Appendix D – Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)
known as: Army of Mohammed; Army of the Prophet; Jaish‑e‑Mohammed;
Mujahideen E‑Tanzeem; Jamaat ul-Furqan (JuF);
Jesh-e-Mohammadi; Khudamul Islam;
(KuI); Kuddam e Islami; Mohammed’s Army;
for the Restoration of Pakistani Sovereignty and Army of the Prophet; Tehrik Ul-Furqaan.
The following information is based on
publicly available details about the Jaish‑e‑Mohammad (JeM). To
the Australian Government’s knowledge, these details are accurate and reliable
and have been corroborated by classified information.
Basis for listing a terrorist
Division 102 of the Criminal Code
provides that for an organisation to be listed as a terrorist organisation, the
Attorney-General must be satisfied on reasonable grounds that the organisation:
is directly or indirectly engaged in, preparing,
planning, assisting in or fostering the doing of a terrorist act (whether or
not a terrorist act has occurred or will occur); or
advocates the doing of a terrorist act (whether
or not a terrorist act has occurred or will occur).
Details of the organisation
Objectives and Formation
Based in Pakistan, JeM is a fundamentalist Deobandi Sunni Islamist
organisation which operates primarily in Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK).
JeM uses violence in pursuit of its stated objective of forcing the withdrawal
of Indian security forces from IAK and uniting IAK with Pakistan under a radical interpretation of Islamic law. Some JeM members endorse the wider
aim of establishing an Islamic caliphate across South Asia and expelling Hindus
from the Indian subcontinent. JeM is violently opposed to all other religions,
including Shia Islam.
JeM was founded in 2000 by Maulana Masood Azhar, a radical Islamic scholar
and jihadist leader, following his release from an Indian jail in exchange for
155 hostages hijacked aboard an Indian Airlines aircraft on 31 December 1999.
When released from prison, Azhar did not rejoin his former group, Harakat
ul-Mujahideen (HuM). Instead, Azhar formed JeM, reportedly with support from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the Afghan Taliban, Usama bin Laden and several
other Sunni extremist organisations in Pakistan.
JeM has been splintering into factions since at least 2003 when it
initially split into two groups. One faction rejected Azhar’s claim to the
leadership after he expelled 12 other leaders. The breakaway faction, led by
Mualana Abdul Jabbar (alias Umer Farooq) and known as Jamaat ul-Furqan (JuF),
claims to be the authentic inheritor of the JeM/Khuddam-ul-Islam (KuI) legacy.
Both KuI and JuF were subsequently banned by Pakistan in November 2003. Despite
these developments, JeM is still regarded as a single entity in most reporting.
JeM broadened its operational focus soon after its founding to include
attacks in Pakistan, Afghanistan and wider India. Notable attacks outside IAK
include the assault on India’s parliament building in 2001, the murder of US
Journalist Daniel Pearl in 2002 and two assassination attempts against
Pakistani President Musharraf in 2003. JeM is assessed to be well trained and
supported, and poses a terrorist threat to India and Pakistan and to Western
targets in both of these countries.
Leadership and membership
JeM’s founder, Maulana Masood Azhar, remains the group’s emir, but the
full command structure of JeM is unknown. JeM is estimated to have several
hundred members, including approximately 300 to 400 fighters.
JeM is organised into military and missionary groups administered through
six or seven departments. The majority of JeM’s membership consists of
jihadists from Pakistan and Kashmir, and includes some Arabs and Afghans. JeM’s membership probably includes small
semi-autonomous cells in an attempt to avoid detection from Pakistan authorities.
Extremists in Pakistan often mix across multiple networks
and groups, especially at the lower levels, and there is probably an overlap in
personnel linked to JeM and other extremist groups including Lashkar-e-Tayyiba
(LeT), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) and Harakat ul-Mujahideen (HuM).
Many JeM operatives have benefited from HuM training programmes, which
reportedly were devised by Pakistan’s ISI. JeM reportedly trains its members
in Bangladesh, Nepal and the Middle East. Many JeM operatives are believed to
be veterans of the wars in Afghanistan.
