission 20, p. 3; Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 3; Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1; Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, p. 6; RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 5; Submission 80, p. 3; Submission 85, p. 1.

[19]      Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1.

[20]      ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 4; Mr Lee Gordon, Head of Nauru Programs, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 52.

[21]      Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, p. 4.

[22]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4; Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1, Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, p. 4; RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 5; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 2.

[23]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, p. 12.

[24]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015). In a response to a submission, Transfield Services drew to the attention of the committee the implementation of a mosquito eradication program and Vector Emergency Response plan which would be initiated in the event of an outbreak of a mosquito-borne disease. Transfield Services, response to Submission 85, pp 6-7.

[25]      ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 4; Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1, RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 5.

[26]      RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 5.

[27]      Mr Lee Gordon, Head of Nauru Programs, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 51.

[28]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, pp 26-27.

[29]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[30]      For the presence of mould, see: Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11; p. 1; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 31; Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 2; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 2; Submission 82, p. 3. For submissions linking mould with infection, see: Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 3;  Submission 81, p. 3.

[31]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Supplementary Submission 63.1, p. 14.

[32]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[33]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015); Ms Cindy Briscoe, Deputy Secretary, Immigration Status Resolution Group, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 51.

[34]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[35]      Mr Derek Osborn, Executive General Manager, Logistics and Facilities Management, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 21.

[36]      ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 8; Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 5; Australian Christian Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, p. 1; Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61; Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 2; Submission 81, p. 2; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 10.

[37]      Ministry for Commerce, Industry and Environment, Water and Sanitation in Nauru – Overview, http://nauruenv.appspot.com/water-unit/watsan (accessed 7 May 2015).

[38]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 33.

[39]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 34.

[40]      Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1, p. 11; Submission 80, p. 10.

[41]      Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 31, Attachment 1, pp 8-9; Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, p. 6;

[42]      Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, p. 3.

[43]      Ms Cindy Briscoe, Deputy Secretary, Immigration Status Resolution Group, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 50.

[44]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 5; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 10. The Moss Review related evidence that bottled water was no longer available in an attempt to prevent alcohol being brought inside the RPC. Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 43, fn 93.

[45]      Mrs Kylie Scholten, Acting Assistant Secretary, Offshore Operations Branch, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 50.

[46]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 43.

[47]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 27.

[48]      UNHCR, Submission 19, p. 4; Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 3; Submission 39, p. 1; Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, p. 6; Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 2; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 2. The Moss Review noted that children may be able to observe adult sexual activity owing to the lack of privacy, which may have resulted in the sexualied behaviour of children. Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 44.

[49]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 30.

[50]      Submission 81, p. 3.

[51]      The Moss Review made a recommendation around the need for a greater focus on privacy:

'RECOMMENDATION 1: The Department and the Nauruan Government take into account the personal safety and privacy of transferees when making decisions about facilities and infrastructure at the Centre.' Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 9.

[52]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 85, p. 3.

[53]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[54]      Ms Cindy Briscoe, Deputy Secretary, Immigration Status Resolution Group, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 51.

[55]      Transfield Services, Submission 29, p. 8.

[56]      Submission 38, p. 1; Submission 80, p. 10.

[57]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 35. Save the Children Australia advised the committee that they did not agree with the assessment that the provision of goods was a low priority. Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 63, p. 9.

[58]      Transfield Services, Submission 29, Attachment 2, p. 5.

[59]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4; Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 24; Submission 38, p. 1; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 26; Submission 81, pp 2-3; Submission 82, p. 7; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, pp 8-9.

[60]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 5.

[61]      The Salvation Army, response to Submission 69, p. 1.

[62]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 69, p. 7.

[63]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 63, p. 12.

[64]      Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 63, p. 8.

[65]      Save the Children Australia, answer to question on notice, 3 July 2015 (received 9 July 2015).

[66]      Save the Children Australia, answer to question on notice, 3 July 2015 (received 9 July 2015).

