House of Representatives By-elections 1949-2001


Current Issues Brief 12 2000-01

Gerard Newman
Statistics Group
3 April 2001

Contents

Major Issues
Introduction
Schedule of House Of Representatives By-elections, 1949-2001
Reasons for Vacancies
Results and Swings
Seats Lost at By-elections 1949-2001
Timing
Notes on Selected By-elections
Appendix 1 By-election Timing: By-elections 1949-2001
Appendix 2 Electoral Division Details

 

Party Abbreviations and Symbols

*

Party holding seat before by-election

 

 

n.a.

not applicable

 

 

 

 

 

 

AAP

Advance Australia Party

HMP

Help End Marijuana Prohibition

AC

Australian Constitutionalist

ILab

Independent Labor

AFI

Australians Against Further Immigration

ILib

Independent Liberal

ALP

Australian Labor Party

ILCL

Independent Liberal Country League

ANAG

Australian National Action Group

LibF

Liberal Forum

AP

Australia Party

LP

Liberal Party

APPG

Australian Pensioner Pressure Group

LRG

Liberal Reform Group

AR

Australian Republican

NA

National Alliance

ARM

Australian Reform Movement

NAP

New Australian Party

ASP

Australian Shooters Party

NHP

National Humanitarian Party

Com

Communist Party

NLP

Natural Law Party

CP

Country Party

NP

National Party

CRep

Constitutional Republican

NSP

National Socialist Party

CTA

Call to Australia

PCP

Progressive Conservative Party

Dem

Australian Democrats

PORP

Property Owners' Rights Party

DLP

Democratic Labor Party

PP

Progress Party

DOGS

Council for the Defence of Government Schools

SPA

Socialist Party of Australia

DSP

Deadly Serious Party

RARI

Reclaim Australia: Reduce Immigration

FLR

Family Law Reform Party

RPA

Republican Party of Australia

FPA

Federal Party of Australia

SWP

Socialist Workers' Party

FST

Australia First Party

UAP

Unite Australia Party

Grn

Greens

UTG

United Tasmanian Group

Gry

Grey Power

UM

Uninflated Movement

Ind

Independent

UWU

Unemployed Workers Union

GWA

The Greens (WA)

VOTE

Voice of the Elderly


Major Issues

During the period 1949 to the end of March 2001 there have been 80 by-elections for the House of Representatives. Assuming that there are no more by-elections during the life of the 39th Parliament, this will mean an average of four by-elections for each of the twenty parliaments in the period.

Of the 80 by-elections held during the period, 28 have occurred because of the death of the member, 51 as the result of the resignation of the member and one because the result in the Electoral Division at the previous general election was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns (Lindsay 1996).

On only eleven occasions has the sitting party lost the seat at a by-election. The Labor Party has won five seats from the Coalition (Flinders 1952, Dawson 1966, Corio 1967, Lowe 1982, and Ryan 2001), but has lost three seats to the Liberal Party (Bass 1975, Adelaide 1988, and Canberra 1995) and lost one seat to an Independent (Wills 1992). The Liberal Party has won one seat from their Coalition partners (Groom 1988) while the National Party has won one seat from the Liberal Party (Calare 1960).

Most (60.8%) by-elections caused by the resignation of the sitting member have occurred in safe seats. Only eight by-elections have occurred in marginal seats.

The average two party preferred swing against the government in all by-elections during the period was 4.0%, while the average swing in government held seats was 5.0%. The largest two party swing against the government occurred in Canberra in 1995 (16.1%) while the largest swing to the government occurred in McPherson in 1981 (16.2%). There have been swings to the government of the day in only twelve by-elections during the period.

An increasing tendency over the period has been for the government of the day not to contest by-elections in seats held by the opposition. Since 1989, governments have not contested any by-elections in opposition held seats. In only one by-election during the whole period (Bradfield 1952) has the opposition not contested a government held seat.

Introduction

By-elections are held to fill vacancies in the House of Representatives resulting from the death, resignation, absence without leave, expulsion, disqualification or ineligibility of a Member. The Constitution (section 33) confers on the Speaker of the House of Representatives the power to issue a writ for the election of a new Member. There is no prescribed time period for the issuing of writs following a vacancy and it is possible to avoid a by-election if a general election is pending (e.g. a vacancy in the Division of Wills occurred on 25 November 1992 following a Court of Disputed Returns but no by-election was held pending the March 1993 general election).

This paper provides details of each by-election for the House of Representatives from the 1949 election to March 2001. All swing figures used in the paper are calculated on two party preferred votes except where otherwise indicated.

Schedule of House Of Representatives By-elections, 1949-2001

Date

Division

Member Elected

Previous Member

Reason for Vacancy

28.7.51

Balaclava (Vic)

Joske PE (LP)

White TW (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

28.7.51

Macquarie (NSW)

Luchetti AS (ALP)

Chifley JB (ALP)

Died

22.3.52

Lyne (NSW)

Lucock PE (CP)

Eggins EJ (CP)

Died

18.10.52

Flinders (Vic)

Ewert KWW (ALP)

Ryan RS (LP)

Died

29.11.52

Werriwa (NSW)

Whitlam EG (ALP)

Lazzarini HP (ALP)

Died

20.12.52

Bradfield (NSW)

Turner HB (LP)

Hughes WM (LP)

Died

9.5.53

Dalley (NSW)

Greenup AE (ALP)

Rosevear JS (ALP)

Died

29.8.53

Corangamite (Vic)

Mackinnon ED (LP)

McDonald AM (LP)

Died

29.8.53

Lang (NSW)

Stewart FE (ALP)

Mulcahy D (ALP)

Died

19.12.53

Gwydir (NSW)

Allan AI (CP)

Treloar TJ (CP)

Died

21.5.55

Cook (NSW)

Cope JF (ALP)

Sheehan T (ALP)

Died

11.4.56

Cunningham (NSW)

Kearney VD (ALP)

Davies W (ALP)

Died

13.10.56

Barker (SA)

Forbes AJ (LP)

Cameron AG (LP)

Died

8.12.56

Wentworth (NSW)

Bury LHE (LP)

Harrison EJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

14.9.57

Richmond (NSW)

Anthony JD (CP)

Anthony HL (CP)

Died

8.3.58

Parramatta (NSW)

Barwick GEJ (LP)

Beale OH (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to USA.

9.4.60

Hunter (NSW)

James AW (ALP)

Evatt HV (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Chief Justice of NSW.

9.4.60

La Trobe (Vic)

Jess JD (LP)

Casey RG (LP)

Resigned

16.7.60

Balaclava (Vic)

Whittorn RH (LP)

Joske PE (LP)

Resigned. Appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of the ACT.

16.7.60

Bendigo (Vic)

Beaton NL (ALP)

Clarey PJ (ALP)

Died

5.11.60

Calare (NSW)

England JA (CP)

Howse JB (LP)

Resigned

10.12.60

Higinbotham (Vic)

Chipp DL (LP)

Timson TF (LP)

Died

1.9.62

Batman (Vic)

Benson SJ (ALP)

Bird AC (ALP)

Died

1.6.63

Grey (SA)

Mortimer J (ALP)

Russell EHD (ALP)

Died

28.9.63

East Sydney (NSW)

Devine LT (ALP)

Ward EJ (ALP)

Died

15.2.64

Denison (Tas)

Gibson A (LP)

Townley AG (LP)

Died

20.6.64

Angas (SA)

Giles GO (LP)

Downer AR (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

20.6.64

Parramatta (NSW)

Bowen NH (LP)

Barwick GEJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Chief Justice of High Court.

5.12.64

Robertson (NSW)

Bridges-Maxwell CW (LP)

Dean RL (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Administrator of NT.

27.2.65

Riverina (NSW)

Armstrong AA (CP)

Robertson HS (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Ireland.

26.2.66

Dawson (Qld)

Patterson RA (ALP)

Shaw GW (CP)

Died

2.4.66

Kooyong (Vic)

Peacock AS (LP)

Menzies RG (LP)

Resigned

22.7.67

Corio (Vic)

Scholes GGD (ALP)

Opperman HF (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Malta.

30.9.67

Capricornia (Qld)

Everingham DN (ALP)

Gray GH (ALP)

Died

24.2.68

Higgins (Vic)

Gorton JG (LP)

Holt HE (LP)

Presumed dead

19.4.69

Curtin (WA)

Garland RV (LP)

Hasluck PM (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

7.6.69

Bendigo (Vic)

Kennedy AD (ALP)

Beaton NL (ALP)

Resigned

7.6.69

Gwydir (NSW)

Hunt RJD (CP)

Allan AI (CP)

Resigned. Appointed Secretary-General Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

30.5.70

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

Enderby KE (ALP)

Fraser JR (ALP)

Died

19.9.70

Chisholm (Vic)

Staley AA (LP)

Kent Hughes WS (LP)

Died

20.3.71

Murray (Vic)

Lloyd EB (CP)

McEwen J (CP)

Resigned

22.9.73

Parramatta (NSW)

Ruddock PM (LP)

Bowen NH (LP)

Resigned. Appointed a Judge of NSW Court of Appeal.

28.6.75

Bass (Tas)

Newman KE (LP)

Barnard LH (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden

15.10.77

Cunningham (NSW)

West SJ (ALP)

Connor RFX (ALP)

Died

23.9.78

Werriwa (NSW)

Kerin JC (ALP)

Whitlam EG (ALP)

Resigned

23.6.79

Grayndler (NSW)

McLeay LB (ALP)

Stewart FE (ALP)

Died

21.2.81

Boothby (SA)

Hall S (LP)

McLeay JE (LP)

Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in Los Angeles.

