Information technology issues
During the course of the committee's inquiry, the Presiding Officers initiated
a review (Roche Review) of information and communication technology (ICT) for
the Parliament. The review examined the management and delivery of ICT service
and equipment for the Parliament including operating context, resourcing,
services and equipment provided, security issues and future institutional
The President informed the committee at the October 2012 Supplementary
Estimates that the review had been completed and tabled a copy of the report.
The implementation of the 11 recommendations arising from the review
will result in a significant change to the way in which ICT services are
planned for, and provided to, all users of the Parliamentary Computer Network
(PCN). These changes are aimed at addressing the many concerns raised about the
provision of ICT services and providing a coordinated, streamlined and responsive
approach to ICT.
However, while major changes are being introduced as a result of the ICT
review, the committee considers that it is useful to provide an overview of ICT
issues which have been raised during the committee's estimates hearings. The
committee will also examine the development of the new Parliament House website
project undertaken by the Department of Parliamentary Services (DPS).
ICT services for parliamentarians and staff
Until the recommendations of the Roche Review are fully implemented, ICT
services for parliamentarians, their staff and the staff of the parliamentary
departments are provided by the four parliamentary departments and the
Department of Finance and Deregulation (Finance) as follows:
- the Department of the Senate and the Department of the House of
Representatives provide desktop equipment for parliamentarians and staff in
their Parliament House suites as well as departmental staff;
- the Parliamentary Budget Office provides desktop equipment for
- DPS provides desktop services for parliamentarians and staff in
their electorate offices;
- DPS is responsible for the PCN within Parliament House as well as
the primary responsibility for IT security and provides the 2020 Helpdesk. DPS
also provides desktop services for its own staff;
- Finance retains responsibility for mobile devices such as
Blackberries and multifunction devices in electorate offices; and
- portfolio departments provide ICT support for their ministers and
Parliamentarians also often provide their own ICT equipment, principally
iPads and iPhones, many of which link to the PCN as 'unmanaged' devices.
The Roche Review provided the ICT expenditure reported to the Australian
Government Information Management Office by the three parliamentary departments
for 2010–11 as follows:
Department of the Senate: $1,735,500;
- Department of the House of Representatives: $2,475,934; and
- Department of Parliamentary Services: $23,916,843.
The Parliamentary Computer Network
The PCN provides IT services to around 4,800 clients.
This includes parliamentarians, their staff both in Parliament House and in
electorate offices and the staff of the four parliamentary departments. The PCN
also hosts applications to:
(a) support the day-by-day work of the parliament (such as the Table Office
systems, Hansard Production System, broadcast camera management system, and
archive systems for Hansard and broadcast records);
(b) provide information to parliamentarians, notably from the Library and
(c) provide information to the Australian community, notably through the
Parliament House website;
(d) manage finance, human resources and procurement for each Department; and
(e) support some operations of the building, including security systems.
In 2010–11, the average staffing of DPS IT services was around 100
officers. DPS also accesses commercial providers of equipment and applications.
Key commercial providers include Microsoft, SAP, Honeywell, Integ, IBM and
Electorate office ICT
In May 2003, the Presiding Officers and the Special Minister of State
signed an agreement whereby DPS would provide IT support to electorate offices
on behalf of Finance with Finance meeting agreed costs of this support. While
this agreement expired in 2006, it continued to be the basis for the service
agreement. Under this agreement, DPS developed and maintained the Standard
Operating Environment which is used in Parliament House and electorate offices
and provided by the 2020 Service Desk. Finance used external contractors to
supply, maintain and support onsite hardware in electorate offices, to maintain
links to Parliament House and from electorate offices and to provide training
services for electorate office staff.
During 2008, talks commenced between DPS and Finance to transfer responsibility
for electorate office IT support to DPS. It was hoped that agreement for the
transfer to occur would be reached by June 2009.
Mr David Kenny, then Deputy Secretary, DPS, commented that the intention of the
transfer was to improve service levels and to deliver a consistent service to
parliamentarians whether in Parliament House or their electorate office. In
addition, the change would simplify support for clients. Mr Kenny explained:
The intention—and these are my words—was to improve productivity
and to get consistency. At the moment, there are four organisations involved in
supporting parliamentary IT services. That is us, the two chamber departments
and the Department of Finance and Deregulation. I think it is a generally held
view that we do not need that many; that it can work very well with fewer
It was noted that the responsibility for parliamentarians' entitlements
for IT hardware would remain with Finance.