[67]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015, (received 5 June 2015).

[68]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 3 July 2015 (received 13 August 2015).

[69]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 85, p. 6.

[70]      Submission 38, p. 1.

[71]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 3 July 2015 (received 13 August 2015).

[72]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 6.

[73]      Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 57-58.

[74]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 9.

[75]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 10.

[76]      Ms Samantha Betts, Submission 85, p. 2.

[77]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 85, p. 9.

[78]      Submission 81, p. 2; Submission 83, p. 5.

[79]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4.

[80]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 84, p. 3.

[81]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 12.

[82]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 10.

[83]      Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, p. 1; Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, pp 1-2; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 4; Submission 80, p. 10; Submission 82, p. 7; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 7.

[84]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 4.

[85]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 3; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 19.

[86]      Submission 82, p. 7; Submission 84, p. 2.

[87]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 84, p. 4.

[88]      Submission 82, p. 7.

[89]      Submission 84, pp 1-2.

[90]      Submission 84, p. 1.

[91]      Transfield Services, Submission 29, p. 5.

[92]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 84, p. 4.

[93]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 26 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[94]      Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 43.         

[95]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 33.

[96]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 39.

[97]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 40.

[98]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 19.

[99]      Mr Lee Gordon, Head of Nauru Programs, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 56.

[100]    ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 4.

[101]    Paul Farrell, 'Nauru plan to move asylum seeker children to local schools sparks concern', The Guardian Australia, 30 June 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/jun/30/nauru-plan-to-move-asylum-seeker-children-to-local-schools-sparks-concern (accessed 1 July 2015).

[102]    Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 63, p. 8.

[103]    Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 43.

[104]    Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 28 (original emphasis).

[105]    Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 26.

[106]    Submission 80, p.9. The committee also heard that there is no toilet at the school. Submission 74, p. 2.

[107]    Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 63, p. 7.

[108]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015, (received 5 June 2015).

[109]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 34.

[110]    Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, p. 3.

[111]    Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, p. 4.

[112]    Transfield Services, response to Submission 66, pp 3-4.

[113]    Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 19.

[114]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 5; Submission 80, p. 3.

[115]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 5.

[116]    Submission 80, p. 3.

[117]    Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 26.

[118]    Submission 80, p. 7; Submission 82, p. 6.

[119]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 14.

[120]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 40.

[121]    IHMS, response to Submission 66, p. 1.

[122]    IHMS, response to Submission 79, pp 1-2.

[123]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 40.

[124]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 45.

[125]    Human Rights Law Centre and UNICEF Australia, Submission 58, p. 6.

[126]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 4.

[127]    Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 29.

[128]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p.10. Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, p. 7; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 3; Submission 82, p. 7.

[129]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p.11.

[130]    Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, p. 4. IHMS advised the committee that the majority of the recommendations made by Ms Maycock and Dr Isaacs have been implemented. IHMS, response to Submission 66, pp 2-3.

[131]    See: Labor for Refugees, Submission 9, p. 6; Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, pp 5-6.

[132]    See: Labor for Refugees, Submission 9, p. 5; Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, pp 6-7; Submission 80, p. 8.

[133]    See: DASSAN, Submission 61; Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79; Submission 82; Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, pp 1 – 14; Professor David Isaacs and Ms Alanna Maycock, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, pp 37-42.

[134]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 41.

[135]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 13.

[136]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 41.

[137]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice of 2 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[138]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 15.

[139]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 15.

[140]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 41.

[141]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 24.

[142]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 14.

[143]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice of 2 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[144]    Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 9.

[145]    Mr Neil Skill, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 55.

[146]    Submission 91.

[147]    Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 63.

[148]    Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 63-64.

[149]    Mr Geoffrey Eames, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 70.

[150]    This is discussed at paragraph 5.61.

Chapter 4 - Protecting asylum seekers: personal safety and security, and allegations of harm

[1]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, p. 42.

[2]        Journals of the Senate No. 77, 11 February 2015, p. 2148.