21.2.81

Curtin (WA)

Rocher AC (LP)

Garland RV (LP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to Great Britain.

21.2.81

McPherson (Qld)

White PND (LP)

Robinson EL (LP)

Died

11.4.81

Wentworth (NSW)

Coleman WP (LP)

Ellicott RJ (LP)

Resigned. Appointed a Judge of the Federal Court.

13.3.82

Lowe (NSW)

Maher MJ (ALP)

McMahon W (LP)

Resigned

4.12.82

Flinders (Vic)

Reith PK (LP)

Lynch PR (LP)

Resigned

7.5.83

Wannon (Vic)

Hawker DPM (LP)

Fraser JM (LP)

Resigned

28.5.83

Bruce (Vic)

Aldred KJ (LP)

Snedden BM (LP)

Resigned

5.11.83

Moreton (Qld)

Cameron DM (LP)

Killen DJ (LP)

Resigned

18.2.84

Corangamite (Vic)

McArthur FS (LP)

Street AA (LP)

Resigned

18.2.84

Hughes (NSW)

Tickner RE (ALP)

Johnson LR (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to NZ.

18.2.84

Richmond (NSW)

Blunt CW (NP)

Anthony JD (NP)

Resigned

8.2.86

Scullin (Vic)

Jenkins HA (ALP)

Jenkins HA (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Spain.

6.2.88

Adelaide (SA)

Pratt MP (LP)

Hurford CJ (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in New York.

26.3.88

Port Adelaide (SA)

Sawford RW (ALP)

Young MJ (ALP)

Resigned

9.4.88

Groom (Qld)

Taylor WL (LP)

McVeigh DT (NP)

Resigned

8.10.88

Oxley (Qld)

Scott LJ (ALP)

Hayden WG (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

15.4.89

Gwydir (NSW)

Anderson JD (NP)

Hunt RJD (NP)

Resigned

11.5.91

Menzies (Vic)

Andrews KJ (LP)

Brown NA (LP)

Resigned

11.4.92

Wills (Vic)

Cleary PR (Ind)

Hawke RJL (ALP)

Resigned

29.1.94

Werriwa (NSW)

Latham M (ALP)

Kerin JC (ALP)

Resigned

12.3.94

Fremantle (WA)

Lawrence C (ALP)

Dawkins J (ALP)

Resigned

19.3.94

Bonython (SA)

Evans M (ALP)

Blewett N (ALP)

Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to the UK

26.3.94

Warringah (NSW)

Abbott T (LP)

MacKellar M (LP)

Resigned

26.3.94

Mackellar (NSW)

Bishop B (LP)

Carlton J (LP)

Resigned

19.11.94

Kooyong (Vic)

Georgiou P (LP)

Peacock AS (LP)

Resigned

25.3.95

Canberra (ACT)

Smyth B (LP)

Kelly R (ALP)

Resigned

8.4.95

Wentworth (NSW)

Thomson A (LP)

Hewson J (LP)

Resigned

15.6.96

Blaxland (NSW)

Hatton M (ALP)

Keating P (ALP)

Resigned

19.10.96

Lindsay (NSW)

Kelly J (LP)

Kelly J (LP)

Election voided by Court of Disputed Returns

1.2.97

Fraser (ACT)

Dargavel S (ALP)

Langmore J (ALP)

Resigned

6.11.99

Holt (Vic)

Byrne A (ALP)

Evans G (ALP)

Resigned

12.8.00

Isaacs (Vic)

Corcoran A (ALP)

Wilton G (ALP)

Died

17.3.01

Ryan (Qld)

Short L (ALP)

Moore J (LP)

Resigned

Note: Seats changing hands at the by-election are highlighted.

Reasons for Vacancies

By-elections for the House of Representatives held during the period 1949 to 2001 have occurred overwhelmingly because of the death or resignation of the member, only one by-election was caused by the general election being voided by a Court of Disputed Returns (Lindsay 1996). Of the 80 by-elections, 28 have occurred because of the death of the member and 51 as a result of resignation. Vacancy because of the death of the member is by far the most frequent reason for by-elections held in the earlier part of the period while resignation is the most frequent reason in the later part. A significant number of members (21) have resigned to take up government appointments of one kind or another with the diplomatic service being the most popular.

Reasons for By-elections, 1949-2001

 

 

Death

Resignation

Other

Total

1949-59

13

3

0

16

1960-69

9

13

0

22

1970-79

4

4

0

8

1980-89

1

17

0

18

1990-99

0

13

1

14

2000-

1

1

0

2

Total

28

51

1

80

Results and Swings

The most striking feature of by-elections held during the period is the small number of times that the sitting party has lost the seat at the by-election. On only eleven occasions has the sitting party lost the seat at the by-election and on two of these occasions a coalition seat was won by the coalition partner. The government of the day has never won a seat from the opposition in a by-election during the period.

It would appear that the electorate is more understanding in the case of by-elections caused by the death of the sitting member than in those caused by resignation. The sitting party has lost the seat in by-elections caused by the death of the member on only two occasions (Flinders 1952 and Dawson 1966), compared to nine occasions when the by-election was caused by the resignation of the sitting member.

Seats Lost at By-elections 1949-2001

 

Division

Government

Sitting party

Winning party

Flinders (Vic) 1952

LP/CP

LP

ALP

Calare (NSW) 1960

LP/CP

LP

CP

Dawson (Qld) 1966

LP/CP

CP

ALP

Corio (Vic) 1967

LP/CP

LP

ALP

Bass (Tas) 1975

ALP

ALP

LP

Lowe (NSW) 1982

LP/NP

LP

ALP

Adelaide (SA) 1988

ALP

ALP

LP

Groom (Qld) 1988

ALP

NP

LP

Wills (Vic) 1992

ALP

ALP

Ind

Canberra (ACT) 1995

ALP

ALP

LP

Ryan (Qld) 2001

LP/NP

LP

ALP

In terms of winning seats from other parties, no political party can claim a great deal of success, as gains and losses are almost equal. The Australian Labor Party has won five seats from the Coalition parties, but has lost three seats to the Liberal Party and one seat to an Independent. The Liberal Party has won three seats, one seat being won from its coalition partner, while it has lost four seats, three to the ALP and one to the National Party. The National Party has fared the worst, winning only one seat (from the Liberal Party) and losing two seats.

It is worth noting that on three occasions where a seat has changed hands at a by-election (Flinders 1952, Adelaide 1988 and Canberra 1995), the party that won the seat at the by-election lost the seat at the subsequent general election.

The fact that so few seats have changed hands in by-elections is probably due more to the propensity for by-elections to occur in safe seats rather than any other factor. Political parties and individual members are only too well aware of the possible political consequences of losing a seat at a by-election and thus try to ensure that by-elections occur only in relatively safe seats. Of the 51 by-elections resulting from the resignation of the member, only eight have been in marginal seats (i.e. seats requiring a swing of less than 6.0% to change hands). By far the largest number of by-elections, 31, have occurred in safe seats (i.e. seats requiring a swing of over 10% to change hands).

By-elections Caused by Resignation by Safeness of Seat

No

% of total

Marginal

8

15.7

Fairly Safe

12

23.5

Safe

31

60.8

Total

51

100.0

Apart from a party's success or defeat in a by-election the most important aspect of a by-election is the two party preferred swing that takes place. Conventional wisdom holds that there is usually a swing against the government of the day at a by-election. The success or otherwise of a government, opposition, or party leader at the by-election is often measured by the size of the swing in comparison with the average swing recorded in past by-elections. However, by-elections occur in varied and disparate Electoral Divisions, with different numbers and mixes of candidates, and with a variety of local, state and national issues involved. It could be argued that given the variety of factors involved there is no average by-election swing. By-elections are held in such different circumstances that none can be regarded as normal, and it is generally agreed that any swing can be explained by the special factors pertaining to each by-election.

In calculating the swing at a by-election the most commonly used method is to compare the two-party preferred vote at the by-election with the two-party preferred vote at the preceding general election in the Division. However, two-party preferred vote swings are not a perfect measure as they can be affected by the number of candidates, position on the ballot paper, order of exclusion of candidates and the number of different parties contesting the Division.

Average two-party preferred vote swings for by-elections held between 1949 and the end of March 2001 are given below. Two-party preferred vote swings can be calculated for 60 of the 80 by-elections held during the period. Swings cannot be calculated where one of the major parties (i.e. ALP or LP/NP Coalition) did not stand a candidate at the by-election or the preceding general election, or where the Division was uncontested at the by-election or the preceding general election.

Average Two Party Preferred Swings Against Government: By-elections 1949-2001
Per cent

 

Average swing

By-elections (a)

All By-elections

-4.0

60

Government held Seats

-5.0

42

LP/NP Governments

-3.4

42

ALP Governments

-5.4

18

By-elections caused by death

-2.5

19

By-elections caused by resignation

-4.9

40

(a) By-elections where a two-party preferred swing can be calculated.

The average swing against the government of the day in all by-elections held during the period 1949 to 2001 is 4.0%. The swing against ALP Governments, 5.4%, is somewhat higher than the swing against LP/NP Coalition Governments, 3.4%, while the swing against the government in seats held by the government was 5.0%. The average swing in by-elections caused by the death of the sitting member is approximately half the swing in by-elections caused by the resignation of the member.

