Footnotes

Footnotes

CHAPTER 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 2 – 29 September 2010, p. 100.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 74 – 8 February 2012, p. 2053.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, No. 77 – 28 February 2012, p. 2138.

[4]        Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Interim report for the inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2010, May 2012.

[5]        Subsection 5(1) of the Marriage Act 1961 (Marriage Act).

[6]        Item 1 of Schedule 1 of the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2010 (Senator Hanson-Young's Bill).

[7]        Senate Hansard, 29 September 2010, p. 307.

[8]        Item 1 of Schedule 1 of the Marriage Amendment Bill 2012 (Jones Bill).

[9]        Item 1 of Schedule 1 of the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2012 (Bandt/Wilkie Bill).

[10]      See subparagraph 47(a) of the Marriage Act (emphasis added).

[11]      Item 3 of Schedule 1 of the Jones Bill.

[12]      Item 4 of Schedule 1 of the Bandt/Wilkie Bill.

[13]      Item 8 of Schedule 1 of the Bandt/Wilkie Bill. The committee also notes the motion moved by Mr Wilkie, agreed to by the House of Representatives on 31 May 2012, that, should the Marriage Act be amended to allow for the marriage of same-sex couples, any such amendment should ensure that there is no obligation imposed on any church or religious minister to perform such a marriage: House of Representatives, Votes and Proceedings, No. 112—31 May 2012, p. 1545.

[14]      See House of Representatives Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs, Advisory report: Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2012 and the Marriage Amendment Bill 2012, June 2012. Available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/bill marriage/report.htm (accessed 18 June 2012).

[15]      See Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Inquiry into the Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004, 6 September 2004.

[16]      Journals of the Senate, No. 153 – 23 June 2004, p. 3653.

[17]      Explanatory Memorandum to the Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004, p. 2.

[18]      House of Representatives, Votes and Proceedings, No. 184 – 24 June 2004, p. 1742.

[19]      Explanatory Memorandum to the Marriage Amendment Bill 2004, p. 1.

[20]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Inquiry into the Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004, 6 September 2004, p. 1.

[21]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Inquiry into the Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004, 6 September 2004, p. 2.

[22]      See Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2009, November 2009.

[23]      The Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2009 (2009 Bill) used the term 'sexuality', which has been replaced by 'sexual orientation' in the current Bill. The definition of marriage in the 2009 Bill did not include the phrase 'to the exclusion of all others'.

[24]      Journals of the Senate, No. 77—25 June 2009, p. 2206.

[25]      See Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2009, November 2009, pp 1-2.

[26]      The committee noted that such a reform should 'synthesise and harmonise' law reforms made in 2008 to remove discrimination against same-sex couples: see Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2009, November 2009, p. 39. The 2008 same-sex law reforms are discussed below in paragraphs 1.28 and 1.29.

[27]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2009, November 2009, p. vii.

[28]      Journals of the Senate, No. 112 – 25 February 2010, p. 3228. The 2009 Bill was defeated by a vote of 45-5.

[29]      See the Hon Nicola Roxon MP, Attorney-General, Certificates of No Impediment to marriage for same-sex couples, Media release, 27 January 2012, available at http://www.attorneygeneral.gov.au/Media-releases/Pages/2012/First%20Quarter/27-January-2012---Certificates-of-No-Impediment-to-marriage-for-same-sex-couples.aspx (accessed 14 May 2012).

[30]      See, Attorney-General's Department, Same-Sex Reforms, available at: http://www.ag.gov.au/Humanrightsandantidiscrimination/Pages/SameSexReforms.aspx (accessed 16 May 2012).

[31]      All figures have been rounded to the nearest 100, with the exception of the numbers of submissions published on the committee's website.

[32]      See Mr Neville Rochow SC, Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 25 and Mr Jim Wallace AM, Australian Christian Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 24.

[33]      Mr Jim Wallace AM, Australian Christian Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 24.

[34]      See, for example, Australian Marriage Equality, Senate submission webpage, http://www.australianmarriageequality.com/senate-inquiry-submission-form/ (accessed 10 May 2012) and Australian Family Association, Submission to the same-sex marriage inquiry, http://www.family.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1014:submission-to-the-inquiry-into-the-marriage-equality-amendment-bill-2010&catid=53:federal&Itemid=53 (accessed 10 May 2012).

