House of Representatives Committees

| Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade

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Preliminary pages

Foreword

Africa is a diverse continent of increasing importance to the world. In geopolitical terms, African countries have increasing influence on international organisations; in resources terms, Africa has vast reserves; in trading terms, the African population represents a huge potential market; and in agricultural terms, Africa’s underutilised arable lands represent great opportunities to feed the world. Africa also continues to face significant challenges, particularly in health, governance and economic development.

This is the first comprehensive report of Australia’s relationship with the countries of Africa by the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade or by any other Parliamentary committee. It is therefore timely as Australia increasingly looks towards Africa for trade and investment opportunities. Australians, however, have for a long time been interested in Africa—the Australian public donates far more to aid organisations than Australia’s official development assistance. Academics too have been interested in Africa, although recently expertise has been fragmented across the universities in Australia.

The 53 countries of Africa have different histories, political traditions and allegiances and present significant challenges to African multinational organisations such as the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, and the Southern African Development Community. These organisations are achieving success in meeting these challenges and in promoting stability, economic progress, and democracy.

Government to Government Links

In Chapter 2, the report considers government links with Africa, including Australia's diplomatic representation, Parliamentary links and government links at ministerial and officials level.

Australia’s diplomatic representation on the African continent is significantly less than our major trading partners, United States, China, Japan, UK and the EU. Further, Canada, the Republic of Korea and Malaysia all have substantially more diplomatic posts, whilst Thailand and Vietnam have comparable representation.

Whilst the importance of Africa and African issues internationally have increased over the past 25 years, Australia’s diplomatic presence has decreased from 12 posts to 8 in the same period. The Committee notes that our diplomatic presence is now concentrated in southern and eastern Africa and the former British colonies. There is a considerable gap elsewhere, particularly in Francophone Africa.

The Committee welcomes the recent opening of the Australian embassy in Addis Ababa. This city is the location of the headquarters of the African Union and diplomatic representation from many African countries. Opening new diplomatic posts in Africa demonstrates a commitment to the continent and provides a valuable assistance investing in and trading with those countries.

Currently each of our High Commissions/Embassies, except for the recently opened embassy in Addis Ababa, provide Australian representation to between 4 and 11 countries. This is substantially more than occurs in other regions of the world.

This report therefore recommends a comprehensive review of Australia’s diplomatic representation in Africa with a view to opening an additional post in Francophone Africa; increasing the number of French speaking Australia-based diplomatic staff in the existing West African High Commissions; and, as a short term measure, increasing the number of Australian honorary consuls in Africa.

The Committee has also reviewed the number of delegations coming from African countries to Australia and outgoing Australian Parliamentary delegations travelling to African countries. As a consequence, the Committee has recommended there should be an increase of Australian Parliamentary delegations to specific African countries, particularly to those with increasing significance to Australia.

Australia's Aid Program

In Chapter 3, the report considers Australia's aid program, including Australia's official development assistance (ODA), assistance provided by NGOs, and individual and private sector initiatives. The chapter also describes several aid projects which the Committee visited when it travelled to Africa.

Australia’s ODA to Africa is modest when compared to major donor nations and Australia’s Pacific ODA program. Australia has chosen to concentrate its aid program on agriculture and food security; water and sanitation; and maternal and child health. These are areas where Australia has expertise and can therefore generate greatest impact.

The Committee welcomes the increasing level of Australian development aid to Africa in recent years and the areas where Australia is focusing its assistance.

During the inquiry, a Committee Delegation visited Ethiopia, Ghana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The visit included inspections of various AusAID supported projects. It became clear that there is some way to go in achieving recognition of Australia’s contribution of aid via multilateral partners.

The Committee has not commented on Australia’s aid effectiveness because it is currently being reviewed by an independent panel. Nevertheless, the Committee Delegation was impressed by the potential benefit of supporting private sector initiatives, for example by providing funds through the Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund Zimbabwe Window. Provided such projects are carefully selected, there is the advantage of leveraging additional funds from the private sector; affecting large numbers of people through an expanded local economy; and supporting a sustainable enterprise with the potential for growth.

The Committee has received evidence from the private sector and individuals about initiatives which develop capacity in African countries. The Committee believes these programs should be encouraged and has recommended that AusAID should assist such programs and enable the expansion of the Australian Business Volunteers program to cover African countries.