Swings at by-elections during the period have varied from a 16.1% swing against the government (Canberra 1995) to a swing of 16.2% to the government (McPherson 1981). The largest swing against an ALP Government was Canberra, while the largest swing against a LP/NP Coalition Government was Werriwa in 1952 with a 12.4% swing. Swings to the government of the day are a rare event in by-elections, with only ten being recorded during the period. The largest swing to an ALP Government was in Wills in 1992 with a 5.9% swing (although the ALP lost the seat to an independent candidate, P Cleary) while the largest swing to a LP/NP Coalition Government was in McPherson in 1981 with a 16.2% swing. It should be noted that in both Wills and McPherson the swing is somewhat distorted by the mix of candidates standing and the distribution of preferences.

By-election Swings 1949-2001

 

ALP Government

 

LP/NP Government

Division

Swing

 

Division

Swing

Parramatta 1973

-6.6

 

Balaclava 1951

-3.4

Bass 1975

-14.6

 

Macquarie 1951

+0.1

Wannon 1983

-1.5

 

Lyne 1952

-8.8

Bruce 1983

-3.8

 

Flinders 1952

-11.0

Moreton 1983

-1.2

 

Werriwa 1952

-12.4

Corangamite 1984

-1.3

 

Bradfield 1952

n.a.

Hughes 1984

-5.0

 

Dalley 1953

n.a.

Richmond 1984

+0.5

 

Lang 1953

-2.5

Scullin 1986

-4.4

 

Corangamite 1953

-6.5

Adelaide 1988

-8.4

 

Gwydir 1953

-0.4

Port Adelaide 1988

-11.1

 

Cook 1955

n.a.

Groom 1988

-5.2

 

Cunningham 1956

n.a.

Oxley 1988

-11.8

 

Barker 1956

-9.9

Gwyder 1989

n.a.

 

Wentworth 1956

n.a.

Menzies 1991

n.a.

 

Richmond 1957

n.a.

Wills 1992

+5.9

 

Parramatta 1958

-6.4

Werriwa 1994

-6.3

 

Hunter 1960

n.a.

Fremantle 1994

+1.0

 

La Trobe 1960

-7.5

Bonython 1994

-7.8

 

Balaclava 1960

-4.6

Mackellar 1994

n.a.

 

Bendigo 1960

+0.1

Warringah 1994

n.a.

 

Calare 1960

+1.0

Kooyong 1994

n.a.

 

Higinbotham 1960

-9.2

Canberra 1995

-16.1

 

Batman 1962

n.a.

Wentworth 1995

n.a.

 

Grey 1963

+4.9

 

 

 

East Sydney 1963

n.a.

 

 

 

Denison 1964

-1.9

 

 

 

Angas 1964

-2.1

 

 

 

Parramatta 1964

-3.0

 

 

 

Robertson 1964

-1.4

 

 

 

Riverina 1965

-0.9

 

 

 

Dawson 1966

-11.9

 

 

 

Kooyong 1966

-3.8

 

 

 

Corio 1967

-11.1

 

 

 

Capricornia 1967

+1.5

 

 

 

Higgins 1968

-0.3

 

 

 

Curtin 1969

-7.1

 

 

 

Bendigo 1969

+2.1

 

 

 

Gwydir 1969

-7.7

 

 

 

Australian Capital Territory 1970

+13.8

 

 

 

Chisholm 1970

-2.8

 

 

 

Murray 1971

-0.4

 

 

 

Cunningham 1977

-0.3

 

 

 

Werriwa 1978

-11.3

 

 

 

Grayndler 1979

-6.9

 

 

 

McPherson 1981

+16.2

 

 

 

Boothby 1981

-1.2

 

 

 

Curtin 1981

-7.5

 

 

 

Wentworth 1981

-6.2

 

 

 

Lowe 1982

-8.5

 

 

 

Flinders 1982

-3.3

 

 

 

Blaxland 1996

n.a.

 

 

 

Lindsay 1996

+5.0

 

 

 

Fraser 1997

n.a.

 

 

 

Holt 1999

n.a.

 

 

 

Isaacs 2000

n.a.

 

 

 

Ryan 2001

-9.7

n.a. not applicable

Timing

There is no legislation that prescribes the time period for a by-election to be held following the seat becoming vacant. Once the election writs have been issued, however, various statutory requirements limit the election period from a minimum of 33 days to a maximum of 58 days. Thus any significant discretion in the calling of a by-election occurs in the period after the seat becomes vacant and before the issuing of writs by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

During the period 1949 to 2001 the average number of elapsed days between the seat becoming vacant and the by-election date was 51 days. The maximum number of days was for Moreton 1983, 82 days, and the minimum was for Bass 1975, 26 days.

Appendix 1 provides details of the timing of all by-elections held between 1949 and March 2001. It also shows the number of days elapsed between the seat becoming vacant and the by-election date as well as the number of days elapsed since the previous general election and the by-election and between the by-election and the next general election.

Notes on Selected By-elections

Macquarie 1950-By-election held following the death of the former Prime Minister J B Chifley. The ALP retained the seat despite a small (0.4%) swing to the LP/CP Coalition Government.

Lyne 1952-The Country Party, which stood two candidates in this by-election, retained the seat (P E Lucock successful candidate) despite a large swing to the ALP (8.8%).

Flinders 1952-The Liberal Party lost the seat to the ALP as the result of a large (11.0%) swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government. The successful candidate (K Ewert) lost the seat at the next general election.

Werriwa 1952-The ALP achieved its largest swing in the period against the LP/CP Coalition Government (12.4%) at this by-election. The successful ALP candidate was future Prime Minister E G Whitlam.

Bradfield 1952-No ALP candidate contested this safe Liberal seat, previously held by former Prime Minister and longest serving member of the House of Representatives, W M Hughes.

Gwydir 1953-Two Country Party candidates contested this by-election along with candidates from the ALP and Liberal Party. Seat was won by the Country Party's A I Allan.

Cook 1955-The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for the ALP by J F Cope. Typical of inner-city electorates there was a low voter turnout (76.0%) at this by-election.

Cunningham 1956-The ALP candidate, V D Kearner, was elected unopposed. This was the only time a by-election was uncontested during the period.

Richmond 1957-Four Country Party candidates contested this by-election, including the eventual winner J D Anthony, the son of the former member, H L Anthony.

Hunter 1960-The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate for this safe ALP seat, formerly held by H V Evatt.

Calare 1960-This by-election was the only time the Country Party (or its successor the National Party) has won a seat from another party at a by-election during the period. The Country Party candidate, J A England, won the seat formerly held by the Liberal Party's J B Howse.

Batman 1962-The successful ALP candidate, S J Benson, was subsequently expelled from the ALP and was elected as an independent at the 1966 general election.

East Sydney 1963-The second lowest voter turnout (71.9%) of the period was recorded at this by-election. The ALP retained the seat. The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate.

Dawson 1966-Prominent ALP candidate, R A Patterson, achieved the second largest swing (11.9%) against the LP/CP Coalition Government to win the seat from the Country Party.

Kooyong 1966-The Liberal Party candidate, A S Peacock, retained this safe Liberal seat in the by-election held following the resignation of Prime Minister R G Menzies.

Corio 1967-A large swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government (11.1%) resulted in the ALP candidate, G G D Scholes, winning the seat from the Liberal Party, following the retirement of popular sporting personality, H Opperman.

Higgins 1968-By-election was held following the presumed death of Prime Minister H E Holt. Retained for the Liberal Party by new Prime Minister (and ex-Senator) J G Gorton.

Australian Capital Territory 1970-Despite a large swing the ALP retained this seat formerly held by popular member, J R Fraser. The Australia Party candidate, A J Fitzgerald, received 17.5% of the first preference votes.

Chisholm 1970-The Liberal Party candidate, A A Staley, retained this seat. The ALP candidate was F X Costigan, later Royal Commissioner investigating the activities of the Federated Ship Painters' and Dockers' Union, and tax evasion matters.

Bass 1975-The second largest swing ever recorded against any government (14.6%) occurred at this by-election held following the appointment of former Member, L H Barnard, to be Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden. The Liberal Party candidate, K E Newman, won the seat from the ALP.

Werriwa 1978-The ALP candidate, J C Kerin, achieved a large swing (11.3%) against the LP/NP Coalition Government in this by-election, held following the resignation of former Prime Minister, E G Whitlam.

McPherson 1981-The Liberal Party candidate, P N D White, achieved a swing to the LP/NP Coalition Government of 16.2%, the largest swing to any government during the period. The National Party candidate (future Senator G Sheil) outpolled the ALP candidate.

Wentworth 1981-The Liberal Party candidate, W P Coleman, comfortably retained the seat despite a 6.2% swing to the ALP candidate, R E Tickner. The voter turnout (69.5%) was the lowest recorded during the period.

Lowe 1982-This marginal Liberal Party seat became vacant following the resignation of former Prime Minister W McMahon. The ALP candidate, M J Maher, won the seat from the Liberal Party with a 8.5% swing.

Flinders 1982-The Liberal Party retained this marginal seat with only a 3.3% swing against the LP/NP Coalition Government. However, new member, P K Reith, was unable to take up his seat in the House of Representatives as the Parliament was dissolved before he could be sworn in and he was defeated at the subsequent general election. Mr Reith was re-elected in 1984.