[35]      Submissions were deemed to be anonymous where no identifying information whatsoever was provided, including a valid email address.

CHAPTER 2 - Policy arguments for and against marriage equality

[1]        See, for example, Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Submission 3, p. 2; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 4; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 161, p. 1; Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, p. 17.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 3. See also: Mr Senthorun Raj, NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 3; the Hon Michael Kirby AC CMG, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 12.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 5.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 4.

[5]        Submission 260, p. 81.

[6]        See, for example, Mr Brian Greig OAM, Submission 64, p. 2; Reverend Nathan Nettleton, South Yarra Community Baptist Church, Submission 302, p. 1.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 45.

[8]        Attorney-General's Department, Same-Sex Reforms, available at: http://www.ag.gov.au/Humanrightsandantidiscrimination/Pages/SameSexReforms.aspx (accessed 16 May 2012).

[9]        Submission 116, p. 6. See also: Margaret Brock and Dan Meagher, 'The legal recognition of same-sex union in Australia: A constitutional analysis', (2011) 22 Public Law Review 266, pp 273-274. The committee notes that, on 21 June 2012, the Queensland Parliament passed the Civil Partnerships and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2012 (Qld), which amends the Civil Partnerships Act 2011 (Qld) to remove provisions that allow a couple to hold a declaration ceremony, before a civil partnership notary, prior to the registration of the relationship: see Part 2, clause 13 of the Civil Partnerships and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2012 (Qld).

[10]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 5. See also: New South Wales Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 109, p. 3; the Hon Don Harwin MLC, Submission 217, p. 1; Professor M.V. Lee Badgett, Submission 293, pp 3-4.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 13.

[12]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 17.

[13]      Law Council of Australia, answer to question on notice, received 11 May 2012, p. 3. See also: Defence Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Information Service, Submission 238, p. 1.

[14]      Submission 57, p. 6.

[15]      For example, Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 86; Mrs Shelley Argent OAM, Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 7.

[16]      Submission 276, p. 3.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 33.

[18]      Submission 293, pp 3-4.

[19]      Submission 211, p. 1. See also: Mr Rodney Croome AM, Australian Marriage Equality, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 5; Ms Gina Wilson, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 57.

[20]      Submission 291, p. 3. See also: Inner City Legal Centre, Submission 173, pp 8-9.

[21]      Submission 293, p. 3.

[22]      See, for example, Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 356, pp 7-9; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 156, pp 3-6.

[23]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, pp 4-5 and Human Rights Law Resource Centre, Submission 161, Attachment 1, p. 4 discuss the non-discrimination provisions in a number of international treaties to which Australia is a party.

[24]      UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III).

[25]      International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [1980] ATS 23, signed 16 December 1966, entry into force for Australia (except Article 41) 13 November 1980.

[26]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 10-11.

[27]      Submission 137, p. 7.

[28]      Submission 137, p. 8. Also see: Professor Ben Saul, Sydney Centre for International Law, University of Sydney, Submission 45, p. 1; Women's Law Centre of Western Australia, Submission 108, p. 2.

[29]      Joslin et al v New Zealand, United Nations Human Rights Committee, (2002) UN Doc CCPR/C/75/D/902/1999.

[30]      See Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 4; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, pp 5-7; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 138, pp 5-6; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 34; Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, pp 15-16; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, pp 98-99; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 356, pp 8-9.

[31]      Joslin et al v New Zealand, United Nations Human Rights Committee, (2002) UN Doc CCPR/C/75/D/902/1999, para 8.2.

[32]      See Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 116, pp 5-6, referring to the South African case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie; Lesbian and Gay Equality Project v Minister of Home Affairs, CCT60/04;CCT10/05. See also: the Hon Michael Kirby AC CMG, Submission 74, pp 7-8, which refers to eight cases in overseas jurisdictions that have upheld the principle of marriage equality for same-sex couples, including Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie; Lesbian and Gay Equality Project v Minister of Home Affairs.

[33]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 116, pp 5-6.

[34]      Submission 74, p. 7.

[35]      Submission 356, p. 9. See also: Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 116, p. 5.