Whilst in Africa, Committee Delegation members were regularly approached by African government ministers, officials, and businessmen advocating Australian involvement in creating regulation frameworks for the mining sector in African countries. As a major minerals exporter, Australia has experience and expertise in this area and could readily assist African countries. Robust regulatory frameworks offer certainty for business and would benefit resource rich African countries.

In addition, members of the Delegation were made aware of the high regard in which State Departments of Mining and Energy were held by large numbers of officials in a range of African countries. Often these departments hold expertise built up over a 100 years. Officials in African countries repeatedly requested access to this knowledge and expertise.

There is thus a major opportunity for the Australian Government, State Governments, and the wider mining industry to use their expertise to assist the development, implementation, and administration of sound mining codes in a range of African countries.

The Committee has recommended that there be established a special unit in the Australian Government tasked with establishing a regulatory framework model for the mining and resources sector which African countries could consider adopting according to their requirements.

Collaboration and cooperation between the private sector, government agencies, and NGOs in delivering aid to Africa can result in synergies. Such synergies could capitalise on NGOs’ expertise in development issues in local communities, private sector business acumen, and public funding sources. However, this must not detract from the delivery of aid where it is most needed.

The Committee therefore sees value in DFAT facilitating meetings between NGOs, resource companies and AusAID with a view to cooperating in development initiatives and maximising synergies. Furthermore, the Committee considers that there is strong potential for DFAT to facilitate more connections between NGOs and resource companies active in the same area and it is aware of examples of this type of positive collaboration.

Education Links

In Chapter 4, the report considers Australia’s education links with Africa and the suggestion that there be a centre for studying African issues.

The higher education sector is now a significant contributor to Australia’s export earnings. The sector has a growing reputation for building links with academic institutions in developing countries particularly in Asia and the Gulf. Therefore it is in Australia’s interest to further develop valuable ties and similar relationships in research and higher education in Africa.

The evidence provided to the Committee reveals a picture of Australia as a small partner in specialised cooperative research, and a small but important provider of scholarships and student exchanges with African universities.

In the Committee’s view, it is clear that Australia cannot compete in absolute terms with other countries. It makes good sense, however, for the message that Australia, armed with a realistic appraisal of its capabilities and strengths in research and higher education, can create valuable ties in Africa—and, indeed, already has an established record of doing so.

The Committee recognises that there needs to be a balance with respect to the provision of scholarships to Africans. On the one hand Africa will benefit through the transfer of skills if African students return to their country of origin after completion of their studies. Australia also benefits because the African alumni will act as 'ambassadors from Australia'.

On the other hand, the immediate benefit to Australia occurs when African students remain in Australia because their skills alleviate Australia's skills shortage. Such a brain drain is of concern not only to African countries but also to other countries providing talented students to study in Australia.

The Committee has recommended that AusAID’s scholarships program should include providing scholarships to African students to undertake tertiary education in Africa. This could involve study at African universities and at Australian universities with links with Africa.

The Committee has reviewed the reasons why Australia should increase its research capacity in relation to Africa and the current levels of research in Australia. Also, responding to a call from many witnesses, the Committee discusses the various proposals for a centre to foster an increased effort in African studies.

There is, within Australia, a substantial body of expertise on African issues. The Committee believes that it is important to promote its coordination and further development. Therefore the Committee has recommended that a Centre for African Studies should be established, preferably, within a university in Australia. A Centre will facilitate a coordinated approach to education and training both at undergraduate and graduate level. Further, it will establish a focal point for coordinating expertise on African issues.

The Committee has not come to a view as to where such as centre should be located. Rather it recommends inviting competitive tenders from Australian universities. Such a process will reveal the level of commitment of universities wishing to become the location of a Centre for African Studies.

Research Links

In Chapter 5, the report considers Australia’s research links with Africa, including a discussion of development related research provided by Australia and other organisations.

Australia is a leader in agricultural production and its expertise provides opportunities for expansion of research and the creation of agribusiness joint ventures. The Committee has received evidence of the work of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research and CSIRO in Africa. Such research is mutually beneficial for both African countries and Australia, in that it both assists in progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 and increases the agricultural expertise of Australia. The Committee supports these activities and encourages continuing Australian agricultural research in Africa.