Moreton 19833/4The Liberal Party retained this marginal Liberal seat with a small swing in its favour. The successful candidate, D Cameron, lost the neighbouring seat of Fadden at the previous general election. The elapsed time between the resignation of the sitting member and the date of the by-election, 82 days, was the longest recorded during the period.

Scullin 1986-The ALP retained this seat with H A Jenkins succeeding his father H A Jenkins.

Adelaide 1988-The ALP lost this seat with a swing of 8.4% against the ALP Government. The successful Liberal Party candidate, M P Pratt, lost the seat at the next general election.

Port Adelaide 1988-An 11.1% swing against the ALP Government was insufficient for the Liberal Party to win the seat. The ALP's R W Sawford was the winning candidate.

Groom 1988-The Liberal Party candidate, W L Taylor, won the seat previously held by the National Party.

Oxley 1988-The prospective appointment of W G Hayden as Governor-General caused the vacancy in this safe ALP seat. The ALP candidate, L J Scott, was successful despite an 11.8% swing against the ALP Government.

Gwydir 1989-Neither the ALP nor the Liberal Party contested this safe National Party seat, retained by J D Anderson.

Wills 1992-A record 22 candidates contested this ALP seat vacated by the former Prime Minister, RJL Hawke. Prominent local identity, P R Cleary, won the seat to become the first independent candidate to win a by-election in the period. The two-party preferred count of preferences resulted in a swing to the ALP Government of 5.9%, the first swing to a government since Richmond in 1984. The by-election result was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. A subsequent by-election was not held because of the impending general election.

Werriwa 1994-The ALP retained this safe seat despite a swing against the ALP Government of 6.3%. The successful candidate was M Latham.

Fremantle 1994-Former Western Australian Premier, C Lawrence, retained this seat for the ALP with a swing of 1.0% to the government.

Bonython 1994-Despite a swing of 7.8% against the ALP, M Evans retained this seat for the government.

Mackellar 1994-Liberal candidate, ex-Senator B Bishop, easily retained this safe Liberal Party seat. Prominent identity, B Ellis, received 23.1% of the first preference vote in the absence of a Labor Party candidate. The by-election was held after by-elections in Fremantle and Bonython despite Mackellar becoming vacant before both Fremantle and Bonython.

Kooyong 1994-Prominent member of the Liberal Party organisation, P Georgiou, retained this seat for the LP following the retirement of former Party Leader, A Peacock. The ALP did not stand a candidate in this safe Liberal seat.

Canberra 1995-After initially considering not to contest this fairly safe ALP seat the LP ultimately decided to enter the race and promptly won the seat from the government with a record swing of 16.1%. The successful candidate, B Smyth, lost the seat at the following general election.

Wentworth 1995-Despite being classified as a marginal LP seat the ALP did not contest this by-election. The winning candidate was A Thomson for the LP

Blaxland 1996-Former Labor Prime Minister, P J Keating, retired following the 1996 election loss and was replaced by M Hatton for the ALP. The LP did not contest this safe Labor seat.

Lindsay 1996-The 1996 general election was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. At the by-election the successful Liberal candidate at the general election, J Kelly, retained the seat with a swing of 5.0% to the government.

Isaacs 2000-The first by-election since McPherson in 1981 caused by the death of the sitting member. The LP did not contest this fairly safe Labor seat, retained for the ALP by A Corcoran.

Ryan 2001-The ALP candidate, L Short, won this fairly safe Liberal seat following the retirement of J Moore. The swing of 9.7% against the government was just sufficient for the ALP to win the seat.

Appendix 1 By-election Timing: By-elections 1949-2001

Division

Previous Election

Date Vacated

By-election date

Next Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to by-election

After previous election

Before next election

Balaclava (Vic)

28/04/51

20/06/51

28/07/51

29/05/54

38

53

1036

Resigned

Macquarie (NSW)

28/04/51

13/06/51

28/07/51

29/05/54

45

46

1036

Died

Lyne (NSW)

28/04/51

28/01/52

22/03/52

29/05/54

54

275

798

Died

Flinders (Vic)

28/04/51

26/08/52

18/10/52

29/05/54

53

486

588

Died

Werriwa (NSW)

28/04/51

01/10/52

29/11/52

29/05/54

59

522

546

Died

Bradfield (NSW)

28/04/51

28/10/52

20/12/52

29/05/54

53

549

525

Died

Dalley (NSW)

28/04/51

21/03/53

09/05/53

29/05/54

49

693

385

Died

Corangamite (Vic)

28/04/51

10/06/53

29/08/53

29/05/54

80

774

273

Died

Lang (NSW)

28/04/51

13/07/53

29/08/53

29/05/54

47

807

273

Died

Gwydir (NSW)

28/04/51

15/11/53

19/12/53

29/05/54

34

932

161

Died

Cook (NSW)

29/05/54

26/03/55

21/05/55

10/12/55

56

301

203

Died

Cunningham (NSW)

10/12/55

17/02/56

11/04/56

22/11/58

54

69

955

Died

Barker (SA)

10/12/55

09/08/56

13/10/56

22/11/58

65

243

770

Died

Wentworth (NSW)

10/12/55

17/10/56

08/12/56

22/11/58

52

312

714

Resigned

Richmond (NSW)

10/12/55

12/07/57

14/09/57

22/11/58

64

580

434

Died

Parramatta (NSW)

10/12/55

10/02/58

08/03/58

22/11/58

26

793

259

Resigned

Hunter (NSW)

22/11/58

10/02/60

09/04/60

09/12/61

59

445

609

Resigned

La Trobe (Vic)

22/11/58

10/02/60

09/04/60

09/12/61

59

445

609

Resigned

Balaclava (Vic)

22/11/58

02/06/60

16/07/60

09/12/61

44

558

511

Resigned

Bendigo (Vic)

22/11/58

01/05/60

16/07/60

09/12/61

76

526

511

Died

Calare (NSW)

22/11/58

28/09/60

05/11/60

09/12/61

38

676

399

Resigned

Higinbotham (Vic)

22/11/58

16/10/60

10/12/60

09/12/61

55

694

364

Died

Batman (Vic)

09/12/61

21/07/62

01/09/62

30/11/63

42

224

455

Died

Grey (SA)

09/12/61

31/03/63

01/06/63

30/11/63

62

477

182

Died

East Sydney (NSW)

09/12/61

31/07/63

28/09/63

30/11/63

59

599

63

Died

Denison (Tas)

30/11/63

24/12/63

15/02/64

26/11/66

53

24

1015

Died

Angas (SA)

30/11/63

23/04/64

20/06/64

26/11/66

58

145

889

Resigned

Parramatta (NSW)

30/11/63

24/04/64

20/06/64

26/11/66

57

146

889

Resigned

Robertson (NSW)

30/11/63

30/09/64

05/12/64

26/11/66

66

305

721

Resigned

Riverina (NSW)

30/11/63

21/01/65

27/02/65

26/11/66

37

418

637

Resigned

Dawson (Qld)

30/11/63

09/01/66

26/02/66

26/11/66

48

771

273

Died

Kooyong (Vic)

30/11/63

17/02/66

02/04/66

26/11/66

44

810

238

Resigned

Corio (Vic)

26/11/66

10/06/67

22/07/67

25/10/69

42

196

826

Resigned

Capricornia (Qld)

26/11/66

02/08/67

30/09/67

25/10/69

59

249

756

Died

Higgins (Vic)

26/11/66

19/12/67

24/02/68

25/10/69

67

388

609

Presumed dead

Curtin (WA)

26/11/66

10/02/69

19/04/69

25/10/69

68

807

189

Resigned

Bendigo (Vic)

26/11/66

09/04/69

07/06/69

25/10/69

59

865

140

Resigned

Gwydir (NSW)

26/11/66

30/04/69

07/06/69

25/10/69

38

886

140

Resigned

Aust Cap Territory (ACT)

25/10/69

01/04/70

30/05/70

02/12/72

59

158

917

Died

Chisholm (Vic)

25/10/69

31/07/70

19/09/70

02/12/72

50

279

805

Died

Murray (Vic)

25/10/69

01/02/71

20/03/71

02/12/72

47

464

623

Resigned

Parramatta (NSW)

02/12/72

11/07/73

22/09/73

18/05/74

73

221

238

Resigned

Bass (Tas)

18/05/74

02/06/75

28/06/75

13/12/75

26

380

168

Resigned

Cunningham (NSW)

13/12/75

22/08/77

15/10/77

10/12/77

54

618

56

Died

Werriwa (NSW)

10/12/77

31/07/78

23/09/78

18/10/80

54

233

756

Resigned

Grayndler (NSW)

10/12/77

16/04/79

23/06/79

18/10/80

68

492

483

Died

Boothby (SA)

18/10/80

22/01/81

21/02/81

05/03/83

30

96

742

Resigned

Curtin (WA)

18/10/80

22/01/81

21/02/81

05/03/83

30

96

742

Resigned

McPherson (Qld)

18/10/80

07/01/81

21/02/81

05/03/83

45

81

742

Died

Wentworth (NSW)

18/10/80

17/02/81

11/04/81

05/03/83

53

122

693

Resigned

Lowe (NSW)

18/10/80

04/01/82

13/03/82

05/03/83

68

443

357

Resigned

Flinders (Vic)

18/10/80

22/10/82

04/12/82

05/03/83

43

734

91

Resigned

Wannon (Vic)

05/03/83

31/03/83

07/05/83

01/12/84

37

26

574

Resigned

Bruce (Vic)