[36]      Submission 138, pp 5-6.

[37]      Toonen v Australia, United Nations Human Rights Committee, (1994) UN Doc. CCPR/C/50/D/488/92.

[38]      See, for example, Amnesty International Australia, Submission 58, p. 3; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 116, pp 4-5; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, p. 5.

[39]      See, for example, National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, p. 11; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 34; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, p. 7.

[40]      European Court of Human Rights, Application No. 30141/04, 24 June 2010.

[41]      European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights), opened for signature 4 November 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953.

[42]      Submission 156, pp 5-6. Submissions also referred to the case of Gas and Dubois v France (European Court of Human Rights, 'The refusal to allow a woman to adopt her same-sex partner's child was not discriminatory', Press Release, ECHR 108 (2012), 15 March 2012, p. 3) as reaffirming the decision in Schalk: National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, p. 11; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 34; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, p. 7.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 20.

[44]      The Organisation Intersex International Australia explained that the term 'intersex' refers to people whose biological sex cannot be classified as clearly male or female. An intersex person may have the biological attributes of both sexes or lack some of the biological attributes considered necessary to be defined as one or other sex: Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 198, p. 1.

[45]      See Inner City Legal Centre, Submission 173, p. 4.

[46]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 198, p. 3.

[47]      Submission 198, p. 2.

[48]      (1979) 35 FLR 340.

[49]      Submission 198, pp 2-3.

[50]      (2001) 28 Fam LR 158.

[51]      See Inner City Law Centre, Submission 173, pp 3-4. See also: Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, pp 6-9.

[52]      Submission 173, p. 4.

[53]      Submission 198, p. 3.

[54]      Submission 173, p. 4.

[55]      See, for example, Inner City Legal Centre, Submission 173, p. 4; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 198, p. 3.

[56]      See, for example, Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Submission 3, p. 2; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 5; Dr Fiona Barlow, Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, pp 47-48.

[57]      National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 5. See also: Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Submission 3, p. 2; Dr Fiona Barlow, Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, pp 47-48.

[58]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 47.

[59]      Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Submission 201, p. 3; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 261, p. 5. Research from the Drug Policy Modelling Program, University of New South Wales, also indicates that homosexuals as a minority group in Australia may be up to twice as likely as heterosexuals to develop alcohol and other drug problems: see Submission 103, p. 1.

[60]      Submission 133, p. 2. See also: National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 4; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 43.

[61]      National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 4; ACON, Submission 177, pp 2-3; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 261, p. 7.

[62]      Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Submission 201, p. 1.

[63]      See, for example, Mr Jim Wallace AM, Australian Christian Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 28; Dr David van Gend, Australian Marriage Forum, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 27.

[64]      See, for example, ACON, Submission 177, p. 3. ACON cited a study from Massachusetts in the United States which showed that healthcare costs and mental health visits by gay men declined by a statistically significant amount in the year after legislative reforms relating to marriage equality were introduced in that state.

[65]      National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 157, p. 5. See also: Drug Policy Modelling Program, University of New South Wales, Submission 103, p. 1. ACON, Submission 177, pp 2, 4; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 261, p. 10.

[66]      Peter Tatchell Foundation, Submission 276, p. 4. See also: Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 40.

[67]      See, for example, the Hon Trevor Khan MLC, Submission 110, p. 17; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, pp 2-3; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260,
pp 18-19.

[68]      Submission 260, pp 18-19. See also: the Hon Trevor Khan MLC, Submission 110, p. 17.

[69]      Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty also referred to its polling which showed that 58 per cent of Australians agree that same-sex couples should have the right to marry, however, only 49 per cent support changing the Marriage Act to include same-sex marriage: Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 156, p 13; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Public attitudes towards same-sex marriage in Australia: report of research findings, 22 November 2011, p. 8, available at: www.ambrosecentre.org.au (accessed 24 May 2012).

[70]      Submission 260, p. 19.

[71]      Submission 137, p. 2.

[72]      Submission 137, pp 2-3.

[73]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 2.

[74]      Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, pp 40-41; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, pp 16-18; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 356, pp 19-28.