Trade and Investment

In Chapter 6, the report considers trade and investment, including discussion of the potential for growth in trade and impediments to this growth. The substantial and increasing role of Australia's mining sector in Africa is discussed, including corporate social responsibility obligations. The Chapter concludes with consideration of the need for an Australia Africa Council.

The 53 countries of Africa have a total population in excess of one billion; in Sub–Saharan Africa the population is in excess of 870 million. This represents a potential huge market. Australia's trade links with Africa are currently modest, but there are opportunities for joint ventures with businesses in South Africa and in the horticultural and tourism sectors generally.

Australia is increasing its trade and investment links with the continent, yet has only a handful of Austrade personnel in Africa. The Committee believes that the increased importance of trade and investment in Africa combined with a large geographical area and increasing workload warrants an increase in the number of Austrade offices and/or staff. The Committee has therefore recommended that the number of Austrade offices and personnel that are based in Sub-Saharan Africa be increased.

The corporate social responsibility obligations of Australian resource sector companies operating in Africa were raised by a number of witnesses. The Chapter discusses in some detail the activities of several Australian mining companies in Africa including the links with NGOs with an interest in this area.

Also discussed is the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) whereby host governments publish what they receive from mining companies which in turn publish what they pay. This promotes transparency and is aimed to reduce the risk of corruption.

The Committee notes that Norway is the only First World country that is EITI compliant and that no other countries, including Australia, are either EITI candidates or have signalled intent to adopt EITI principles. It would considerably enhance Australia's advocacy of EITI adoption if it was itself engaged in the process of becoming EITI compliant.

The Committee has also recommended that the Government should promote corporate social responsibility and continue to promote the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative principles and other corporate social responsibility instruments to the Australian mining sector, in particular at the Australia Down Under Conference, and especially to new entrants and small operators.

Further, the Government should facilitate contacts between mining sector companies, NGOs, and the broader private sector who are able to assist them in creating and executing corporate social responsibility policies.

The Committee believes the increasing opportunities for links with Africa, including the potential for increased trade with Africa and the increasing levels of investment already occurring, warrant the establishment of an Australia-Africa Council similar to those currently existing for other countries and regions. An example of such a council is the Council on Australian Latin America Relations—an organisation which had its genesis in a recommendation from this Committee in 2000.

Defence and Security

In Chapter 7 the report considers defence and security. The Committee examines Australia's policy framework, peacekeeping activities, and discusses crime and security. The Committee's observations from its visit to Zimbabwe and Ethiopia are included.

Australia's approach to its Defence and Security engagement with African nations is consistent with its status as an interested middle-power. This approach is characterised by cooperative relationships between Australian government agencies—in particular Defence, AFP, DFAT, and Attorney-General's Department—and with other countries. This gives Australia the best possible chance of delivering value for the resources invested in these activities.

The Committee welcomes the forward-thinking and risk-management-based approaches on terror, crime and defence that are evident in Australia’s current approach. This appears to be a prudent line of activity which, again, seeks to prevent rather than respond to crises after they occur.

It would seem, however, that Australia’s wish to present a credible face in Africa would be well-served by including a specific reference to the doctrine of responsible sovereignty within Defence policy. Relying solely on ‘Australia's interests’ arguments could run the risk of being perceived as neo-colonial in intent. A rules-based approach, combined with the very considerable natural resources investments and expertise underlined by principles of corporate social responsibility brought to bear in Africa by Australian companies, would be a good way to present Australia within the continent of Africa, and would distinguish it both from past actions by Western countries and, in some cases, contemporary involvements in the African resource sector.

Africans in Australia

In Chapter 8 the report considers issues facing African migrants and refugees living in Australia and how the African community in Australia can contribute to Australia-Africa relations.

Australia has a growing African community. Over the last two decades, Africans have come to Australia via two routes; both as migrants through Australia’s skilled and family reunion programs, and as refugees through Australia’s humanitarian program. Census data shows that in 2006 there were 248 699 African-born people living in Australia.

The Committee strongly supports both the official and non-official efforts made towards settling African migrants and humanitarian entrants in Australia. It further notes the contribution the African-born community makes to both Australia and their respective home countries, through their skills, expertise, culture, and remittances.