05/03/83

21/04/83

28/05/83

01/12/84

37

47

553

Resigned

Moreton (Qld)

05/03/83

15/08/83

05/11/83

01/12/84

82

163

392

Resigned

Corangamite (Vic)

05/03/83

18/01/84

18/02/84

01/12/84

31

319

287

Resigned

Hughes (NSW)

05/03/83

19/12/83

18/02/84

01/12/84

61

289

287

Resigned

Richmond (NSW)

05/03/83

18/01/84

18/02/84

01/12/84

31

319

287

Resigned

Scullin (Vic)

01/12/84

20/12/85

08/02/86

11/07/87

50

384

518

Resigned

Adelaide (SA)

11/07/87

31/12/87

06/02/88

24/03/90

37

173

777

Resigned

Port Adelaide (SA)

11/07/87

08/02/88

26/03/88

24/03/90

47

212

728

Resigned

Groom (Qld)

11/07/87

29/02/88

09/04/88

24/03/90

40

233

714

Resigned

Oxley (Qld)

11/07/87

17/08/88

08/10/88

24/03/90

52

403

532

Resigned

Gwydir (NSW)

11/07/87

24/02/89

15/04/89

24/03/90

50

594

343

Resigned

Menzies (Vic)

24/03/90

25/02/91

11/05/91

13/03/93

75

338

672

Resigned

Wills (Vic)

24/03/90

20/02/92

11/04/92

13/03/93

51

698

336

Resigned

Werriwa (NSW)

13/03/93

22/12/93

29/01/94

02/03/96

38

284

763

Resigned

Fremantle (WA)

13/03/93

04/02/94

12/03/94

02/03/96

36

328

721

Resigned

Bonython (SA)

13/03/93

11/02/94

19/03/94

02/03/96

36

335

714

Resigned

Warringah (NSW)

13/03/93

18/02/94

26/03/94

02/03/96

36

342

707

Resigned

Mackellar (NSW)

13/03/93

14/01/94

26/03/94

02/03/96

71

307

707

Resigned

Kooyong (Vic)

13/03/93

17/09/94

19/11/94

02/03/96

63

553

469

Resigned

Canberra (ACT)

13/03/93

30/01/95

25/03/95

02/03/96

54

688

343

Resigned

Wentworth (NSW)

13/03/93

28/02/95

08/04/95

02/03/96

39

717

329

Resigned

Blaxland (NSW)

02/03/96

23/04/96

15/06/96

03/10/98

53

52

840

Resigned

Lindsay (NSW)

02/03/96

11/09/96

19/10/96

03/10/98

38

193

714

Election void

Fraser (ACT)

02/03/96

06/12/96

01/02/97

03/10/98

57

279

609

Resigned

Holt (Vic)

03/10/98

30/09/99

06/11/99

37

362

Resigned

Isaacs (Vic)

03/10/98

14/06/00

12/08/00

59

620

Died

Ryan (Qld)

03/10/98

05/02/01

17/03/01

40

856

Resigned

Appendix 2 Electoral Division Details

Balaclava (Vic)

28.7.51

 

Enrolled 42823

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Joske PE *

LP

20337

57.0

-6.3

Lewis A

ALP

13279

37.3

+0.6

Stratton GM

Ind

2035

5.7

+5.7

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Joske PE *

LP

21355

59.9

-3.4

Lewis A

ALP

14296

40.1

+3.4

         

Formal

 

35651

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

274

0.8

-0.5

Total

 

35925

83.9

-12.2

         
         

Macquarie (NSW)

28.7.51

 

Enrolled 39271

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Blanchard WH

ILab

3853

10.9

+10.9

Hannam WH

LP

12356

35.1

-3.7

Luchetti AS *

ALP

18426

52.3

-5.4

Moffit VB

Com

575

1.6

-1.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hannam WH

LP

13983

39.7

+0.4

Luchetti AS *

ALP

21227

60.3

-0.4

         

Formal

 

35210

99.1

+0.3

Informal

 

325

0.9

-0.3

Total

 

35535

90.5

-7.1

         
         

Lyne (NSW)

22.3.52

 

Enrolled 40160

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Cordner TN

Ind

421

1.2

-3.4

Hayes EJ

ALP

13588

37.3

+7.4

Lancaster DJAL

CP

10631

29.2

+29.2

Lucock PE *

CP

10994

30.2

-35.3

Spensley EH

Ind

775

2.1

+2.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hayes EJ

ALP

14925

41.0

+8.8

Lucock PE *

CP

21484

59.0

-8.8

         

Formal

 

36409

98.5

+0.1

Informal

 

565

1.5

-0.1

Total

 

36974

92.1

-4.9

         
         

Flinders (Vic)

18.10.52

 

Enrolled 46748

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Ewert KWW

ALP

22674

53.8

+10.8

Hipwell RA

Ind

453

1.1

-1.0

Rossiter JF *

LP

18384

43.7

-11.1

Stratton GM

Ind

602

1.4

+1.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Ewert KWW

ALP

23202

55.1

+11.0

Rossiter JF *

LP

18911

44.9

-11.0

         

Formal

 

42113

98.8

+0.4

Informal

 

493

1.2

-0.4

Total

 

42606

91.1

-5.1

         
         

Werriwa (NSW)

29.11.52

 

Enrolled 55486

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Griffith IR

LP

15706

32.5

-12.4

Whitlam EG *

ALP

32561

67.5

+12.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Griffith IR

LP

15706

32.5

-12.4

Whitlam EG *

ALP

32561

67.5

+12.4

         

Formal

 

48267

98.3

+0.6

Informal

 

826

1.7

-0.6

Total

 

49093

88.5

-7.1

         
         

Bradfield (NSW)

20.12.52

 

Enrolled 45442

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Hardie MF

Ind

15336

38.2

+38.2

Potts CE

Ind

569

1.4

+1.4

Simons S

Ind

84

0.2

+0.2

Smith JS

ILab

1070

2.7

+2.7

Turner HB *

LP

22912

57.0

-21.7

Wright E

Ind

225

0.6

+0.6

         

Formal

 

40196

98.1

-0.1

Informal

 

784

1.9

+0.1

Total

 

40980

90.2

-5.6

         
         

Dalley (NSW)

9.5.53

 

Enrolled 37737

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Cole WL

Ind

8285

24.5

+24.5

Greenup AE *

ALP

23812

70.5

+3.4

Sheean J

Com

1667

4.9

+4.9

         

Formal

 

33764

95.4

-2.3

Informal

 

1618

4.6

+2.3

Total

 

35382

93.8

-2.2

         
         

Corangamite (Vic)

29.8.53

 

Enrolled 40559

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Mackinnon ED *

LP

19449

52.2

-6.5

McLean AC

ALP

17782

47.8

+6.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Mackinnon ED *

LP

19449

52.2

-6.5

McLean AC

ALP

17782

47.8

+6.5

         

Formal

 

37231

99.5

+0.4

Informal

 

196

0.5

-0.4

Total

 

37427

92.3

-4.7

         
         

Lang (NSW)

29.8.53

 

Enrolled 44912

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Boyd RD

Com

1082

2.7

-2.0

Brosnan TJ

Ind

276

0.7

+0.7

Stewart FE *

ALP

21699

53.9

+3.9

Thorncraft HR

LP

17218

42.8

-2.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Stewart FE *

ALP

22756

56.5

+2.5

Thorncraft HR

LP

17518

43.5

-2.5

         

Formal

 

40274

98.6

+0.3

Informal

 

584

1.4

-0.3

Total

 

40858

91.0

-6.4

         
         

Gwydir (NSW)

19.12.53

 

Enrolled 39618

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Allan AI *

CP

9823

28.2

-25.0

Howard AM

LP

3584

10.3

+10.3

Kirkby TF

CP

5649

16.2

+16.2

Quinn MTL

ALP

15784

45.3

-1.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Allan AI *

CP

18409

52.8

-0.4

Quinn MTL

ALP

16431

47.2

+0.4

         

Formal

 

34840

98.6

-0.3

Informal

 

480

1.4

+0.3

Total

 

35320

89.2

-6.3

         
         

Cook (NSW)

21.5.55

 

Enrolled 33521

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Cope JF *

ALP

21411

86.8

+3.4

Smith JS

Ind

3248

13.2

+13.2

         

Formal

 

24659

96.8

-0.6

Informal

 

814

3.2

+0.6

Total

 

25473

76.0

-18.9

         
         

Cunningham (NSW)

11.4.56

 

Enrolled 44070

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Kearney VD *

ALP

 

Unopposed

 
         
         

Barker (SA)

13.10.56

 

Enrolled 41810

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Crowe BR

DLP

2207

5.8

+5.8

Dettman RA

ALP

14454

38.1

+5.8

Forbes AJ *

LP

18471

48.7

-19.0

McAnaney WP

ILCL

2819

7.4

+7.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Dettman RA

ALP

16016

42.2

+9.9

Forbes AJ *

LP

21935

57.8

-9.9

         

Formal

 

37951

98.0

+1.1

Informal

 

771

2.0

-1.1

Total

 

38722

92.6

-3.7

         
         

Wentworth (NSW)

8.12.56

 

Enrolled 42909

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bartley RJ

ILib

4109

12.2

+12.2

Bury LHE *

LP

13956

41.3

-30.7

Laing AW

ILib

1414

4.2

+4.2

Robson RG

ILib

6414

19.0

+19.0

Sindel CAO

Ind

1470

4.4

+4.4

Starr TJK

ALP

6455

19.1

+19.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Bury LHE *

LP

22764

67.3

 