[75]      See Julie Pace, Associated Press, 'Obama voices his support for gay marriage', 10 May 2012; The Australian, 'New Zealand PM John Key open to gay marriage', 11 May 2012.

[76]      The Guardian, 'Gay rights campaigners around the world hail Obama's message of support', 10 May 2012.

[77]      Submission 109, p. 2.

[78]      Submission 137, p. 16.

[79]      Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 3; Focus on the Family Australia, Submission 150, p. 1; Mr Rocco Mimmo, Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 28.

[80]      Submission 147, p. 3.

[81]      Submission 147, p. 4.

[82]      Submission 231, p. 1. See also: Organisation of Rabbis of Australasia, Submission 145, p. 1.

[83]      See, for example, Association for Reformed Political Action, Submission 118, p. 1; National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, pp 3-4; Church and Nation Committee of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Australia, Submission 155, p. 1; Rabbi Moshe Gutnick, Organisation of Rabbis of Australasia, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 36.

[84]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 40.

[85]      Submission 106, p. 1 (emphasis in original).

[86]      See, for example, Presbyterian Church of Queensland, Submission 105, p. 1; Institute for Judaism and Civilisation, Submission 146, p. 9; Focus on the Family, Submission 150, pp 3-4.

[87]      Submission 105, p. 1.

[88]      Submission 150, p. 3.

[89]      Submission 145, p. 1.

[90]      See, for example, Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Submission 3, p. 2; the Hon Trevor Khan MLC, Submission 110, pp 8-9. See also: Mr Justin Koonin, NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 3; Mr Ben Callegari, Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 52.

[91]      Submission 109, p. 5. See also: Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 55; Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Submission 3, p. 2.

[92]      Submission 193, pp 54-55. See also: Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 56. In this context, the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law noted that the 'banning of same-sex marriage went hand-in-hand with the broader legal limitations imposed on homosexual behaviours...from the 13th century onwards': Submission 356, p. 5.

[93]      Submission 202, p. 5. See also: FamilyVoice Australia, Submission 101, p. 3; Reverend Stefan Slucki, Presbyterian Church of Australia, Committee Hansard,
3 May 2012, p. 35.

[94]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 33.

[95]      Submission 234, p. 7.

[96]      Submission 113, pp 1-2. See also: National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, p. 11; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 234, p. 5.

[97]      See, for example, the Hon Michael Kirby AC CMG, Submission 74, pp 9-10; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, p. 10; Lawyers and academics from Deakin University School of Law, Submission 189, p. 6; Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 61; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 61.

[98]      Submission 64, p. 3. See also: Mr Senthorun Raj, NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 4; Ms Gina Wilson, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 56.

[99]      See Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 234, p. 5; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, p. 5; Presbyterian Church of Victoria (Church and Nation Committee), Submission 117, p. 14; Mr Chris Meney, Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 33.

[100]    Submission 117, p. 14.

[101]    Submission 153, p. 4 (emphasis in original).

[102]    Submission 199, p. 5.

[103]    Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 6. See also: Family Council of Victoria, Submission 63, p. 3; Professor Margaret Somerville, Submission 65, pp 6-7; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, p. 2.

[104]    Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 43.

[105]    See, for example, Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p. 63; Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Submission 201, p. 6; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 261, p. 10.

[106]    Studies cited by Australian Marriage Equality suggest approximately 15-20 per cent of lesbian couples in Australia have children: Submission 260, p. 62.

[107]    Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, pp 35-36. See also: Rainbow Families Queensland, Submission 200, p. 1; Professor M.V. Lee Badgett, Submission 293, p. 3.

[108]    Submission 261, p. 10. See also: Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Submission 201, pp 5-6.

[109]    Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 49.

[110]    Submission 147, p. 9.

[111]    Submission 260, p. 64.

[112]    For example, Mr Bill Muehlenberg, National Marriage Coalition, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 20; Mr Jim Wallace AM, Australian Christian Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 28; Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees' Association, Submission 180,
pp 4-5.

[113]    Submission 113, p. 2. See also: Tasmanian Baptists, Submission 310, p. 4.

[114]    Submission 101, p. 2.

[115]    See, for example, Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 35; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 156, p. 7; Dr David van Gend, Australian Marriage Forum, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 23.

[116]    Submission 275, p. 7.