However, the Committee notes that more should be done to utilise the cultural, linguistic, and practical expertise of Africans already in Australia in terms of making the settlement process even smoother. This would assist in better tailoring the settlement programs to the needs of Africans, and particularly vulnerable communities such as humanitarian entrants from prolonged conflicts such as those in Southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The Committee notes the potential for the many African-born Australian residents to make a real contribution to relations between Australia and the countries of Africa. Furthermore, the diverse range of countries and cultures from which they come widens the scope for the development of relations.

Efforts to build on and expand cultural relations and interchange are a real boost for Australia’s relationship with Africa, particularly at the grassroots level. Activities that achieve this, as well as providing mutual benefits to both African countries and Australia, should be officially encouraged and expanded.

The Committee has recommended that the proposed Australia-Africa Council should include within its goals, support for activities that encourage and facilitate cultural interchange and exchange, particularly including the Australian African community.

Conclusion

Following a visit to Africa in 2009, the President of the World Bank, Mr Robert Zoellick, called for the 21st century to be ‘the century of Africa’. Many other advanced countries are turning their attention towards Africa. It is imperative, therefore, that Australia understands these developments and responds accordingly.

I hope this report will provide a contribution to Australia's increased engagement with Africa.

Senator Michael Forshaw

Chair


Membership of the Committee—42nd Parliament

Chair   Senator M Forshaw  
Deputy Chair   Hon. Mr D Hawker MP  
Members  Senator M Arbib (from 01/07/08 to 10/03/09) Mr M Danby MP
  Senator A Bartlett (to 30/06/08) Ms A Ellis MP
  Senator M Bishop Hon. Mr J Fitzgibbon MP (from 15/06/09)
  Senator M Cormann (to 23/09/08) Mr S W Gibbons MP
  Senator A Eggleston (to 19/03/08) Ms S Grierson MP
  Senator the Hon. A Ferguson (from 01/07/08) Mr D Hale MP
  Senator M Fifield Hon. Mr I Macfarlane MP (to 03/02/10)
  Senator M Furner (from 16/03/09) Mrs L Markus MP (from 25/09/08)
  Senator S Hanson-Young (from 04/12/08) Ms S Mirabella MP (to 10/03/09)
  Senator the Hon. D Johnston
(from 23/09/08)
Hon. Mr J Murphy MP (from 20/03/09)
  Senator L J Kirk (to 30/06/08) Mr R Oakeshott MP (from 20/03/09 to 19/07/10)
  Senator S Ludlam (from 26/11/08) Ms M Parke MP
  Senator the Hon. J A L (Sandy) Macdonald (to 30/06/08) Ms K Rea MP (to 19/07/10)
  Senator C M Moore Mr B Ripoll MP (to 19/07/10)
  Senator K O’Brien (from 01/07/08)

Hon. Mr A Robb AO MP (to 25/09/08)

  Senator M Payne (from 19/03/08) Mr S Robert MP
  Senator N Stott Despoja (to 30/06/08) Hon. Mr P Ruddock MP
  Senator R Trood Ms J Saffin MP
  Senator R S Webber (to 30/06/08) Hon. Mr B Scott MP
  Hon. Mr B Baldwin MP Mr K Thomson MP(from 15/06/09 to 15/06/09)
  Hon. Mr A Bevis MP Hon. Mr W Truss MP (from 03/02/10 to 22/02/10)
  Hon. Ms J Bishop MP (from 10/03/09) Ms M Vamvakinou MP
  Mr M Coulton MP (from 22/02/10)  

Membership of the Committee—43rd Parliament

Chair Senator M Forshaw  
Deputy Chair Mrs J Gash MP  
Members Senator M Bishop Mr M Danby MP
  Senator the Hon. J Faulkner (from 30/09/10 to 14/02/11) Mr L Ferguson MP
  Senator the Hon. A Ferguson Hon. Mr J Fitzgibbon MP
  Senator M Furner Mr S Georganas MP (to 24/03/11)
  Senator S Hanson-Young Mr S W Gibbons MP
  Senator the Hon. D Johnston Hon. Mr A Griffin MP
  Senator S Ludlam Dr D Jensen MP
  Senator the Hon. I Macdonald Mrs S Mirabella MP
  Senator C Moore Hon. Mr J Murphy MP
  Senator K O’Brien (from 14/02/11) Mr K O'Dowd MP (from 25/10/10)
  Senator M Payne Ms M Parke MP
  Senator R Trood Mr S Robert MP
  Hon. Mr D Adams MP (from 24/03/11) Hon. Mr P Ruddock MP
  Hon. Ms J Bishop MP Ms J Saffin MP
  Ms G Brodtmann MP Hon. Mr B Scott MP
  Hon. Mr A Byrne MP Hon. Dr S Stone MP (from 25/10/10)
  Mr N Champion MP Ms M Vamvakinou MP

