Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 30 November 2015, pp. 3518-3519.

Chapter 2 - Background

[1]        Buck et al, 'Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins', Integrated Environmental Assessments and Management, October, 2011, pp 513–541.

[2]        Department of Defence, response to question on notice 93, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2. 

[3]        US EPA, Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet – PFOS and PFOA, March 2014, p. 3.

[4]        US EPA, Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet – PFOS and PFOA, March 2014, p. 1.

[5]        NICNAS, Submission 47, p. 2.

[6]        NICNAS, Submission 47, p. 3.

[7]        URS Australia, Stage 2 report, p. 2.

[8]        URS Australia, Stage 2 report, p.1.

[9]        Ms Kate Washington MP, Submission 32, p. 1.

[10]      US EPA, 'EPA and 3M announce Phase Out of PFOS', Media Release, 16 May 2000.

[11]      NICNAS, Submission 47, p. 3.

[12]      US EPA, Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet – PFOS and PFOA, March 2014, p. 2.

[13]      Submission 34, p. 2.

[14]      OECD, Cooperation on Existing Chemicals, Hazard Assessment of PFOS and its Salts, 21 November 2002, p. 5.

[15]      NICNAS, Submission 47, p. 4.

[16]      Sonia Colville and Nicole McCarron, Environmental Issues Associated with Defence use of AFFF, Environmental Stewardship, Environment, Heritage and Risk Branch, May 2003, p. 1 [emphasis in original].

[17]      URS Australia, Stage 2 Environmental Investigation, 14 September 2015, p. 7.

[18]      Report of the Conference of the Parties of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants on the work of its fourth meeting, 8 May 2009, p. 68.

[19]      Defence, Submission 87, p. 15.

[20]      Defence, Submission 87, p. 15. Defence noted that, prior to this time, the levels of PFOS/PFOA were not known (due to inability to accurately measure).

[21]      Submission 87, p. 15.

[22]      Mr Barry Buffier, NSW EPA, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 45; Defence, Submission 87, p. 5. Defence, Submission 87, p. 15.

[23]      NSW EPA, responses to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[24]      Hunter Water, response to question on notice, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[25]      GHD, Stage 1 - Conceptual Site Model for AFFF Contamination, March 2013, p. iii.

[26]      GHD, Stage 1 - Conceptual Site Model for AFFF Contamination, March 2013, p. iii.

[27]      GHD, Stage 1 - Conceptual Site Model for AFFF Contamination, March 2013, pp 76-77.

[28]      Submission 87, p.5.

[29]      Submission 26, p. 3.

[30]      Mr Darren Cleary, Hunter Water, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 10.

[31]      NSW EPA, response to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, Attachment A.

[32]      NSW EPA, response to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, Attachment A.

[33]      NSW EPA, responses to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, Attachment C.

[34]      Submission 87, p. 5.

[35]      Hunter Water, response to question on notice, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[36]      Submission 87, p. 16.

[37]      Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee, Proposal to list pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (CAS No: 335-67-1, PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid), its salts and PFOA-related compounds in Annexes A, B and/or C to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 June 2015.

[38]      URS Australia, Stage 2 Environmental Investigation, 14 September 2015, p. 143.

[39]      URS Australia, Stage 2 Environmental Investigation, 14 September 2015, p. 143.

[40]      URS Australia, Stage 2 Environmental Investigation, 14 September 2015, p. 145.

[41]      NSW Environmental Protection Agency, 'Department of Defence and NSW Government investigating chemicals around Williamtown RAAF Base', Media Release, 3 September 2015.

[42]      NSW Environmental Protection Agency, 'Department of Defence and NSW Government investigating chemicals around Williamtown RAAF Base', Media release, 3 September 2015.

[43]      Department of Defence, 'Ground water contamination at RAAF Base Williamtown', Media release, 3 September 2015.

[44]      Michael McGowan, 'Defence to blame so it should pay: base boss', Newcastle Herald, 30 September 2015, available at: http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3394545/defence-to-blame-so-it-should-pay-base-boss/ (accessed 18 January 2016).

[45]      NSW Government, Williamtown RAAF Base contamination – FAQs, 12 November 2015, p. 2.

[46]      Department of Defence, response to questions on notice, Question 12, pp 4-5.

[47]      NSW Government Gazette, No 92 of 30 October 2015, p. 3426.

[48]      NSW EPA, 'Williamtown Expert Panel recommends an extension to the fishing closures in Fullerton Cove and upper Tilligerry Creek', Media Release, 27 October 2015.

[49]      Submission 87, p. 17.

[50]      Submission 87, p. 17.

[51]      Hunter Water, 'Hunter Water publishes PFOA/PFOS test results for local dams', Media release, 21 December 2015, p. 1. 

[52]      NSW Government, 'NSW Government help for Williamtown residents', Media release, 23 December 2015, p. 1.

[53]      The Hon Mark Speakman MP, Minister for the Environment, 'Williamtown Interim Report Now Online', Media release, 23 December 2015.