[117]    Submission 156, p. 7.

[118]    See, for example, FamilyVoice Australia, Submission 101, pp 17-18; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 34; Australian Family Association, Submission 153, p. 3; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 156, p. 4; Presbyterian Church of Australia, Submission 228, pp 5-6.

[119]    Submission 156, p. 4; Mr Rocco Mimmo, Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 28-29. See also, Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Submission 262, pp 14-15, in relation to Article 16(1) of the UDHR.

[120]    Submission 147, p. 34 (emphasis in original).

[121]    Submission 147, p. 34.

[122]    See Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 34, referring to the UN Human Rights Committee in Joslin v New Zealand, (2002) UN Doc CCPR/C/75/D/902/1999; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 156, pp 5-6.

[123]    Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 147, p. 30; FamilyVoice Australia, Submission 101, p. 3; National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134¸ pp 26-27; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, pp 3-4; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 234, pp 7-8;

[124]    Family Council of Victoria, Submission 63, p. 3; National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, pp 26-32; Australian Marriage Forum, Submission 199, pp 3-4; Mr Bill Muehlenberg, National Marriage Coalition, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 18; Mr Jim Wallace AM, Australian Christian Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 24.

[125]    Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 48.

[126]    Submission 260, pp 70-74.

[127]    Submission 260, p. 73.

CHAPTER 3 - Key issues relating to the bill and its constitutional validity

[1]        See, for example, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, pp 2-4; University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 151, pp 4-8; Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, pp 9-10; Professor Patrick Parkinson AM, Submission 194, pp 3-4; Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Submission 262, pp 1-9; Ms Emily Burke, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 21; Mr Neville Rochow SC, Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 25-26, 30; Ms Gabrielle Appleby, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, pp 7-8.

[2]        Submission 61, pp 2-3. See also: Professor John Williams, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 9.

[3]        See, for example, Mr Neville Rochow SC, Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 26; Ms Gabrielle Appleby, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 7.

[4]        See, for example, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 3; Ms Emily Burke, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 21; Ms Gabrielle Appleby, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, pp 7-8.

[5]        Submission 61, p. 3.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 25.

[7]        Mr Neville Rochow SC, Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 25 and 32; Submission 262, pp 9-13. The cases referred to are: The Queen v L (1991) 174 CLR 379 per Brennan J at 391-392; Re F; Ex parte F (1986) 161 CLR 376 per Brennan J at 399; Fisher v Fisher (1986) 161 CLR 376 at 383; and Re Cormick (1984) 156 CLR 170 per Gibbs CJ at 177.

[8]        Ms Gabrielle Appleby, Mr James Farrell, Associate Professor Dan Meagher and Professor John Williams, answer to question on notice, received 9 May 2012, pp 1-2.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, pp 9-10. See also: Professor Andrew Lynch, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 24.

[10]      University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 151, p. 6. See also: Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, pp 2-4.

[11]      (1999) 198 CLR 511 at 533.

[12]      (2003) 30 Fam LR 1.

[13]      (2003) 30 Fam LR 1, 22 (Nicholson CJ, Ellis and Brown JJ). Also see: Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 4; University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 151, p. 5; Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, p. 8.

[14]      Ms Gabrielle Appleby, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 9.

[15]      Roach v Electoral Commissioner (2007) 233 CLR 162.

[16]      Rowe v Electoral Commissioner (2010) 243 CLR 1.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 7. See also: Associate Professor Dan Meagher, Deakin University School of Law, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 9, who noted that Justice Heydon AC QC has 'made it quite clear that he subscribes to a very strong originalist position', meaning that, in Associate Professor Meagher's opinion, Justice Heydon would be likely to take a view that marriage is a purely heterosexual institution.

[18]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 8.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 8.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 22. See also: Professor John Williams, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 7.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 7.

[22]      Submission 262, p. 15.

[23]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 25.

[24]      Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 8. See also: Professor Andrew Lynch, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 22-23; University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 151, p. 10.

[25]      Submission 151, p. 10.

[26]      See, for example, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 198, p. 3; Inner City Legal Centre, Submission 173, p. 4; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, p. 11; Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 2; Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 5.

[27]      Submission 198, p. 3.

[28]      Submission 173, p. 4.