Starr TJK

ALP

11054

32.7

 
         

Formal

 

33818

96.7

-0.1

Informal

 

1167

3.3

+0.1

Total

 

34985

81.5

-10.8

         
         

Richmond (NSW)

14.9.57

 

Enrolled 37767

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Anthony JD *

CP

18819

49.8

 

Gordon RR

CP

4678

12.4

 

Jackson OJ

CP

1696

4.5

 

O'Neill RL

CP

1241

3.3

 

Smith WH

ALP

10276

27.2

 

Wilson C

Ind

1057

2.8

 
         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Anthony JD *

CP

25820

68.4

 

Smith WH

ALP

11947

31.6

 
         

Formal

 

37767

98.7

 

Informal

 

487

1.3

 

Total

 

38254

92.3

 
         
         

Parramatta (NSW)

8.3.58

 

Enrolled 48649

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Barwick GEJ *

LP

22826

54.8

-7.5

Fenwick AV

Ind

920

2.2

+2.2

Mahoney DJ

ALP

17931

43.0

+5.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Barwick GEJ *

LP

23286

55.9

-6.4

Mahoney DJ

ALP

18391

44.1

+6.4

         

Formal

 

41677

98.6

+1.3

Informal

 

610

1.4

-1.3

Total

 

42287

86.9

-8.9

         
         

Hunter (NSW)

9.4.60

 

Enrolled 46060

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Brown R

Ind

11876

30.8

+30.8

Dumbrell CO

Com

3895

10.1

+10.1

James AW *

ALP

21978

57.0

-17.4

Murnane K

Ind

826

2.1

+2.1

         

Formal

 

38575

97.6

-0.2

Informal

 

965

2.4

+0.2

Total

 

39540

85.8

-10.4

         
         

La Trobe (Vic)

9.4.60

 

Enrolled 59644

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Jess JD *

LP

22880

42.8

-10.9

Martyr JR

DLP

6834

12.8

+3.5

Murray J

AR

406

0.8

+0.8

Pritchard D

ALP

23387

43.7

+6.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Jess JD *

LP

28999

54.2

-7.5

Pritchard D

ALP

24508

45.8

+7.5

         

Formal

 

53507

98.4

+0.3

Informal

 

872

1.6

-0.3

Total

 

54379

91.2

-4.7

         
         

Balaclava (Vic)

16.7.60

 

Enrolled 42256

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Murray J

AR

865

2.6

+2.6

Ryan JT

DLP

4672

14.2

+2.2

Smith GL

ALP

9519

28.9

+3.6

Whittorn RH *

LP

17859

54.3

-6.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Smith GL

ALP

10652

32.4

+4.6

Whittorn RH *

LP

22263

67.6

-4.6

         

Formal

 

32915

97.9

+0.2

Informal

 

694

2.1

-0.2

Total

 

33609

79.5

-16.3

         
         

Bendigo (Vic)

16.7.60

 

Enrolled 45286

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Beaton NL *

ALP

20290

48.0

-0.5

Drechsler WF

DLP

6200

14.7

+1.6

Snell HW

LP

15773

37.3

-1.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Beaton NL *

ALP

21198

50.2

-0.1

Snell HW

LP

21065

49.8

+0.1

         

Formal

 

42263

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

345

0.8

-0.5

Total

 

42608

94.1

-2.6

         
         

Calare (NSW)

5.11.60

 

Enrolled 41434

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

England JA

CP

12039

32.6

+32.6

Meares WA *

LP

8039

21.8

-36.3

Phillips J

AR

113

0.3

+0.3

Proust RJ

DLP

2540

6.9

+6.9

Serisier LD

ALP

14175

38.4

-3.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

England JA

CP

21824

59.1

+0.1

Serisier LD

ALP

15082

40.9

-1.0

         

Formal

 

36906

98.8

+0.6

Informal

 

445

1.2

-0.6

Total

 

37351

90.1

-5.5

         
         

Higinbotham (Vic)

10.12.60

 

Enrolled 56541

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Chipp DL *

LP

19661

39.1

-10.4

Fowler HG

ALP

23541

46.8

+7.6

McBride E

AP

325

0.6

+0.6

Nugent J

DLP

6756

13.4

+2.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Chipp DL *

LP

25443

50.6

-9.2

Fowler HG

ALP

24840

49.4

+9.2

         

Formal

 

50283

98.1

+0.1

Informal

 

993

1.9

-0.1

Total

 

51276

90.7

-5.5

         
         

Batman (Vic)

1.9.62

 

Enrolled 43683

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Benson SJ *

ALP

21776

60.1

+5.2

Davis SE

Ind

302

0.8

+0.8

Little JA

DLP

6811

18.8

+4.4

McLeod DW

LibF

7026

19.4

+19.4

Phillips J

AR

304

0.8

+0.8

         

Formal

 

36219

97.5

-0.3

Informal

 

939

2.5

+0.3

Total

 

37158

85.1

-10.5

         
         

Grey (SA)

1.6.63

 

Enrolled 46386

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Clark DM

ILab

705

1.7

+1.7

Dyason VH

LP

17494

41.8

+3.6

Kent LF

Ind

1265

3.0

+3.0

Mills RJ

DLP

935

2.2

-1.4

Mortimer J *

ALP

21463

51.3

-6.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Dyason VH

LP

19203

45.9

+4.9

Mortimer J *

ALP

22659

54.1

-4.9

         

Formal

 

41862

98.3

+0.9

Informal

 

718

1.7

-0.9

Total

 

42580

91.8

-4.2

         
         

East Sydney (NSW)

28.9.63

 

Enrolled 35736

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bond LSJ

Ind

1224

5.0

+5.0

Cook HK

PORP

699

2.9

+2.9

Devine LT *

ALP

19704

80.7

+12.9

Luckman VA

ILib

2233

9.1

+9.1

Phillips J

AR

546

2.2

+2.2

         

Formal

 

24406

94.9

-1.4

Informal

 

1305

5.1

+1.4

Total

 

25711

71.9

-20.0

         
         

Denison (Tas)

15.2.64

 

Enrolled 36825

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Finlay DM

ALP

14367

43.3

+4.1

Gibson A *

LP

16953

51.1

-0.2

Senior HP

DLP

1563

4.7

-1.7

Symmons BH

Ind

277

0.8

+0.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Finlay DM

ALP

14740

44.5

+1.9

Gibson A *

LP

18420

55.5

-1.9

         

Formal

 

33160

98.5

+0.5

Informal

 

491

1.5

-0.5

Total

 

33651

91.4

-3.4

         
         

Angas (SA)

20.6.64

 

Enrolled 43356

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Giles GO *

LP

23468

60.3

-1.6

Nielsen R

ALP

15452

39.7

+4.2

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Giles GO *

LP

23468

60.3

-2.1

Nielsen R

ALP

15452

39.7

+2.1

         

Formal

 

38920

98.4

0.0

Informal

 

623

1.6

0.0

Total

 

39543

91.2

-6.2

         
         

Parramatta (NSW)

20.6.64

 

Enrolled 59154

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Beck EJ

DLP

2701

5.3

-0.2

Bowen NH *

LP

26506

52.1

-3.9

Fenwick AV

Ind

248

0.5

+0.5

Phillips J

Ind

152

0.3

+0.3

Wilde BC

ALP

21227

41.8

+3.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Bowen NH *

LP

29002

57.1

-3.0

Wilde BC

ALP

21832

42.9

+3.0

         

Formal

 

50834

98.1

-0.8

Informal

 

975

1.9

+0.8

Total

 

51809

87.6

-8.1

         
         

Robertson (NSW)

5.12.64

 

Enrolled 59047

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bridges-Maxwell CW *

LP

27220

50.1

-0.4

Mollett A

ALP

25432

46.8

+2.3

Taylor VA

ILib

648

1.2

+1.2

Woodbury CMR

DLP

1068

2.0

-3.0

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Bridges-Maxwell CW *

LP

28517

52.5

-1.4

Mollett A

ALP

25851

47.5

+1.4

         

Formal

 

54368

97.0

-2.0

Informal

 

1701

3.0

+2.0

Total

 

56069

95.0

-0.5

         
         

Riverina (NSW)

27.2.65

 

Enrolled 43870

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Armstrong AA *

CP

21371

56.3

+4.6

Ward JTA

ALP

16561

43.7

+2.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Armstrong AA *

CP

21371

56.3

-0.9

Ward JTA

ALP

16561

43.7

+0.9

         

Formal

 

37932

98.8

0.0

Informal

 

455

1.2

0.0

Total

 

38387

87.5

-7.2

         
         

Dawson (Qld)

26.2.66

 

Enrolled 41055

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Fordyce J *

CP

16572

44.9

-6.9

Patterson RA

ALP

20372

55.1

+13.7

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Fordyce J *

CP

16572

44.9

-11.9

Patterson RA

ALP

20372

55.1

+11.9

         

Formal

 

36944

98.8

+1.0

Informal

 

433

1.2

-1.0

Total

 

37377

91.0

-5.2

         
         

Kooyong (Vic)

2.4.66

 

Enrolled 49954

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Brereton PA

Ind

781

1.8

+1.8

Cock CB

AR

220

0.5

+0.5

Cooper WD

ALP

12181

27.7

+3.3

Gaynor BW

DLP

5854

13.3

+3.1

Peacock AS *

LP

25012

56.8

-7.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Cooper WD

ALP

13560

30.8

+3.8

Peacock AS *

LP

30488

69.2

-3.8

         