[3]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, p. 29.

[4]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, p. 30.

[5]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, p. 195.

[6]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, pp 192-193, 195.

[7]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, p. 195.

[8]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, Recommendations 1 and 2, p. 37.

[9]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 2014, Recommendation 4, p. 38.

[10]      Senator the Hon George Brandis QC, Attorney-General, Tabling of the Australian Human Rights Commission Report, The Forgotten Children – National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, statement, 11 February 2015, p. 1.

[11]      Senator the Hon George Brandis QC, Attorney-General, Tabling of the Australian Human Rights Commission Report, The Forgotten Children – National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, statement, 11 February 2015, p. 2.

[12]      Senator the Hon George Brandis QC, Attorney-General, Tabling of the Australian Human Rights Commission Report, The Forgotten Children – National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, statement, 11 February 2015, p. 2.

[13]      Senator the Hon George Brandis QC, Attorney-General, Tabling of the Australian Human Rights Commission Report, The Forgotten Children – National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, statement, 11 February 2015, p. 2.

[14]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 22.

[15]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 22.

[16]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 20.

[17]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 15.

[18]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 3.

[19]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 21.

[20]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, pp 3–11.

[21]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 5 June).

[22]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 3; Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 29.

[23]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 3.

[24]      Ms Angela Williams, Commercial, Strategy and Systems Director, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 10.

[25]      Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 4.

[26]      Submission 81, 'Case Study Two – F', pp 6-10.

[27]      Submission 84, p. 5.

[28]      An Open letter to the Australian People, 7 April 2015, https://www.aasw.asn.au/document/item/7290 (accessed 1 July 2015).

[29]      An Open letter to the Australian People, 7 April 2015, p. 1, https://www.aasw.asn.au/document/item/7290 (accessed 1 July 2015).

[30]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 59.

[31]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 67.

[32]      The Prime Minister the Hon Tony Abbott MP, 'Joint Press Conference, Hamilton Island', 21 March 2015, https://www.pm.gov.au/media/2015-03-21/joint-press-conference-hamilton-island (accessed 1 July 2015).

[33]      The Hon Peter Dutton MP, Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, 'Moss Review: Press Conference with Michael Pezzullo - Secretary of Department of Immigration and Border Protection', 20 March 2015, http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/peterdutton/2015/Pages/moss-review.aspx (accessed 30 June 2015).

[34]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, pp 24–26.

[35]      Transfield Services, Submission 29, p. 2; Wilson Security, Submission 21, p. 3; Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 3.

[36]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 3.

[37]      Mr Paul Ronalds, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, pp 48-49.

[38]      Mr Paul Ronalds, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 50.

[39]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 59.

[40]      Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 52.

[41]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 24.

[42]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Supplementary to Submission 83, pp 3-4.

[43]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 2 July 2015 (received 17 July 2015).

[44]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 90.

[45]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 91.

[46]      Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 5; Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 16, p. 4; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 58, p. 9; DASSAN, Submission 61.

[47]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63;

[48]      DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 7.

[49]      DASSAN, Submission 61, Attachment 1, p. 2; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63;  Refugee Action Collective – Queensland, Submission 79, p. 8; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 19; Submission 84, p. 5.

[50]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1

[51]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1

[52]      Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. 15.

[53]      Ms Caz Coleman, Submission 56, p. 16.

[54]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63.

[55]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 18.

[56]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 27.

[57]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, pp 27-28. Note that the name used in this extract is pseudonymous.

[58]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 32. Ms Kirsty Diallo also drew the attention of the committee to the differences between the Australian and Nauruan legislative responses to child abuse. Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 2.

[59]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 33.

[60]      Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Supplementary to Submission 14, p. 5; Comcare, answer to question on  notice, 25 August 2015 (received 26 August 2015).

[61]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1; DASSAN, Submission 61; Submission 62, p. 3; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 18; Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 2;  Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 7.