However, at the Additional Estimates 2011, Mr Kenny indicated he understood that
decisions about IT entitlements would pass to the Presiding Officers.
At the Budget Estimates May 2010, DPS indicated that agreement had not
yet been reached for the transfer of responsibilities for electorate office IT as
there were governance and legislative issues to be resolved and Finance had
indicated that it was not likely that the transfer would occur before the next
The transfer for responsibility of electorate office IT took place on 1 July
2011. From that date DPS took over management of IT equipment and desktop
applications in electorate offices of parliamentarians from Finance.
Responsibility for mobile devices including mobile phones and their costs and
the car kits as well as residential phone lines and multifunction devices in
electorate offices remained with Finance.
DPS was to receive the allocation funding that had been made to Finance,
less an amount arising from the Gershon review of Commonwealth IT, for the new
Mr Kenny indicated that DPS was undertaking a review of all electorate office
equipment but noted that much of the equipment in electorate offices is old and
has presented DPS 'with quite some headaches about how we go about scheduling
Ms Carol Mills, Secretary, DPS, also commented on the replacement
electorate office ICT equipment and noted that the provision of equipment by
Finance was based on a lease-of-equipment model. However, with government moving
to a model of purchase rather than lease, 'what that means for us is that we
have a demand on our capital budget that we do not really have adequate funding
for because we have a peak of having to replace equipment with purchased
equipment, not leasing'.
Ms Mills commented that because of DPS's tight budget, not all equipment
will be replaced in the next financial year:
We are going to have to look at a strategy of, I guess,
stretching that replacement out, prioritising those that are genuinely
non-functional and then those that are not quite obsolete—they are working but
they are not meeting contemporary standards—and then moving into our regular
cycle of purchase. Inheriting everything at once creates an artificial
situation where we are putting a lot of money in upfront and we do not,
therefore, have the capacity to spread the budget in a way that would make it
easier to manage.
Ms Mills stated that there is 'probably a gap of around $2 million if we
were to replace everything that we think needs replacing at the moment'.
Issues canvassed at estimates
Major issues canvassed at estimates hearings have included lack of
consistency of IT services, fragmentation of responsibility, lack of clarity in
service provision, response to emerging technologies, security threats and
reliability of services.
Fragmentation of responsibility
The lack of consistency of services and equipment between electorate
offices and Parliament House offices has been a major concern for senators. For
example, it was noted that the systems were such that the docking stations for
laptops were different in electorate offices and Parliament House offices.
The fragmentation of responsibility for IT services has meant that committee members
have found it difficult to resolve problems with equipment. For example, problems
with BlackBerries including the frequency of the need to re-enter passwords,
the length of the password, frequency of resetting passwords and the disabling
of the blue light, which indicated that Bluetooth was active, were raised at a
number of estimates hearings before a satisfactory resolution was achieved.
One example which highlights this problem was in relation to resetting Blackberry
passwords. This matter was first canvassed at the February 2011 Additional Estimates.
DPS indicated that Finance was responsible for the policy on length of
passwords and frequency of resetting.
At the October 2011 Supplementary Estimates, following advice from Defence
Signals Directorate (DSD), DPS stated that DSD gives advice on password requirements,
some of which were mandatory and others recommended only. DSD requirements
relating to parliamentarians' BlackBerries were that they should be mandatory.
DSD however, explained that agency heads may choose not to comply with policy
controls in cases where there are valid reasons to vary from a control. DPS
went on to comment that it did not provide BlackBerries so that Finance was the
relevant decision maker.
At the February 2012 Additional Estimates the matter was canvassed again
and Mr Kenny advised that at the end of 2011, advice had been received
from Finance that DPS was the decision-maker in relation to BlackBerries. DPS
had then received more recent advice from Finance that it believed that Finance
still had a role in this matter. In relation to who would make the decision if
there was a difference of view between DPS and Finance, Mr Kenny stated:
If it remained not in dispute but
with different views, they would presumably escalate to the Special Minister of
State and we would brief the Presiding Officers.
At the May 2012 Budget Estimates Mr Kenny noted the large amount of
'toing and froing' to come to a resolution on security levels, but it was now
the position that DPS could set the minimum password.