[29]      See, for example, Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, p. 11; Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 2; Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 5.

[30]      Submission 137, p. 11.

[31]      Submission 193, p. 5.

[32]      Submission 178, pp 10-11.

[33]      Submission 178, p. 12 (emphasis in original).

[34]      Submission 260, p. 91.

[35]      Submission 189, p. 7.

[36]      Item 1 of Schedule 1, Marriage Amendment Bill 2012.

[37]      Submission 61, p. 2.

[38]      For example, see NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 109, p. 4; Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 188, p. 2; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 138, p. 3.

[39]      Subparagraph 47(a) of the Marriage Act.

[40]      The Bandt/Wilkie Bill proposes an amendment to the beginning of section 47, changing 'Nothing in this Part', to 'Nothing in this Part or in any other law'. The purpose of this amendment is to 'make it clear that Ministers of religion are not bound to solemnise marriage by the Marriage Act or any other law': Explanatory Memorandum, Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2012, p. 2.

[41]      See, for example, Professor Andrew Lynch, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 17; Mr James Farrell, Deakin University School of Law, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 12.

[42]      Submission 166, p. 5.

[43]      See Professor Andrew Lynch, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 17; Mr Jamie Gardiner, Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 31; Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, pp 22-23.

[44]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 17.

[45]      See, for example, Endeavour Forum, Submission 68, p. 3; His Eminence Cardinal George Pell AC, Archbishop of Sydney, Submission 113, pp 4-5; National Marriage Coalition, Submission 134, pp 22-23.

[46]      Submission 147, p. 14.

[47]      Submission 260, p. 91.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 8. See also: Lawyers and academics from Deakin University School of Law, Submission 189, p. 7.

[49]      Submission 61, p. 6.

[50]      Submission 193, pp 5 and 22-24.

[51]      See the Hon Nicola Roxon MP, Attorney-General, Certificates of No Impediment to marriage for same-sex couples, media release, 27 January 2012, available at http://www.attorneygeneral.gov.au/Media-releases/Pages/2012/First%20Quarter/27-January-2012---Certificates-of-No-Impediment-to-marriage-for-same-sex-couples.aspx (accessed 14 May 2012).

[52]      See sections 5 and 88EA of the Marriage Act. As noted in chapter 2, marriage equality is currently recognised in the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, Spain, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Iceland, Argentina, and Mexico City, as well as several states in the continental United States. The committee also notes that the legalisation of same-sex marriage is currently under consideration in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Finland, Nepal, Slovenia, France, and Paraguay.

[53]      See the Hon Nicola Roxon MP, Attorney-General, Certificates of No Impediment to marriage for same-sex couples, media release, 27 January 2012, available at: http://www.attorneygeneral.gov.au/Media-releases/Pages/2012/First%20Quarter/27-January-2012---Certificates-of-No-Impediment-to-marriage-for-same-sex-couples.aspx (accessed 14 May 2012).

[54]      See, for example, Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 138, p. 3; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 161, p. 11; Law Council of Australia, Submission 178, p. 14; Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 5.

[55]      The full text of the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Celebration of Marriages is available at http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=88 (accessed 14 May 2012). Australia ratified the Hague Convention on 29 December 1987, and it entered into force for Australia on 1 May 1991.

[56]      Submission 137, p. 9. See also: Professor Kerryn Phelps OAM and Ms Jackie Stricker-Phelps, Submission 169, p. 16.

[57]      Submission 137, pp 8-9.

[58]      Professor Åke Malmström, Explanatory Report on the 1978 Hague Marriage Convention, Acts and Documents of the Thirteenth Session (1976) Tome III, p. 293.

[59]      Submission 137, p. 9 (emphasis in original).

[60]      Submission 169, p. 15.

CHAPTER 4 - Committee view and recommendations

[1]        See, for example, Association of Australian Christadelphian Ecclesias, Submission 237, p. 1; Reverend Nathan Nettleton, South Yarra Community Baptist Church, Submission 302, p. 1.

[2]        Submission 72, p. 1.

[3]        See, for example, Reverend Ben Gilmour, Paddington Uniting Church, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 44; Reverend Greg Smith, Metropolitan Community Church, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 45; Union for Progressive Judaism, Submission 75, p. 1.