[62]      Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 25. The Australian Lawyers Alliance argued that the inability of the Moss Review to obtain evidence should not be taken 'as a lack of evidence, but should be viewed through the prism of the fact that individuals may be afraid to provide further details'. Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission 14, p. 8.

[63]      Wilson Security, response to Submission 79, p. 5.

[64]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[65]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[66]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[67]      This is discussed at paragraph 5.11.

[68]      ChilOut, Submission 13; Immigration Advice and Rights Centre, Submission 17; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 3; Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1; DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 6.

[69]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 7.

[70]      Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 2.

[71]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 7.

[72]      Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 34.

[73]      Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 19.

[74]      DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 6.

[75]      Human Rights Watch, Submission 72, p. 3.

[76]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 20.

[77]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 16.

[78]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 71.

[79]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 71.

[80]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, pp 71-75.

[81]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 2 June 2015).

[82]      Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 4.

[83]      Submission 84, p. 4.

[84]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 26;  Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice of 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[85]      Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 6; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 58, p. 3; The Australian Council for International Development (ACFID) and the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), Submission 59, p. 9; Dr Peter Young, Submission 65, p. 2; Submission 81, p. 10.

[86]      Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 58, p. 3.

[87]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 5.

[88]      Mr Peter Law, Submission 28, p. 3.

[89]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 4.

[90]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 27.

[91]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[92]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[93]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[94]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[95]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63; Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64; Submission 81; Ms Samantha Betts, Submission 85.

[96]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63; Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 4; Submission 80, p. 4.

[97]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, pp 12-13.

[98]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, pp 15.

[99]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, pp 2-3.

[100]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 8; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 4. This was also noted in another submission, Submission 80, pp 3-4.

[101]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 8.

[102]    Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, pp 5-6. See also Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 24, p. 3; Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27; Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63.

[103]    Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 5.

[104]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 6.

[105]    Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1.

[106]    Submission 84, p. 4.

[107]    Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[108]    Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 6.

[109]    Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1, p. 6.

[110]    Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4; Submission 80, p. 7.

[111]    Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1.

[112]    Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 81, p. 11. Save the Children Australia highlighted the difficulty pregnant women had in walking the distance to the toilets. Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 37

[113]    Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4. This was echoed in other submissions, see: Submission 81, p. 11;

[114]    Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1; Immigration Advice and Rights Centre, Submission 17, p. 4; Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, Submission 27, p. 4, p. 8; Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 37; DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 8; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 24; Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, p. 1;

[115]    Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p .31.

[116]    Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).s

[117]    Ms Alanna Maycock and Professor David Isaacs, Submission 66, Supplementary Submission, p. 1.

[118]    Submission 84, p. 3.

[119]    Wilson Security, response to Submission 84, p. 2.

[120]    Australian Institute of Family Studies, Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect, CFCA Resource Sheet— August 2014, https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/mandatory-reporting-child-abuse-and-neglect (accessed 12 July 2015).

[121]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[122]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[123]    Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 18 May 2015 (received 9 June 2015).

[124]    This was discussed at paragraph 2.31.

[125]    Australian Institute of Family Studies, Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect, CFCA Resource Sheet— August 2014, https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/mandatory-reporting-child-abuse-and-neglect (accessed 12 July 2015).

[126]    Australian Institute of Family Studies, Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect, CFCA Resource Sheet— August 2014, https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/mandatory-reporting-child-abuse-and-neglect (accessed 12 July 2015).

[127]    Australian Institute of Family Studies, Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect, CFCA Resource Sheet— August 2014, https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/mandatory-reporting-child-abuse-and-neglect (accessed 12 July 2015).

[128]    Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 25, p. 3.

[129]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 59.

[130]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 59.

[131]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 59.

[132]    Australian Border Force Act 2015, para. 41.

[133]    Australian Border Force Act 2015, para. 42(1).

[134]    Australian Border Force Act 2015, para. 42(2)(c).