[54]      Professor Mark Taylor, Interim Report, 14 December 2015, pp 25-28.

[55]      ABC News, 'Defence officials ready to sign Williamtown trade wastewater deal', 8 January 2016, available at http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-01-08/defence-officals-ready-to-sign-williamtown-trade-wastewater-deal/7075490 (accessed 13 January 2016).

Chapter 3 - Impacts on the affected community

[1]        NSW Government, Williamtown RAAF Base contamination – FAQs, 12 November 2015, p. 2.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, pp 35-36.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 36.

[4]        NSW Government, Williamtown RAAF Base contamination – FAQs, 12 November 2015, pp 2-3.

[5]        US EPA, Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet – PFOS and PFOA, March 2014, p. 3.

[6]        Submission 47, p. 2.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 28.

[8]        For example, Professor Megharaj Mallavarapu, CRC CARE, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, pp 26-27.

[9]        Department of Defence, response to question on notice 93, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 3.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 2.

[11]      Submission 87, p. 12.

[12]      Submission 29, p. 2.

[13]      Submission 29, p. 2.

[14]      Submission 29, p. 3.

[15]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 95, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 63.

[17]      Submission 36, p. 2

[18]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 33.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 37.

[20]      Submission 13, p. 4.

[21]      Submission 35, p. 9.

[22]      Submission 26, p. 12.

[23]      For example, Ms Kate Washington MP, Submission 32, p. 5.

[24]      Anna Rotander et al, 'Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)', Environmental International, September 2015, pp 28-34.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 69.

[26]      Submission 87, p. 19.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 39.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 40.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[30]      Submission 32, p. 4.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 57.

[32]      Mr Adam Gilligan, NSW EPA, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 56.

[33]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 35.

[34]      Submission 36, p. 2.

[35]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 39.

[36]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 39.

[37]      Submission 106, p. 1.

[38]      Submission 106, p.1.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 35.

[40]      Mr Steven Grzeskowiak, Defence, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 62.

[41]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 2.

[42]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 47.

[43]      Submission 26, p. 9.

[44]      Ms Kate Washington MP, Submission 32, p. 4.

[45]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 39.

[46]      Submission 13, p. 2.

[47]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 7.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 5.

[49]      Submission 11, p. 1.

[50]      Submission 11, pp. 1–2.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 2.

[52]      Submission 87, p. 23.

[53]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 19.

[54]      Submission 13, p. 2.

[55]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 36.

[56]      Submission 35, p. 3.

[57]      Submission 35, p. 8.

Chapter 4 - Fishing industry and financial assistance

[1]        Williamtown Contamination Expert Panel, Meeting minutes, 23 September 2015, p. 2. 

[2]        Williamtown Contamination Expert Panel, Preliminary Dietary Exposure Assessment – Seafood – Tilligerry Creek and Fullerton Cove, Williamtown NSW, 3 November 2015, p. 1.

[3]        Williamtown Contamination Expert Panel, Preliminary PFOS Risk Assessment for Seafood – Hunter River prawns, p. 1.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 13.

[5]        Submission 30, p. 5.

[6]        Submission 30, p. 4.

[7]        Submission 27, p. 3.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 16.

[9]        Submission 27, p. 4.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 13.

[11]      Submission 30, p. 6.

[12]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 14.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 22.

[14]      Submission 108, p. 1.

[15]      Submission 27, p. 4.

[16]      Submission 35, p. 2.

[17]      Submission 35, p. 6.

[18]      Ms Tricia Beatty, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 13.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 20.

[20]      Mr Kevin Radnidge, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 23.

[21]      Mr Robert Gauta, CFCL, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 18.

[22]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 54.

[23]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 14.

[24]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 13.

[25]      The Hon Darren Chester MP, Assistant Minister for Defence, 'Federal Government supports commercial fishers in Tilligerry Creek and Fullerton Cove', Media release, 4 November 2015, p. 1.

[26]      Department of Defence, Submission 87, p. 8.

[27]      Submission 32, p. 4.

[28]      Submission 30, p. 6.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 14.

[30]      Submission 27, p. 3.

[31]      Submission 35, p. 2.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 57.

[33]      Submission 108, p. 1.

Chapter 5 - Government response

[1]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 1. Submission 32, p. 2.

[2]        Sonia Colville and Nicole McCarron, Environmental Issues Associated with Defence use of AFFF, May 2003, p. 1.

[3]        Submission 28, p. 2.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 45.

[5]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 46.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 53.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 46.

[8]        For example, Mr Adam Gilligan, NSW EPA, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 53; Mr Michael Lysewycz, Defence, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 67.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 67.

[10]      Submission 87, p. 16.

[11]      Professor Mark Taylor, 'Stage One of Review of NSW EPA's Management of Contaminated Sites', Interim Report, December 2015, p. 26.

[12]      Submission 32, p. 1.

[13]      Submission 28, pp 2-3.