A further matter canvassed at the 2012 Budget Estimates was the access
to certain services such as Wi-Fi in electorate offices. DPS indicated that
while there were no technical issues with the supply of Wi-Fi to electorate
offices, there were security considerations.
System availability and reliability
Systems availability and reliability has been a major issue with the PCN
since the early 2000s. For example, at the February 2004 Additional Estimates
the committee sought explanations for a major failure of the PCN during the
previous sitting week. It was noted that parts of the system had failed for up
to one and a half days. Committee members commented that the PCN was a source
of major complaints.
Problems have also occurred with the email system.
In its submission to the inquiry, DPS reported that there are increasing
demands on the PCN and 'the network was not originally designed, nor was DPS
funded, for such high demand'.
Mr Kenny explained:
I would certainly agree that the current version of the
system is overloaded, which you can take to be agreement that there is
insufficient capacity. It is not that we cannot acquire more; it is just that
the logistics of putting in the new servers with the new software and migrating
people across to them, along with all their historical data, is time consuming
and we cannot schedule it until we are confident that the new system is
DPS has pointed to funding as well as security concerns as the reasons
for problems with the PCN. Nevertheless it submitted that it provided a
'credible level of service':
...given the history of the DPS funding (which has been discussed
under other Terms of Reference of this inquiry), as well as the diversion of
resources to IT security matters, we consider that we provide a credible level
of service to our clients. Over the last two years we have also been able to
improve components of the service, including the introduction of wireless
connectivity for IT services through most of Parliament House, and the new
service to connect iPad and iPhone devices to the network.
Nevertheless, recognising the feedback from customer surveys
and anecdotal advice from Senators, Members and their staff, DPS aspires to
provide a higher level of service. DPS proposes that higher standards be
included in an expanded version of our services catalogue.
Information security threats
IT security has been identified as a key challenge for DPS which
reported that various forms of attack on IT systems are now occurring on a
For example, in February 2010 the Parliament House website was targeted and
disabled by internet protest group Anonymous, which appeared to be objecting to
the filtering regime being proposed by the government. It was accompanied by
email attacks, phone calls and faxes. The website was hit with 7.5 million
requests for communication per second which disabled the website.
Mr Kenny described the DPS response as 'basically reactive' by shutting
down access in an attempt to block the attacks. He added that information was
provided to the AFP and DSD had been consulted.
When asked about taking more preventative measures Mr Kenny responded:
As a matter of course, we have a range of measures in place
to protect the network and to protect email against malicious or mischievous
attacks. Since February we have had a review of all of our defences. Obviously
we suffered some inconvenience because the internet was down for probably
several days in total. We have reviewed the software and hardware that we use
to block such attacks, identify where such attacks are coming from and try to
block them. We have had discussions with our internet service providers and
with a couple of other government agencies who are obviously also interested in
being able to protect their own systems from such attacks. We have investigated
another product which we are in the process of looking at buying. We have been
Concerns with hacking of the PCN arose in 2011 when the email system had
been hacked. It was reported that 'unknown parties, possibly foreign
intelligence agents, accessed thousands of emails in the Australian Parliament
House network, used by parliamentary staff and ministers'.
DPS responded that:
...yes, there has been a lot of media about hacking into a
range of systems internationally, including corporate sites around the world
and other parliaments around the world, and there were a couple of articles
referring to the Parliament House network here. Obviously, from the fact that a
number of sites were affected, it remains an issue for all of us...IT security
and managing IT and generally improving IT reliability is as high a priority
for us as any of our other fairly urgent tasks.
At the October 2011 Supplementary Estimates hearing, Mr Alan, then
Secretary, DPS, stated that he expected information security issues would
remain in the short and long term.
DPS submitted that:
...future models for ICT services to Parliament need to provide
adequate funding to ensure security, while still providing innovative and
responsive services to parliamentarians and to the Parliamentary Service.
DPS added that it has been 'actively responding to IT security concerns,
and is receiving assistance from Government agencies'. DPS went on to note that
'the major focus on this issue within DPS has necessarily meant that some
aspects of service delivery have had a lower priority'.
Responding to emerging technologies
Improved access to new technologies to assist senators and members in
undertaking their work has been raised regularly in estimates hearings, for
example, in relation to use of iPads. At the October 2011 Supplementary
Estimates, Mr Thompson stated the DPS position:
The dilemma we are faced with, with the whole iPad thing, is
exciting new technology and great opportunity but we have been bringing it in
against a background where we have been very concerned about information
security. We are being very cautious about that.