[135]    Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Report on Australian Border Force Bill 2015 [Provisions], Customs and Other Legislation Amendment (Australian Border Force) Bill 2015 [Provisions], May 2015, p. 14.

[136]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 75-76.

[137]    Mr Jon Nichols, Submission 95, p. 1.

[138]    Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 4.

[139]    Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 12.

[140]    Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 25.

[141]    Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 25.

[142]    Submission 82, p. 7.

[143]    Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Supplementary to Submission 14, p. 98. This is known as incident #231.

Chapter 5 - Committee views and recommendations

[1]        Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014, December 2014, p. 151.

[2]        Transfield Services, answer to question on notice of 20 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[3]        Transfield Services, answer to question on notice from the committee's public hearing on 19 May 2015 (received 16 June 2015).

[4]        Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contracts Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 29.

[5]        Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager, Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 42.

[6]        Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 39.

[7]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 21 August 2015).

[8]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 9 June 2015 (received 30 June 2015).

[9]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Immigration Detention and Community Statistics Summary, 30 April 2015, at: http://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/statistics/immigration-detention-statistics-apr2015.pdf, p. 3.

[10]      Subsection 16(3) of the Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987.

Dissenting Report by Coalition Senators

[1]        See for example claim of waterboarding by Mr Jon Nichols, Submission 95.

[2]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 4

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, pp 4-5.

[4]        Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 43.

[5]        Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 44.

[6]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 21.

[7]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 24.

[8]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 25.

[9]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answer to question on notice, 21 May 2015 (received 5 June 2015).

[10]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 25.

[11]      See for example, evidence of Mr Neil Skill, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 39.

[12]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, Supplementary Submission, p. 4.

[13]      Mr Jon Nichols, Submission 95.

[14]      Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 4.

[15]      Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 11.

[16]      Mr Jon Nichols, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 4.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 12.

[18]      Wilson Security, response 4 to Submission 95, p. 2; Additional information provided by Mr Louis Davies.

[19]      Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68.

[20]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1.

[21]      Ms Alanna Maycock, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 37.

[22]      See for example, Mr Peter Law, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 19; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 31; Ms Kirsty Diallo, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 31; Professor David Isaacs and Ms Alana Maycock, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 42.

[23]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, Supplementary Submission, pp 7-8.

[24]      HE Baron Waqa MP, President of the Republic of Nauru, 'Nauru mocked by media bullies', The Daily Telegraph, 3 August 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/opinion/nauru-mocked-by-media-bullies/story-fni0cwl5-1227466977325.

[25]      Wilson Security, answer to question on notice, 20 August 2015 (received 25 August 2015).

Additional comments by the Australian Greens

[1]        Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015.

[2]        Interview with Ben Fordham, 2GB Radio, 20 March 2015.

[3]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, p 195.

[4]        Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, p 187.

[5]        Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p 59.

[6]        Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p 59. 

[7]        Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p 61. 

[8]        Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, Recommendation 9.

[9]        Ms Natasha Blucher, Supplementary to Submission 83, p. 4.

[10]      Mr Paul Ronalds, Chief Executive Officer, Save the Children Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 44.

[11]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 29.

[12]      Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 21.

[13]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 15.

[14]      Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 54.

[15]      Convention on the rights of the child, Article 3.

[16]      ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 7.

[17]      Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Submission 60, p. 2.

[18]      Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Submission 60, p. 7.

[19]      Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Submission 60, pp 7-9.

[20]      Australian Human Rights Commission, The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, p 192.

[21]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Best Interests Assessment for transferring minors to an RPC (forming part of the Pre-Transfer Assessment), February 2014, p. 1.

[22]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 10.

[23]      Save the Children Australia, response to Submission 63, p. 5.

[24]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 30.

[25]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 31, p. 56.

[26]      Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Statement on the health of people seeking asylum, August 2013, p. 4.

[27]      Submission 84, p. 4.

[28]      RAC-Q, Submission 73, p. 7.

[29]      DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 7.