Funding for JeM is derived from both legitimate business interests and
Islamic charitable foundations. JeM-linked charitable foundations include the
Al-Rehmat Trust, which collects donations publicly to help families of the
mujahedeen and has been seeking land donations to build mosques in Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi. Other JeM-linked charities include the Al-Rashid Trust,
which is listed by the US Department of Treasury as a designated terrorist
support organisation. The Al-Rashid Trust has been linked to charities
providing aid to people affected by the 2010 Pakistan floods.
Terrorist activity of the organisation
JeM operatives have been involved in attacks against
civilian and military targets in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. JeM attacks have included suicide bombings in 2001 and 2003 with most attacks
since that time involving grenades and firearms.
JeM continues to concentrate its efforts against Indian security forces
(military and police), government installations and civilians in the disputed territory of IAK. In addition, JeM has broadened its operational focus to join the Afghan
Taliban in attacks against government and Coalition forces in Afghanistan.
Directly or indirectly engaged in the
doing of terrorist acts
Pakistan-based militants, including members of JeM, continue to cross the
Line of Control into IAK for the purpose of engaging in acts of terrorism and
are often involved in clashes with security forces.
Incidents reliably attributed to JeM include:
February 2010: A Pakistani militant captured in Dhaka, Bangladesh, admitted to working as a JeM coordinator in that country and as a
recruiter for operations in India. Four other JeM militants were also
December 2009: Security authorities arrested six people for their
links to JeM and for planning a terrorist attack in Sargodha, Pakistan;
October 2009: A JeM divisional commander and his bodyguard were
killed inside the house in which they had been trapped for several days;
August 2009: Suspected JeM militants attacked a police facility
in Srinagar, IAK, killing one policeman and injuring two others;
June 2009: Police in Lahore, Pakistan, claimed to have arrested
seven terrorists linked to JeM and the Pakistani Taliban and recovered
explosives and weapons;
March 2009: Several JeM militants and a solider were killed
during an encounter in Pulwama District, IAK;
October 2008: Four JeM-linked operatives were arrested for their involvement
in grenade attacks;
January 2008: Police killed two JeM militants during an 18-hour
gun battle near Warpora village, IAK. One police officer was killed and 22
security personnel were injured;
November 2007: Security forces arrested three JeM militants who
admitted they had planned to kidnap a member of India’s Congress Party. The
militants were in possession of various arms and explosives;
June 2006: JeM claimed responsibility for three grenade attacks
in Srinagar, IAK. Two of the attacks targeted the bunker of the Central Reserve
Police Force in the Lal Chowk area of the city and the third was aimed at a
passing police vehicle;
December 2003: Members of a JeM splinter group were involved in
two suicide bombings in attempts to assassinate Pakistan President Pervez
Musharraf in Rawalpindi, Pakistan;
February 2002: Senior JeM leader Sheikh Omar Saeed was charged
with the murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl, the South Asia bureau
chief for the Wall Street Journal;
December 2001: The Indian Government officially blamed JeM and
LeT for the attack on the Indian parliament building in New Delhi;
December 2001: JeM militants launched grenade attacks in
India at a bus stop in Kupwara, injuring 24 people, and at a marketplace in
Chadoura, injuring 16 people.
October 2001: JeM claimed responsibly for a suicide bombing at
the Jammu & Kashmir legislative assembly building in Srinagar, IAK, that
killed 31 people; and
July 2001: a JeM rocket-propelled grenade attack failed to injure
the Chief Minister at his office in Srinagar, IAK, but wounded four others.
Directly or indirectly preparing and/or
planning the doing of terrorist acts
JeM continues to engage in acts of
terrorism against Indian security forces, government installations and
civilians in the disputed territories of IAK.
On several occasions JeM undertook incursions across the Line of Control
into India-administered Kashmir for the purposes of engaging in terrorism.
July 2011: A JeM divisional commander and an associate were
killed in a gun battle with security forces in Pulvama District, IAK. Both had
been involved in recruiting local youth and attacking security force camps;
July 2011: A senior JeM commander was among five militants killed
by the Indian Army in Kupwara District, IAK;
March 2011: A senior JeM commander and his bodyguard were
killed in a gun battle with police at Dal Lake, Srinagar, IAK.