As iPads emerged as an effective and convenient technology, many
senators and members purchased their own iPads to use for parliamentary
business. These were initially not connected to the PCN. At the February 2011 Additional
Estimates, DPS indicated that it had commenced trialling the use of iPads, as
well as other mobile computing devices in late 2010. DPS stated that the trial
would allow it to identify the issues associated with connecting iPads to the
PCN. It was noted that if a privately-purchased device was to be connected to
the network 'we want a degree of veto over what software gets loaded on it'.
Mr Thompson reported at May 2011 Budget Estimates that the iPad trial
was 'largely' successful and that DPS should be able to provide this service to
members in the future.
The conclusion of our trial was that there can be significant
productivity benefits to all building occupants, but there is then a logistical
thing, which we are close to finalising, and hopefully we can commit to a
service. We are very close to being able to provide a service.
Connection of iPads was again canvassed at the October 2011 Supplementary
Estimates where technical issues in relation to email addresses, calendars and
the use of iPads were raised.
At the February 2012 Additional Estimates Mr Kenny reported:
I think it is fair to say that the iPad service is now well
beyond the trial and in very widespread use. It is still on the basis that the
individual has to provide their own iPad device, but we have now expanded it
technically so that you can use it in two ways. One is just as an unmanaged
device, which just gives you access to your emails on the internet; the other
is as a full parliamentary computing network portable device so that you can
access all services on the PCN.
Mr Kenny also stated that, in the context of assessing electorate office
IT, the provision of a device such as an iPad was under consideration.
Review of ICT for the Parliament
The report of the review of ICT for the Parliament by Mr Michael Roche
was provided by the President at the October 2012 Supplementary Estimates. The
scope of the review included the PCN and the services delivered by that
network, both in Parliament House and in parliamentarians' electorate offices.
It included web-based services, mobile and other devices capable of connecting
to the PCN such as tablets and smart phones. It also included audio visual
services to the extent that they are digitised and available over the PCN.
The report included 11 recommendations with three key themes:
- the adoption of a strategic plan for parliament itself, with a
parliament-wide approach to the provision of parliamentary ICT, with governance
arrangements that include the parliamentary stakeholders and all four
- the adoption of a one-stop-shop approach to the delivery of ICT
to reduce overlap and duplication and to simplify access for users of the PCN;
- the adoption of a more flexible approach to the selection and
delivery of ICT for parliamentarians and to the introduction of new technology.
The President informed the committee that the Presiding Officers had
agreed in principle to the recommendations made, and had instructed the
parliamentary departments to facilitate their implementation. The Presiding
Officers had also agreed on a governance structure for the delivery of
parliament-wide ICT services with the Presiding Officers retaining overall
responsibility. A joint appropriations and staffing committee with oversight of
the delivery of parliament-wide ICT services by DPS would be established and a
chief information officer (CIO) for the Parliament would be appointed.
A parliamentary ICT advisory board is also to be established. The board
will oversee the development of the strategic plan for parliamentary ICT. It
will be chaired by the Secretary of DPS and will comprise one senior
representative from each of the other parliamentary departments, the
Parliamentary Service Commissioner or the Parliamentary Service Commissioner's
nominee, one nominee from the government party, one nominee from the opposition
party and one nominee from the minor parties and Independents. There will be
user groups which will include a parliamentarians group, a members of
parliament staff group and a parliamentary departments group, and these are in
the process of being established. The President stated that the Presiding
Officers believed that the new governance structure provides greater
opportunity for input by senators and members into the type of ICT services
The President indicated that discussions had commenced with the Special
Minister of State in relation to the issues identified in the report. In
particular, that discussions were being held regarding the recommendation made
by Mr Roche that BlackBerries and multifunction devices be transferred to DPS
along with all other electorate IT, and the recommendation relating to the
approval of the acquisition of new technology by senators and members through
an amount to be sacrificed from their stationery and office requisites
Ms Mills also commented on implementation of the Roche review and
...I strongly support those recommendations and that direction.