[14]      Submission 26, p. 6.

[15]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 14.

[16]      Submission 32, p. 3.

[17]      Submission 32, p. 3.

[18]      Submission 35, p. 8.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 4.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 45.

[21]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 95, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 3.

[22]      Submission 26, p. 5.

[23]      Submission 26, p. 6.

[24]      Submission 26, p. 6.

[25]      Submission 87, p. 7.

[26]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 15.

[27]      Submission 87, p. 7.

[28]      Submission 87, p. 7.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 11.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, pp 5–6.+

[31]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 47.

[32]      NSW Government, 'NSW Government help for Williamtown residents', Media release, 23 December 2015, p. 1.

[33]      Submission 34, p. 2.

[34]      Dr Chris McGrath, Australia's scrambled egg of government: who has the environmental power?' The Conversation, 5 December 2012.

[35]      Heads of Agreement on Commonwealth and State roles and State roles and responsibilities for the Environment, Attachment 3.

[36]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 7, 3 December 2015, p. 1.

[37]      Submission 87, p. 2.

[38]      Submission 87, p. 6.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 45.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 47.

[41]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 46.

[42]      NSW EPA, response to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, Attachment A.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 50.

[44]      Department of the Environment, response to questions on notice, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[45]      Submission 26, p. 5.

[46]      Submission 26, pp 7-8.

[47]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 35.

[48]      Submission 35, p. 7.

[49]      Submission 35, p. 7.

[50]      Submission 87, p. 4.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 7.

[52]      Defence, Defence Contamination Direction #8 – Interim Screen Criteria, 19 May 2015, p. 1.

[53]      Defence, Defence Contamination Direction #8 – Interim Screen Criteria, 19 May 2015, pp 3-5.

[54]      Professor Mark Taylor, 'Stage One of Review of NSW EPA's Management of Contaminated Sites', Interim Report, December 2015, p. 27.

[55]      Submission 35, p. 3.

[56]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 47.

[57]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 94, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2.

[58]      Submission 87, p. 10.

[59]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 68.

[60]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 94, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2. 

[61]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 30.

[62]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 31.

[63]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 42.

[64]      Submission 36, p. 1.

[65]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 34.

[66]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 94, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2.

[67]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 6.

[68]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 94, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2. 

[69]      Submission 26, p. 10.

[70]      CRC CARE, 'Case Study – Fighting fire-fighting foam', 15 December 2014, available at: http://www.crccare.com/case-study/fighting-fire-fighting-foam (accessed 22 January 2016).

[71]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 93, Supplementary Budget Estimates, 21 October 2015, p. 2. 

[72]      Department of Defence, response to question on notice 10, 3 December 2015, p. 1.

[73]      Submission 34, p. 6.

[74]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 14.

[75]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 37.

[76]      Department of the Environment, response to question on notice, 22 December 2015, p.1 [emphasis in original].

[77]      Department of the Environment, response to question on notice, 22 December 2015, p.1.

[78]      Submission 29, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[79]      Submission 87, p. 9.

[80]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 64.

[81]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 4.

[82]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 65.

[83]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 6.

[84]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 14.

[85]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 15.

[86]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 15.

[87]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 41.

[88]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 3.

[89]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[90]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 24.

[91]      Submission 28, pp 4-5.

[92]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 64.

[93]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 41.

[94]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 2.

[95]      Submission 28, p. 4.

[96]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 20

[97]      Committee Hansard, 3 December 2015, p. 17.

Chapter 6 - Committee view and recommendations

[1]        For example, Shine Lawyers, Submission 88.

[2]        For example, Mr Cain Gorfine, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 35.

[3]        Professor Mark Taylor, Interim report, 2015, p. 25.

[4]        Sam Norris, 'State govt announces $4 million for reticulated water to make good on Williamtown contamination', Port Stephens Examiner, 23 December 2015.

[5]        For example, Mrs Kim Smith, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 44.

[6]        Mr Steven Grzeskowiak, Defence, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 68.

[7]        Ms Walker, Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 22.

[8]        Dan Cox, 'Williamtown residents welcome mental health service following air force base chemical contamination', ABC News, 29 January 2016.

[9]        Submission 108, p. 1.

[10]      For example, Commercial Fishermen's Cooperative, Submission 27, p. 2.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 22 December 2015, p. 47.

[12]      PFA, Submission 28, Supplementary Submission, p. 2.

[13]      NSW Health, 'PFOS and PFOA - Williamtown RAAF site contamination', Fact Sheet, September 2015.

[14]      Professor Mark Taylor, 'Stage One of Review of NSW EPA's Management of Contaminated Sites', Interim Report, December 2015, p. 27.

[15]      NSW Government, 'NSW Government help for Williamtown residents', Media release, 23 December 2015, p. 1.

Dissenting report of Coalition senators

[1]        Submission 87, p. 4.

[2]        NSW Health, PFOS and PFOA – Williamtown RAFF site contamination, 11 September 2015, pp 1-2.

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