[4]        Submission 249, p. 1. See also: the Hon Kristina Keneally MP, Submission 98, pp 1-4.

[5]        Submission 64, p. 1.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 4.

[7]        Australian Psychological Society, Submission 261, p. 10. See also Psychologists for Marriage Equality, Submission 201, pp 5-6.

[8]        Australian Psychological Society, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trangender (LGBT) Parented Families: A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society, August 2007, p. 4, tabled by the Australian Psychological Society at public hearing on 4 May 2012.

[9]        American Psychological Association, Resolution on Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples, Adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on 3-5 August 2011, p. 1, tabled by the Australian Psychological Society at public hearing on 4 May 2012.

[10]      See Rainbow Families Queensland, Submission 200, pp 2-3; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, p.

[11]      Submission 200, pp 3-4.

[12]      Professor John Williams, University of Adelaide Law School, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 11.

[13]      See House of Representatives Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs, Inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2012 and the Marriage Amendment Bill 2012, Summary of Responses, available at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/bill marriage/survey.htm (accessed 17 May 2012).

[14]      See Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 137, p. 2; Australian Marriage Equality, Submission 260, pp 18-19.

[15]      Parliamentary Library, 'Conscience votes during the Howard Government 1996-2007', Research Paper No. 20 2008-09, available at http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp0809/09rp20#_Toc221347476 (accessed 1 June 2012).

[16]      Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, p. 25.

[17]      Associate Professor Dan Meagher, Deakin University School of Law, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2012, p. 8.

[18]      Professor Andrew Lynch, Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 22

[19]      The definition of marriage in the Jones Bill is 'the union of two people, regardless of their sex, to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life': Item 1 of Schedule 1 of the Marriage Amendment Bill 2012 (emphasis added).

[20]      Gilbert and Tobin Centre of Public Law, Submission 61, p. 6.

[21]      Liberty Victoria, Submission 166, p. 5.

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS BY SENATOR BIRMINGHAM AND SENATOR BOYCE

[1]        Mr Trevar Chilver, Submission 130, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=43be7067-3145-494a-a6c3-9af7a66ffce0.

[2]        The Hon Dr Peter Phelps MLC, Speech on Marriage Equality motion, NSW Legislative Council, 24 May 2102: http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC20120524022?open&refNavID=HA3_1.

[3]        The Hon Dr Peter Phelps MLC, Speech on Marriage Equality motion, NSW Legislative Council, 24 May 2102: http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC20120524022?open&refNavID=HA3_1.

[4]        Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Submission 148, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=bf2e826d-36eb-4e8e-ab73-553905db8fb3.

[5]        Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Submission 148, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=bf2e826d-36eb-4e8e-ab73-553905db8fb3.

[6]        The Very Reverend Dr Peter Catt, Submission 72, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=a1a9711b-5b0d-4d0c-b236-f58e7139003b.

[7]        The Economist, 'Let them wed', 4 Jan 1996: http://www.economist.com/node/2515389/print?Story_ID=2515389.

[8]        Prime Minister David Cameron, Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, 5 October 2011: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/conservative/8808521/Conservative-Party-conference-2011-David-Camerons-speech-in-full.html.

[9]        Mr Tim Wilson, Submission 359, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=89cd874c-084b-4669-aaaf-902efbc03873.

[10]      The Hon Jeff Kennett, 3AW, 8 March 2012: http://www.3aw.com.au/blogs/neil-mitchell-blog/jeff-kennett-on-gay-marriage/20120308-1uls6.html.

[11]      The Hon Nick Greiner, SMH, 13 April 2011: http://www.smh.com.au/national/greiner-dismisses-samesex-marriage-concerns-20110412-1dcmh.html.

[12]      The Hon Campbell Newman, Brisbane Times, 17 April 2011: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/newman-backs-gay-marriage--but-forget-about-law-changes-20110417-1djbk.html?from=smh_ft.

[13]      The Hon Isobel Redmond MP, ninemsn, 10 October 2011: http://news.ninemsn.com.au/national/8357777/sa-liberal-leader-supports-gay-marriage.