I think it is imperative that we provide as streamlined a service as possible
to members and senators and their staff. I feel that there are a vast number of
areas in which we can improve on the delivery of ICT services through enhanced
coordination and particularly with a stronger focus on understanding what it is
that members and senators require. You are a mobile work population. Mobility
is now in a technical sense much more available to us than ever before and it
is certainly one of the things that I want to focus upon in the next few
At the committee's hearing on 30 October 2012, Ms Mills indicated that
an acting CIO had commenced with DPS and arrangements were underway to select a
permanent CIO. Ms Mills also informed the committee that nominations for the parliamentary
ICT advisory committee had been received and work was progressing on
identifying issues to be considered by the board over the next 12 months.
The Presiding Officers have also agreed that, as a consequence of the
establishment the board, the Presiding Officers' Information Technology
Advisory Group (POITAG) will be abolished.
Ms Mills also noted that DPS was working towards taking over
responsibility for the ICT functions currently being performed by the Chamber
departments; rationalisation of the number of corporate systems and licences; and
developing the 'one-stop shop' concept for users with full implementation by
July 2013. A significant matter for DPS is the transfer of electorate office IT
from Finance. Ms Mills stated that the issue of parliamentarians' entitlements
and the best way to provide flexible support to senators and members in
choosing the equipment that best meets their needs will be examined. She went
on to state:
There are a significant number of projects that we are doing
at the moment that will fall under that umbrella including exploring the best
way to provide support services and equipment to electorate offices and how we
can deliver a program that is basically a mirror image of what you might see in
Parliament House. We are, obviously, working on projects to speed up broadband
access in offices at the moment and in a way that is a precursor to other
things, because until we can give you good broadband speeds across the country,
a lot of the other equipment, as good as it might be, will not be performing to
an optimum level. That program is rolling out between now and early March. So
by the end of March we should be able to, with confidence, provide access to a
full range of equipment and know that it will work in all the electorate
Parliament House website
At the May 2009 Budget Estimates, DPS informed the committee that the
Parliament House website, which had been released in 2002, would be replaced.
It was noted that there had been significant changes in technology and user
expectations. DPS commented that it would seek the views of users and expected
that the new website would be available in 2010.
When the website was launched in February 2012, Ms Missingham, then
Parliamentary Librarian, described the new functionality of the website and
noted that it will be easier for users to find information:
Members of the public will be able to track bills through
parliament and get email alerts as bills go through various stages. They will
be able to be alerted when their local senator or member gives a speech in the
parliament. They will be able to search Hansard separately and find information
on it more easily.
At the May 2009 Budget Estimates DPS indicated that stage 1 of the
replacement would be finalised October 2009 at a cost of $86,000.
This stage consisted of consultations to determine need in order to draw up a
statement of requirements for tender purposes. By the October 2009 Supplementary
Estimates, the budget for this stage had increased to $150,000. As well, the completion
of the stage had been delayed.
Ms Missingham noted that:
...we have not spent all of the money that was allocated. So,
yes, it has taken a lot longer but I guess we would say that it was far better
to do the right thing in the first place rather than to go to market and have a
tender that did not meet everyone's new and evolving needs...
And we went to tender with a statement of specifications that
described our current needs and then also said we wanted a solution that was
future proofed so that it could be upgraded at additional times.
Ms Missingham also provided details of the total cost of the website and
noted that of the $150,000 allocated for the stage 1, $106,000 had been spent.
Stage 2, which included building the website, to install the content management
system and testing with user groups, was budgeted to cost approximately $1
million. The total budget for the website was $1.15 million.
The committee again examined progress of the website at the October 2011
Supplementary Estimates. Ms Missingham indicated that there had been some
delays due in part to the vendor's lack of understanding of the complexity of
the system and security issues. However, user acceptance testing was taking
place and the website was expected to be launched at the end of 2011.
The new website was launched on 17 February 2012.
At February 2012 Additional Estimates DPS reported that the launch of the new
website had been delayed by around a year. Ms Missingham described the reasons
for the delay:
Work started on coding the website in about November last year
and we had hoped that it would be available in the first half of last year, but
the complexity of various aspects of the website led to delays. There were a
number of issues in regression testing that we found and we also went through a
reworking of aspects of the website as the three creators of information on the
website reworked some of their business requirements. David [Kenny] has
referred to the security environment that we are now in, and there were delays
from undertaking security. We have done three rounds of security analysis of
the website to make sure that it will not be hacked.