[30]      Mr Tobias Gunn, Submission 68, p. 7.

[31]      The committee understands that this is the same incident referred to in the Moss Review. Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 37.

[32]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 29.

[33]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 2.

[34]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 2

[35]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 2.

[36]      Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 2.

[37]      Ms Cindy Briscoe, Deputy Commissioner, Australian Border Force Support, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 77.

[38]      Ms Cindy Briscoe, Deputy Commissioner, Australian Border Force Support, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 78.

[39]       Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 2.

[40]      Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 2.

[41]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received on 16 June 2015).

[42]      Ms Erin O’Sullivan, Commercial and Strategy Manager, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 6.

[43]      Transfield Services, answer to question on notice, 19 May 2015 (received on16 June 2015).

[44]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, pp 12-13.

[45]      Ms Katherine Cole, Submission 92, pp 4-5

[46]      Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 44-45.

[47]      Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 3.

[48]      Budget Estimates 2015, Answers to questions on notice.

[49]      Ms Samantha Betts, Submission 85, p. 2.

[50]      Name Withheld, Submission 62, p 2; Name Withheld, Submission 95, p 9.

[51]      Name Withheld, Submission 95, p 9. 

[52]      Wilson Security, Response to Submission 62, p 5; Wilson Security, Response to Submission 95, p 5.

[53]      Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 36.

[54]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 28.

[55]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 10.

[56]      Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 43.

[57]      Name withheld, Submission 62, p. 1.

[58]      Mr Jon Rogers, Submission 95, p.2.

[59]      'Sarah Hanson-Young labels Tony Abbott 'creepy' over his response to Nauru spying allegations', Sydney Morning Herald, 5 June 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/sarah-hansonyoung-labels-tony-abbott-creepy-over-his-response-to-nauru-spying-allegations-20150605-ghhehb.html (accessed 5 June 2015).

[60]      Name withheld, Submission 99, p. 1.

[61]      See, for example: Human Rights Law Centre and UNICEF, Submission 58; Law Council of Australia, Submission 57.

[62]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 57, p. 9.

[63]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 12.

[64]      Save the Children Australia, Submission 30, p. 13.

[65]      Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Statement on the health of people seeking asylum, August 2013, p. 2.

[66]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 7.

[67]      Submission 81, p. 1.

[68]      Refugee Action Collective Queensland, Submission 73, p. 9.

[69]      Submission 81, p. 16.

[70]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 16, p. 3.

[71]      ChilOut, Submission 13; Human Rights Law Centre and UNICEF, Submission 58, p. 1; Human Rights Watch, Submission 72;

[72]      DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 15.

[73]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 16, p. 4.

[74]      Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 2.

[75]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 64.

[76]      Australian Churches Refugee Taskforce, Submission 32, Attachment 1, p. 11.

[77]      Dr Peter Young, Committee Hansard, 9 June 2015, p. 2.

[78]      Transfield Services, response to Submission 69, p. 7.

[79]      Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 58.

[80]      Mr John Rogers, Executive General Manager, Southern Pacific, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 41.

[81]      Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, pp 57-58.

[82]      See, for example: Submission 82, p. 7.

[83]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 6.

[84]      Submission 81, pp 2-3.

[85]      Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 19.

[86]      Professor David Isaacs and Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, Attachment 1, pp 4-5.

[87]      IHMS, response to Submission 66, p. 4.

[88]      See, for example: Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 2;

[89]      Submission 82, p. 6.

[90]      Mr Mark Isaacs, Submission 67, p. 1.

[91]      Mr Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 9.

[92]      Mr Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 70.

[93]      Ms Samantha Betts, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 64.

[94]      See, for example, Darwin Asylum Seeker Support and Advocacy Network, Submission 61, Attachment 1, p. 3; IHMS, response to Submission 66, p. 3; Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 2; Submission 82, pp 4-5; Ms Natasha Blucher, Submission 83, p. 11, p. 18;

[95]      Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 2.