Formal

 

44048

98.0

-0.9

Informal

 

900

2.0

+0.9

Total

 

44948

90.0

-5.9

         
         

Corio (Vic)

22.7.67

 

Enrolled 55809

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bourke PJ

DLP

5418

10.6

-0.2

Cardinal MJ

Ind

486

1.0

+1.0

Hay RJB *

LP

18583

36.4

-8.9

Jones G

LRG

923

1.8

-0.3

Scholes GGD

ALP

25679

50.3

+11.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hay RJB *

LP

23893

46.8

-11.1

Scholes GGD

ALP

27196

53.2

+11.1

         

Formal

 

51089

98.0

+1.8

Informal

 

1038

2.0

-1.8

Total

 

52127

93.4

-2.5

         
         

Capricornia (Qld)

30.9.67

 

Enrolled 41078

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Boyle PH

DLP

2628

6.9

-2.4

Everingham DN *

ALP

20215

53.0

+0.8

Rudd FB

LP

12048

31.6

-6.9

Sheil WG

CP

3279

8.6

+8.6

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Everingham DN *

ALP

20937

54.9

-1.5

Rudd FB

LP

17233

45.1

+1.5

         

Formal

 

38170

99.2

+0.4

Informal

 

316

0.8

-0.4

Total

 

38486

93.7

-2.7

         
         

Higgins (Vic)

24.2.68

 

Enrolled 41425

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bennett DM

ALP

9601

27.7

+2.5

Courtis FA

Ind

347

1.0

+1.0

Gorton JG *

LP

24067

69.4

+6.1

Weber LC

ARM

662

1.9

+1.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Bennett DM

ALP

10105

29.1

+0.3

Gorton JG *

LP

24572

70.9

-0.3

         

Formal

 

34677

98.6

+1.4

Informal

 

481

1.4

-1.4

Total

 

35158

84.9

-9.4

         
         

Curtin (WA)

19.4.69

 

Enrolled 44829

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Garland RV *

LP

17983

50.5

-9.4

Jones HG

ALP

11047

31.0

+0.7

Scoggins RC

Ind

6586

18.5

+18.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Garland RV *

LP

21276

59.7

-7.1

Jones HG

ALP

14340

40.3

+7.1

         

Formal

 

35616

98.3

+2.1

Informal

 

608

1.7

-2.1

Total

 

36224

80.8

-13.8

         
         

Bendigo (Vic)

7.6.69

 

Enrolled 44172

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Brennan PG

DLP

5710

12.9

+0.3

Cambridge RW

LP

15106

34.2

-1.6

Candler C

Ind

595

1.3

+1.3

Hutchinson LJ

Ind

2750

6.2

+6.2

Kennedy AD *

ALP

20011

45.3

-6.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Cambridge RW

LP

21751

49.2

+2.1

Kennedy AD *

ALP

22421

50.8

-2.1

         

Formal

 

44172

98.5

0.0

Informal

 

693

1.5

0.0

Total

 

44865

93.6

-2.6

         
         

Gwydir (NSW)

7.6.69

 

Enrolled 45104

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Hunt RJD *

CP

21113

53.6

-7.7

Nott RB

ALP

18293

46.4

+7.7

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hunt RJD *

CP

21113

53.6

-7.7

Nott RB

ALP

18293

46.4

+7.7

         

Formal

 

39406

99.0

+0.8

Informal

 

394

1.0

-0.8

Total

 

39800

88.2

-6.5

         
         

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

30.5.70

 

Enrolled 64482

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bellchambers EC

Ind

438

0.8

+0.8

Cawthron RE

NSP

173

0.3

+0.3

Christie TJ

DLP

1857

3.3

+3.3

Enderby KE *

ALP

20132

35.6

-32.1

Fitzgerald AJ

AP

9914

17.5

+12.9

Hermes CL

LP

15900

28.1

+1.3

Pead JH

Ind

8151

14.4

+14.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Enderby KE *

ALP

32690

57.8

-13.8

Hermes CL

LP

23875

42.2

+13.8

         

Formal

 

56565

96.9

-1.3

Informal

 

1813

3.1

+1.3

Total

 

58378

90.5

-2.4

         
         

Chisholm (Vic)

19.9.70

 

Enrolled 56737

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Costigan FX

ALP

15335

33.5

-0.6

Morrow AE

AP

1501

3.3

-0.6

Nilsen RN

DOGS

4138

9.0

+9.0

Staley AA *

LP

24767

54.2

+1.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Costigan FX

ALP

18568

40.6

+2.8

Staley AA *

LP

27173

59.4

-2.8

         

Formal

 

45741

98.4

+0.5

Informal

 

756

1.6

-0.5

Total

 

46497

82.0

-12.8

         
         

Murray (Vic)

20.3.71

 

Enrolled 49856

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Flynn MT

Ind

535

1.2

+1.2

Hunter WB

LP

9622

21.0

+21.0

Lacey BV

DLP

4316

9.4

-0.2

Lloyd EB *

CP

19710

43.0

-10.2

Riordan JA

ALP

11670

25.4

+2.2

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Lloyd EB *

CP

32306

70.5

-0.4

Riorden JA

ALP

13547

29.5

+0.4

         

Formal

 

45853

97.6

+0.6

Informal

 

1116

2.4

-0.6

Total

 

46969

94.2

-2.7

         
         

Parramatta (NSW)

22.9.73

 

Enrolled 73679

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Aussie-Stone MD

Ind

363

0.6

+0.6

Bellchambers EC

Ind

53

0.1

+0.1

Butterworth JH

AP

3522

5.5

+2.0

Hourihan ME

DOGS

528

0.8

-1.0

Kiernan LJ

Ind

30

. .

. .

Lister GD

Ind

65

0.1

+0.1

May R

NSP

37

0.1

+0.1

McGarrity S

Ind

325

0.5

+0.5

Meares KJ

Ind

25

. .

 

Pye MN

Ind

575

0.9

+0.9

Ruddock PM *

LP

33506

52.6

+6.6

Whelan MJ

ALP

24623

38.7

-7.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Ruddock PM *

LP

36228

56.9

+6.6

Whelan MT

ALP

27424

43.1

-6.6

         

Formal

 

63652

97.7

-0.1

Informal

 

1493

2.3

+0.1

Total

 

65145

88.4

-7.3

         
         

Bass (Tas)

28.6.75

 

Enrolled 46744

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Aussie-Stone MD

Ind

243

0.6

+0.6

Kent P

Ind

904

2.1

+2.1

Macrostie JT *

ALP

15609

36.5

-17.5

Negus SA

Ind

124

0.3

+0.3

Newman KE

LP

24638

57.6

+11.6

Petrosky VK

UTG

1272

3.0

+3.0

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Macrostie JT *

ALP

16880

39.4

-14.6

Newman KE

LP

25910

60.6

+14.6

         

Formal

 

42790

98.2

+0.2

Informal

 

773

1.8

-0.2

Total

 

43563

93.2

-2.9

         
         

Cunningham (NSW)

15.10.77

 

Enrolled 76620

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Dezelin R

Ind

1136

1.8

+1.8

Griffin TJ

LP

20748

32.1

-4.3

Nixon MF

Com

1236

1.9

+1.9

Sampson RW

Dem

5011

7.8

+7.8

West SJ *

ALP

36425

56.4

-5.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Griffin TJ

LP

24007

37.2

-0.3

West SJ *

ALP

40549

62.8

+0.3

         

Formal

 

64556

97.2

-0.8

Informal

 

1888

2.8

+0.8

Total

 

66444

86.7

-9.3

         
         

Werriwa (NSW)

23.9.78

 

Enrolled 59897

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Garcia JA

SWP

1081

1.8

+1.8

Kerin JC *

ALP

40272

67.2

+11.7

Olson KN

Dem

3774

6.3

-2.7

Penninger HR

NAP

214

0.4

+0.4

Sadler WP

LP

14556

24.3

-9.6

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Kerin JC *

ALP

43185

72.1

+11.3

Sadler WP

LP

16712

27.9

-11.3

         

Formal

 

59897

98.2

+1.4

Informal

 

1093

1.8

-1.4

Total

 

60990

81.7

-13.4

         
         

Grayndler (NSW)

23.6.79

 

Enrolled 67726

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bellchambers EC

Ind

1051

2.1

+2.1

Duncan SJE

VOTE

1845

3.7

+3.7

Keig JE

SWP

591

1.2

+1.2

Kirkman SR

Dem

1848

3.7

-3.5

McLeay LB *

ALP

30764

61.8

+4.1

Salter FK

NA

863

1.7

+1.7

Vasseleou V

LP

12161

24.4

-9.0

Vouros F

SPA

665

1.3

-0.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

McLeay LB *

ALP

34635

69.6

+6.9

Vasseleou V

LP

15153

30.4

-6.9

         

Formal

 

49788

94.7

-2.0

Informal

 

2806

5.3

+2.0

Total

 

52594

77.7

-14.3

         
         

Boothby (SA)

21.2.81

 

Enrolled 80404

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Arkins D

UWU

544

0.8

+0.8

Gard A

Ind

555

0.9

+0.9

Hall RS *

LP

36406

56.7

+0.5

Hercus RW

Dem

9188

14.3

+1.2

Herreen JD

PCP

398

0.6

-0.4

Whyatt JB

ALP

17108

26.6

-3.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hall RS *

LP

40830

63.6

-1.2

Whyatt JB

ALP

23369

36.4

+1.2

         