The President also explained the reasons for the delay:
I would say one thing at the outset. Part of the delay was
caused by a major breach of the security of the system externally from this
place. That was something that was addressed not only in respect of that
website but in terms of the operation of all IT in this place. That occurred in
December 2010. That put additional costs on IT right throughout this place. I have
not been directly involved in the project itself and I do not know what part of
those costs would have been incurred as a result of that, but one would hope
that, if we have overcome the security aspects, these sorts of delays should
not occur into the future.
The delay also resulted in additional costs of around $614,000 with a
total project cost of $3.1 million. Ms Missingham described the additional
I think you could say that the delays and the additional
costs were as a result of increased complexity of the solution that we needed,
increased security testing and an increase in the work that was done compared
with what we had anticipated when we initiated the project.
At the committee's hearing in October 2012, Ms Mills informed the committee
that further work is being undertaken on the website including to make it fully
compliant with Commonwealth web accessibility guidelines. Ms Mills explained:
...a significant upgrade is still required, in line with the
lessons we have learned from its operation. We are looking to spend a couple of
hundred thousand dollars in the not too distant future to do the next sphere of
At the moment, we have a single web interface into Parliament
House, which services a multiplicity of purposes. Therefore, in some areas it
is not as easy to search as it would be if you had a standalone website or a
very consumer orientated one. I think there are opportunities for us to look in
the future, as the development becomes much more cost effective, at whether we
have multiple entry points into information about parliament. But, at the
moment, we are simply looking at ways of improving from the lessons of the
first: what are people using, how are they accessing it, what information are
they satisfied with? I do get quite regular comments from people within this
building and also citizens that they found it easy or difficult to find certain
information. We are tweaking our content all the time to try and adjust to
An effective delivery of ICT services unpins the successful execution of
every aspect of the work of the Parliament, parliamentarians and their staff
and the staff of the parliamentary departments. IT services now being provided
by DPS for the Parliament are not just restricted to those in Parliament House,
but also those in electorate offices across the country, the services provided
to senators and members on the move and to committees when travelling to remote
areas of Australia.
The review of ICT for the Parliament found deficiencies in the way in
which ICT has been provided in the past and the implementation of the review's
recommendations will enhance the provision of services across the Parliament. The
committee acknowledges that the deficiencies have, in part, arisen because of
the fragmentation of service delivery. This has now been addressed with the
transfer of electorate office IT from Finance. The committee also strongly
supports the transfer of BlackBerries and multifunction devices to DPS.
However, the committee considers that the maximum benefit of this change will
only be achieved if adequate funding is provided to support the ICT services
required by the Parliament. In this regard, the committee notes the comments
made about the age of certain electorate office equipment that DPS has taken
over from Finance and the replacement of this equipment at a time when DPS is
facing significant resource constraints.
The committee supports the implementation of the review's
recommendations. The committee also notes the evidence of past unsatisfactory project
management and provision of IT services. For too long DPS appears to have relied
on security concerns to hinder access to emerging technologies. The committee
is also concerned with ICT project management and points to the new Parliament
House website as an example. This project was significantly delayed and costs
far exceeded initial estimates. The explanation given by the then Parliamentary
Librarian was that the vendor lacked understanding of the complexity of the
system and security issues. The committee finds this a rather problematic
explanation given that the old website had been in situ for some 10 years and security
of ICT systems has been a long standing issue. The committee considers that the
delays may point to poor project development and inadequate consultation
between stakeholders, DPS and the vendors. The committee is also somewhat disturbed
that Ms Mills has indicated that the website still requires a 'significant
upgrade' which will costs 'a couple of hundred thousand dollars'. The committee
will keep this further upgrade work under close scrutiny through the estimates
The committee anticipates that the appointment of the CIO under the
post-review structure will provide a more rigorous approach to the delivery of
ICT services. In particular, the committee considers that a dedicated CIO will
assist in ensuring that projects are delivered on time, within budget and fit
for the proposed purpose and that committee members will not have to resort to
the estimates process to try to remedy minor technical problems with ICT
The committee also welcomes streamlining the provision of ICT through a
'one-stop shop' and the setting of a level of security that is practical
without creating vulnerabilities in the PCN. However, the committee is mindful
of the financial resources required to implement significant changes to IT
systems and equipment upgrades and will monitor closely developments in this
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