[96]      Mr Andrew Harris, Submission 93, p. 7.

[97]      Submission 94, p. 12.

[98]      Mr Brett McDonald, Security Contract Manager, Wilson Security, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 36.

[99]      Ms Natasha Blucher, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 55.

[100]    See, for example: Soroptimist International (Brisbane Club), Submission 22, p. 3.

[101]    Submission 71, pp 1- 2.

[102]    ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 11.

[103]    ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 6.

[104]    Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Supplementary to Submission 14, p. 39. This is incident #339.

[105]    Professor David Isaacs, Submission 11, p. 1.

[106]    Ms Kirsty Diallo, Submission 64, p. 6.

[107]    Submission 82, pp 7-8.                                                      

[108]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 8,

[109]    DASSAN, Submission 61, p. 9.

[110]    Submission 62, p. 3.

[111]    Ms Charlotte Wilson, Submission 79, p. 7.

[112]    Submission 82, p. 6.

[113]    Submission 71, p. 1.

[114]    Submission 71, p. 1.

[115]    Alex McDonald, 'Nauru asylum seeker rape victim refused medical treatment in Australia, family says', ABC News, 12 August 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-08-11/asylum-seeker-allegedly-raped-denied-treatment-in-australia/6689192 (accessed 13 August 2015).

[116]    Ben Doherty, 'Nauru guard who ordered spying on Sarah Hanson-Young to face inquiry', The Guardian, 19 August 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/19/nauru-guard-who-ordered-spying-on-sarah-hanson-young-to-face-inquiry (accessed 20 August 2015).

[117]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 August 2015, p. 40.

[118]    See, for example: Josephite Justice Office, Submission 12, p. 4; Ms Viktoria Vibhakar, Submission 63, p. 35; Mr Mark Isaacs, Submission 67, p. 3.

[119]    Ms Alanna Maycock, Submission 66, p. 1.

[120]    Mrs Kate Munnings, Chief Executive Operations - Logistics, Construction & Consulting, Transfield Services, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 31. Emphasis added.

[121]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 93.

[122]    See, for example: ACFID and ACOSS, Submission 59, p. 3.

[123]    ChilOut, Submission 13, p. 2.

[124]    Mr Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Committee Hansard, 20 July 2015, p. 70.

[125]    The Government of the Republic of Nauru, www.naurugov.nr (accessed 27 May 2015).

[126]    Republic of Nauru, Nauru Bulletin, June 2015, http://www.naurugov.nr/media/45875/nauru_20bulletin_20_07_25jun2015_20_28125_29.pdf (accessed 9 July 2015).

[127]    Republic of Nauru, Nauru Bulletin, June 2015, http://www.naurugov.nr/media/45875/nauru_20bulletin_20_07_25jun2015_20_28125_29.pdf (accessed 9 July 2015). Other issues of the Bulletin indicated that the Republic of China (Taiwan) also donated a solar power system for the health centre, and 'will also do repairs this year to the solar street lights and this is valued at USD$100,000'. Republic of Nauru, Nauru Bulletin, February 2015, http://www.naurugov.nr/media/44546/nauru_20bulletin_20_02_17feb2015_20_28120_29.pdf (accessed 9 July 2015).

[128]    Republic of Nauru, Nauru Bulletin, July 2015, http://www.naurugov.nr/media/46005/nauru_20bulletin_20_09_20_20july2015_20_28127_29.pdf (accessed 29 July 2015).

[129]    Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 76.

[130]    Mr Philip Moss, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015, p. 46.

[131]    Submission 71, p. 1.

[132]    See, for example, Submission 94, p. 14.

[133]    Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 18, p. 4.

[134]    Mr Peter Law, Submission 28, pp 1-2.

[135]    Mr Peter Law, Submission 28, p. 2.

[136]    Mr Lee Gordon, Head of Nauru Programs, Committee Hansard, 19 May 2015, p. 53.

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