Membership of the Africa Sub-Committee

Chair

Senator M Forshaw

Deputy Chair

Hon. Mr D Hawker MP (to 19/07/10)

Mrs J Gash MP (from 22/11/10)
Members Senator M Bishop
  Senator the Hon. A Ferguson
  Senator M Furner
  Senator the Hon. I Macdonald (from 22/11/10)
  Senator C Moore
  Senator R Trood
  Ms G Brodtmann MP (from 22/11/10)
  Mr N Champion MP (from 22/11/10)
  Hon. Mr J Fitzgibbon MP
  Hon. Mr A Griffin MP (from 22/11/10)
  Dr D Jensen MP (from 22/11/10)
  Hon. Mr J Murphy MP
  Ms M Parke MP (from 22/11/10)
  Ms S Grierson MP (to 19/07/10)
  Mr R Oakeshott MP (to 19/07/10)
  Ms K Rea MP (to 19/07/10)
  Mr S Robert MP
  Hon. Mr P Ruddock MP
  Hon. Mr B Scott MP (from 22/11/10)
  Ms J Saffin MP (to 19/07/10)
  Hon. Dr S Stone MP (from 22/11/10)
  Ms M Vamvakinou MP (to 19/07/10)

Additional Parliamentary Delegation to Africa —5 to 16 April 2011

Chair

Hon. Mr J Fitzgibbon MP

Deputy Chair

Hon. Mr P Ruddock MP

Members

Senator M Bishop

Senator C Moore

Senator R Trood
Hon. Mr A Griffin MP
Hon. Dr S Stone MP
Delegation Secretary Dr J Carter


Committee Secretariat

Secretary

Dr M Kerley (to 10/06/11)

Acting Secretary

Dr J Carter (from 10/06/11)

Inquiry Secretary

Dr J Carter

Research Officer

Mr J Bunce

 

Ms P Davies
  Dr B Lloyd
Office Manager Ms J Butler
  Mrs D Quintus-Bosz
Administrative Officers Ms G Drew
  Mrs S Gasper

Terms of reference

The Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade shall inquire into and report on Australia’s relationship with Africa, with special emphasis on:

  • Bilateral relations at the parliamentary and government levels;

  • economic issues, including trade and investment;

  • cultural, scientific and educational relations and exchanges;

  • development assistance co-operation and capacity building;

  • defence cooperation, regional security and strategic issues; and

  • migration and human rights issues.

The Committee will consider both the current situation and opportunities for the future.

List of abbreviations

AABC VC Australian African Business Council Victoria Chapter
AACES Australian African Community Engagement Scheme
AAMIG Australia Africa Mining Industry Group