November 2010: Three JeM militants were killed in a gun battle
with police in Srinagar, IAK. The militants had been part of a cell involved
in the killing of two police officers several days earlier, for which
responsibility was claimed by JeM;
October 2010: Three JeM militants were killed by security forces
in Srinagar, IAK;
September 2010: One JeM militant was killed and four were
arrested in a clash with security personnel in IAK. Weapons and money were
February 2010: Two JeM militants were killed in a gun battle with
security forces in northern IAK.
In addition, JeM also has conducted attacks
against Afghan government and Coalition forces in Afghanistan.
JeM trains personnel for possible involvement in future
attacks. JeM operates several camps in Pakistan which provide both
religious instruction and military style guerrilla training and support to JeM
members from Kashmir and Pakistan and to individual jihadists from other parts
of the world.
Reporting also indicates JeM may be facilitating the activities of
international jihadists intending to conduct terrorist operations outside
Kashmir or greater India, including the United Kingdom and US. In May 2010
Pakistani authorities detained four suspected JeM members, one of whom was
possibly connected to Faisal Shahzad, who attempted to detonate a bomb in
New York’s Times Square on 1 May 2010.
have also uncovered possible connections between JeM and the British-born
suicide bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London subway attacks.
In August 2006,
it was discovered that Rashid Rauf, the main conspirator behind a plot to blow
up a USbound British aircraft, is a relative of Maulana Masood Azhar and a
member of JeM. Rauf was arrested at a JeM madrassa in Bahawalpur in southern
Punjab on 9 August 2007, a couple of days before British authorities arrested
the other plotter.
Although based in Pakistan, JeM also uses Bangladesh and Nepal as transit
routes for its operatives and finances. In February 2010 Bangladeshi
authorities arrested several extremists who had reportedly been coordinating
JeM’s operations in Bangladesh. One of these operatives admitted to planning
and executing the Indian Airlines hijacking from Kathmandu to Kandahar in
Directly or indirectly assisting in the
doing of terrorist acts
JeM is aligned politically with the prominent Pakistani Islamist party,
Jamiat-i Ulema‑i-Islam (JUI-F). JeM operates with other Islamist
militant groups in IAK, such as LeT, and conducts joint operations in
Afghanistan and Pakistan with groups such as Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM),
Harakat-ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HuJI), LeJ and
Sipah‑e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP). Furthermore, JeM remains closely
associated with al-Qa’ida and the Afghan Taliban.
Directly or indirectly fostering the
doing of terrorist acts
JeM utilises various online and print media to propagate its message and
to foster terrorist acts. This includes a Peshawar-based weekly magazine
entitled Al Qalam and a children’s magazine, Musalman Bachay. JeM also draws
financial support from religious supporters in Pakistan through these
publications, collecting funds through donation requests in magazines and
In February 2009,
several banned militant groups – including JeM ─ met in Muzaffarabad, the
capital of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, and pledged to continue the jihad to
‘liberate’ Kashmir from India.
On the basis of the above information, ASIO assesses JeM is directly
engaged in preparing, planning, assisting in or fostering the doing of
terrorist acts. It is submitted that the acts attributable to JeM are
terrorist acts as they:
are done with the intention of advancing a political cause,
namely, creating a radical Islamist state in Pakistan and uniting
Indian-controlled Kashmir with Pakistan;
are intended to coerce or influence by intimidation the
governments of foreign countries, including Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, as
well as member countries of the Coalition forces in Afghanistan, and/or
intimidate sections of the public; and
constitute acts which cause serious physical harm to persons,
including death, as well as serious damage to property.
Other relevant information
Links to other terrorist groups or networks
JeM is a member
of the United Jihad Council (UJC), which was formed in 1990 to bring all
Kashmir-focused militant groups under a single banner. Other major groups in
the UJC are HuM, LeT, HM, and the Al Badr Mujahideen.
JeM conducts joint operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan with groups such
as HM, HuJI, LeJ and SSP. In addition, JeM remains closely associated with
al-Qa’ida and the Afghan Taliban.
Proscription by the UN and other countries
JeM is listed in the United Nations 1267 Committee’s consolidated list and
as a proscribed terrorist organisation by the governments of the US, UK,
Canada, New Zealand, India and Pakistan.