[14]      The Hon Sarah Mitchell MLC, Speech on Marriage Equality motion, NSW Legislative Council, 24 May 2102: http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC20120524022?open&refNavID=HA3_1.

[15]      Mr Tim Wilson, Submission 359, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill: http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=89cd874c-084b-4669-aaaf-902efbc03873.

[16]      Mr Christopher Puplick AM and Mr Larry Galbraith, Submission 193, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs inquiry into the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill. http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=3dbb69ca-8590-4b5d-8611-d9c363b1e65e.

DISSENTING REPORT BY  COALITION SENATORS

[1]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 33.

[2]        Kristin Anderson Moore, Susan M Jekielek, and Carol Emig (June, 2002), Marriage from a Child’s Perspective: How Does Family Structure Affect Children, and What Can We Do about It, Child Trends Research Brief, p 1, http://www.childtrends.org/files/marriagerb602.pdf.

[3]        Professor Susan Brown (2010), 'Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and policy perspectives', 72 Journal of Marriage and Family 1059-1077, 1062 (references omitted), cited in Parkinson (2011), For Kids' Sake, p 48.

[4]        Karin Grossmann, Klaus E Grossmann, Elisabeth Fremmer-Bombik, Heinz Kindler, Hermann Scheuerer-Englisch, and Peter Zimmerman (2002), The Uniqueness of the Child-Father Attachment Relationship: Fathers' Sensitive and Challenging Play as a Pivotal Variable in a 16-year Longitudinal Study, Social Development, 11, 3.

[5]        Kyle D Pruett (November 1, 1998), Role of the Father, Pediatrics, Vol 102 No Supplement E1, pp 1253-1261.

[6]        'Stylish same sex campaign glosses over real issues', Sydney Morning Herald, 16 June 2012.

[7]        Mr Dominguez, Submission 181; and Mrs Dominguez, who claims to have submitted the following submission to the inquiry, but which apparently was not received by the committee – http://blogs.bluebec.com/submission-to-the-senate-on-marriage-equality/.

[8]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 9.

[9]        See: http://polyinthemedia.blogspot.com.au/2012/05/foursome-marriage-murdoch-paper-gets.html.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, pp 12-13.

[11]      Jessica Bennett (July 28, 2009), 'Only You. And You. And You.', The Daily Beast, http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/07/28/only-you-and-you-and-you.html.

[12]      See, for example, Australian articles advocating polyamory: Ean Higgins (10 December 2011), 'Three in marriage bed more of a good thing', The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/three-in-marriage-bed-more-of-a-good-thing/story-e6frg6z6-1226218569577; Katrina Fox (2 March 2011), 'Marriage needs redefining', The Drum, http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/44576.html; and overseas academics such as Columbia University law professor Elizabeth Emens (2004), Monogamy's Law: Compulsory Monogamy and Polyamorous Existence, Chicago Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No 58, The Law School, The University of Chicago.

[13]      http://adc.library.usyd.edu.au/data-2/fed0014.pdf, p. 789.

[14]      http://adc.library.usyd.edu.au/data-2/fed0014.pdf, p. 795.

[15]      Lawyers for the Preservation of the Definition of Marriage, Submission 262, p. 3.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 3 May 2012, p. 25.

[17]      Joslin et al v New Zealand Communication, No. 902/1999, U.N. Doc. A/57/40 at 214 (2002).

[18]      http://www.abc.net.au/tv/qanda/txt/s2971154.htm; http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/wong-branded-traitor-by-gays-and-lesbians/story-fn59niix-1225897735066.

[19]      http://www.abc.net.au/tv/qanda/txt/s2978032.htm.

[20]      ACT Branch of the Australian Family Association, Submission 104, p. 6.

[21]      http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/in-depth/labor-faces-pulpit-led-backlash-on-gay-marriage/story-fnba0rxe-1226213649258.

DISSENTING REPORT BY INDIVIDUAL LABOR SENATORS

[1]        Father Frank Brennan, 'The perils of redefining marriage', Eureka Street, 24 November 2010.

APPENDIX 1 - TABLE SUMMARISING PROPOSED  MARRIAGE EQUALITY LEGISLATION

[1]        Source: Lawyers and academics from Deakin University School of Law, Submission 189, p. 9.

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