ACF

Australian Conservation Fund

ACFID

Australian Council for International Development

ACIAR

Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research

ADB

African Development Bank

ADF

Australian Defence Force

AECF ZW

Zimbabwe Window of the African Enterprise Challenge Fund

AEI

Australian Education International

AFP

Australian Federal Police

AFSAAP

African Studies Association of Australasia and the Pacific

ALPA

Australian Leadership Program for Africa

ANBC

Australia Nigeria Business Council

APAC

Australian Partnerships with African Communities

APRM

African Peer Review Mechanism

AQIS

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

ARC

Australian Research Council

ARI

African Research Institute

ASNO

Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office

ATT

Arms Trade Treaty

AU

African Union

AUA

Australian Uranium Association

AusAID

Australian Agency for International Development

AUSTRAC

Australian Transaction Analysis Centre

AWSA

Australian Western Saharan Association

CAADP

Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program

CARTA

Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa

CHOGM

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

CMAG

Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group

COMESA

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

CPA

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association

CPPNM

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

CRC

Cooperative research Centre

CRT

Commonwealth Round Table

CSA

comprehensive safeguard agreements

DCP

Defence Cooperation Program

DEEWR

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations

DFAT

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

DIAC

Department of Immigration and Citizenship

DIISR

Development of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research

DRET

Department of Resources Energy and Tourism

EAC

East African Community

EBID

ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development

ECCAS

Economic Community of Central African States

ECOWAS

Economic Union of West African States

EDF

Ethiopian Democratic Forum

EFIC

Export Finance and Insurance Corporation

EITI

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

EMAO

Ethiopian Mine Action Office

FLS

Frontline States

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IARC

International Agriculture Research Centres

ICF

Investment Climate Facility for Africa

IELTS

International English Language Testing System

IGAD

Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development

IHL

international humanitarian law

IPU

International Parliamentary Union

JSE

Johannesburg Stock Exchange

JTF-HOA

US Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa

KSA

knowledge, skills and abilities

LIW

Leading Initiatives Worldwide

LSE

London School of Economics

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MoU

Memorandum of Understanding

MSA

Monash South Africa

MUFESA

Monash University Fund for Education in South Africa

NECSA

Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa

OAU

Organisation of African Unity

ODA

official development assistance

OET

Occupational English Test

Oxfam

Oxfam Australia

SADC

South African Development Community

SADCC

Southern African Development Coordinating Conference

SAR

search and rescue

SIMLESA

Pathways to sustainable intensification of maize-legume based farming systems for food security in eastern and southern Africa

SKA

Square Kilometre Array

TOEFL

Test of English as a Foreign Language

VET

Vocational and Education Training

WUE

water use efficiency



List of recommendations

Government to Government Links

Recommendation 1

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade should undertake a comprehensive review of Australia’s diplomatic representation in Africa with a view to opening an additional post in Francophone Africa.

Recommendation 2

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade should, pending the implementation of Recommendation 1, increase the number of Australia-based French speaking diplomatic staff in its West African High Commissions. They should have specific responsibility for covering Australia's interests in Francophone West African countries.

Recommendation 3

As a short to medium term measure, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade should increase the number of honorary consuls appointed to represent Australia in African countries.

Recommendation 4

The Government should increase the number of Australian parliamentary delegations to specific African countries particularly to those with increasing significance to Australia.

Australia’s Aid Program

Recommendation 5

AusAID should provide funding assistance to capacity building programs such as that conducted by the Australian Leadership Program for Africa and similar organisations.

Recommendation 6

AusAID should increase funding for the Australian Business Volunteers program so that it can expand coverage to African countries.

Recommendation 7

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism should establish and fund a special unit tasked with establishing a regulatory framework model for the mining and resources sector which African countries could consider adopting according to their requirements.

Recommendation 8

DFAT should coordinate regular meetings between AusAID, NGOs, and Australian resource companies engaged in Africa, with a view to facilitating aid and development delivery cooperation to take advantage of their differing and complementary strengths.

Education Links

Recommendation 9

AusAID’s scholarships program should include providing scholarships to African students to undertake tertiary education in Africa. This could involve study at African universities and at Australian universities with links with Africa such as Monash South Africa

Recommendation 10

The Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations should:

Trade and Investment

Recommendation 11

The Government should increase the number of Austrade offices and personnel that are based in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Recommendation 12

The Department of Immigration and Citizenship should expand the issuing of e-visas across Africa, with priority to establishing the service in countries where there is the potential to expand trade, academic, research and other links.

Recommendation 13

The Government should undertake steps for Australia to become an EITI compliant country.

Recommendation 14

The Government should promote corporate social responsibility and continue to promote the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative principles and other corporate social responsibility instruments to the Australian mining sector, in particular at the Australia Down Under Conference, and especially to new entrants and small operators.

Recommendation 15

The Government should facilitate contacts between mining sector companies, NGOs, and the broader private sector who are able to assist them in creating and executing corporate social responsibility policies.

Recommendation 16

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade should establish, and provide adequate funding for an Australia-Africa Council.

Africans in Australia

Recommendation 17

The proposed Australia-Africa Council should include within its goals, support for activities that encourage and facilitate cultural interchange and exchange, particularly including the Australian African community.



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