Formal

 

64199

97.7

-0.4

Informal

 

1480

2.3

+0.4

Total

 

65679

81.7

-12.7

         
         

Curtin (WA)

21.2.81

 

Enrolled 64512

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Busell AD

Ind

1843

3.8

+3.8

Crouch J

ALP

15644

32.1

-0.7

de la Hunty SB

Dem

8356

17.1

+8.8

Rocher AC *

LP

22951

47.0

-11.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Crough J

ALP

21732

44.5

+7.5

Rocher AC *

LP

27062

55.5

-7.5

         

Formal

 

48794

96.7

-1.1

Informal

 

1664

3.3

+1.1

Total

 

50458

78.2

-14.8

         
         

McPherson (Qld)

21.2.81

 

Enrolled 86139

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Aabraham-Steer W

Ind

512

0.7

-1.1

Chaffey KD

PP

537

0.8

+0.8

Courtney P

Ind

290

0.4

+0.4

Giesberts H

Ind

469

0.7

+0.7

McKenna RP

ALP

18278

25.7

-5.1

Sheil G

NP

21189

29.8

+29.8

White PND *

LP

29776

41.9

-1.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

McKenna RP

ALP

21445

30.2

-16.2

White PND *

LP

49606

69.8

+16.2

         

Formal

 

71051

97.8

+0.1

Informal

 

1575

2.2

-0.1

Total

 

72626

84.3

-8.3

         
         

Wentworth (NSW)

11.4.81

 

Enrolled 69972

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bussell AD

Ind

534

1.1

+1.1

Coleman WP *

LP

22736

48.1

-12.4

Kersey JS

Dem

2186

4.6

-1.6

More WL

Ind

176

0.4

+0.4

Roach WE

Ind

92

0.2

+0.2

Tickner RE

ALP

16637

35.2

+1.9

Wentworth KW

ILib

4923

10.4

+10.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Coleman WP *

LP

27136

57.4

-6.2

Tickner RE

ALP

20148

42.6

+6.2

         

Formal

 

47284

97.2

-0.3

Informal

 

1349

2.8

+0.3

Total

 

48633

69.5

-19.0

         
         

Lowe (NSW)

13.3.82

 

Enrolled 71140

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Bellchambers EC

Ind

460

0.8

+0.8

Cameron RJ

Ind

116

0.2

+0.2

Consandine PW

CRep

405

0.7

+0.7

Gustin M

Ind

729

1.2

+1.2

Kirkham SR

Dem

2495

4.1

+1.1

Lee M

Ind

144

0.2

+0.2

Maher MJ

ALP

32717

53.4

+7.0

Martin FE

Ind

49

0.1

+0.1

Penninger J

Ind

56

0.1

+0.1

Taylor PJ

LP

23637

38.6

-10.2

Webeck RJ

Ind

27

. .

. .

Wentworth KW

Ind

462

0.8

0.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Maher MJ

ALP

35188

57.4

+8.5

Taylor PJ *

LP

26109

42.6

-8.5

         

Formal

 

61297

97.7

-0.4

Informal

 

2091

3.3

+0.4

Total

 

63388

89.1

-4.9

         
         

Flinders (Vic)

4.12.82

 

Enrolled 84782

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Consandine PW

CRep

607

0.8

+0.8

Crossley PM

DSP

1211

1.6

+1.6

Farrell G

AP

389

0.5

+0.5

Ferwerda PA

DLP

1271

1.7

+1.7

Fraser HA

Dem

6785

8.9

-1.6

Reith PK *

LP

34756

45.7

-4.6

Ward RJ

ALP

31052

40.8

+1.6

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Reith PK *

LP

39804

52.3

-3.3

Ward RJ

ALP

36276

47.7

+3.3

         

Formal

 

76080

97.4

-0.7

Informal

 

1991

2.6

+0.7

Total

 

78071

92.1

-3.0

         
         

Wannon (Vic)

7.5.83

 

Enrolled 69466

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Genardini NM

ALP

23069

36.1

-1.1

Hallam RM

NP

14290

22.3

+22.3

Hawker DPM *

LP

26631

41.6

-16.0

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Genardini NM

ALP

25060

39.2

-1.5

Hawker DPM *

LP

38930

60.8

+1.5

         

Formal

 

63990

99.2

+0.5

Informal

 

527

0.8

-0.5

Total

 

64517

92.9

-4.1

         
         

Bruce (Vic)

28.5.83

 

Enrolled 81668

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Aldred KJ *

LP

35849

48.5

+0.6

Fogarty PA

PP

105

0.1

+0.1

Johnson MR

Dem

4769

6.5

-1.3

Kapphan W

Ind

111

0.2

+0.2

Mulholland JV

DLP

1621

2.2

+2.2

O'Connor HW

ALP

31354

42.4

-1.9

Thiele B

AC

94

0.1

+0.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Aldred KJ *

LP

40259

54.5

+3.8

O'Connor WH

ALP

33644

45.5

-3.8

         

Formal

 

73903

98.3

. .

Informal

 

1266

1.7

. .

Total

 

75169

92.0

-5.2

         
         

Moreton (Qld)

5.11.83

 

Enrolled 67335

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Cameron DM *

LP

31440

52.1

+5.4

Eather NL

APPG

508

0.8

+0.8

Platen MJ

NHP

252

0.4

+0.4

Robson BL

ALP

28130

46.6

+1.1

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Cameron DM *

LP

31882

52.8

+1.2

Robson BL

ALP

28448

47.2

-1.2

         

Formal

 

60330

98.9

+0.4

Informal

 

655

1.1

-0.4

Total

 

60985

90.6

-2.0

         
         

Corangamite (Vic)

18.2.84

 

Enrolled 75571

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Lam JK

DLP

1336

1.9

+1.9

McArthur FS *

LP

32083

46.7

-11.3

O'Connor GM

ALP

25517

37.1

-4.9

Seymour DCG

NP

9794

14.3

+14.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

McArthur FS *

LP

40837

59.3

+1.3

O'Connor GM

ALP

27893

40.7

-1.3

         

Formal

 

68730

98.4

+0.1

Informal

 

1096

1.6

-0.1

Total

 

69826

92.4

-4.7

         
         

Hughes (NSW)

18.2.84

 

Enrolled 83072

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Hellyer RK

Dem

4065

5.8

-3.3

Johnson L

Ind

1393

2.0

+2.0

Mason CB

LP

22962

32.7

+4.3

Saleam J

ANAG

970

1.4

+1.4

Tickner RE *

ALP

40728

58.1

-3.5

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Mason CB

LP

25956

37.0

+5.0

Tickner RE *

ALP

44162

63.0

-5.0

         

Formal

 

70118

97.9

-0.3

Informal

 

1486

2.1

+0.3

Total

 

71604

86.2

-9.9

         
         

Richmond (NSW)

18.2.84

 

Enrolled 90494

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Blunt CW *

NP

26972

33.8

-19.2

Bucks F

Ind

3657

4.6

+4.6

Carmont PW

ALP

28914

36.2

-3.5

Clough SD

Dem

2587

3.2

-4.1

Griffin DA

Ind

469

0.6

+0.6

Pezzutti BPV

LP

16948

21.2

+21.2

Ponnuswamy M

UM

290

0.4

+0.4

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Blunt CW *

NP

44528

55.8

-0.5

Carmont PW

ALP

35309

44.2

+0.5

         

Formal

 

79837

98.3

-0.4

Informal

 

1383

1.7

+0.4

Total

 

81220

89.8

-5.6

         
         

Scullin (Vic)

8.2.86

 

Enrolled 62448

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Cichello D

LP

11741

22.9

+4.4

Privitelli J

Dem

3727

7.3

+0.6

Mulholland JV

DLP

924

1.8

+1.8

Jenkins HA *

ALP

34021

66.3

-5.2

Sibelle M

SWP

930

1.8

+1.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Cichello D

LP

13770

26.8

+4.4

Jenkins HA *

ALP

37562

73.2

-4.4

Exhausted

 

11

   
         

Formal

 

51343

93.9

+0.8

Informal

 

3318

6.1

-8.0

Total

 

54661

87.5

-7.7

         
         

Adelaide (SA)

6.2.88

 

Enrolled 73750

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Mewett BR

Ind

1408

2.3

+2.3

Consandine P

Ind

104

0.2

+0.2

Brander M

Ind

409

0.7

+0.7

Litten JD

Ind

367

0.6

+0.6

McLiesh I

Dem

7097

11.8

+2.7

McGregor-Dey D

UAP

218

0.4

-0.2

Stokes B

NP

1000

1.7

-3.4

Farrell D *

ALP

22897

38.0

-10.9

Pratt M

LP

26777

44.4

+8.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Farrell D *

ALP

28967

48.1

-8.4

Pratt M

LP

31195

51.9

+8.4

Exhausted

 

115

   
         

Formal

 

60277

96.1

+3.7

Informal

 

2431

3.9

-3.7

Total

 

62708

85.0

-7.6

         
         

Port Adelaide (SA)

26.3.88

 

Enrolled 72571

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Chaplin T

Ind

2385

3.8

+3.8

Brander M

Ind

438

0.7

+0.7

Fuller J

LP

23818

37.7

+9.1

Sawford R *

ALP

29773

47.1

-14.2

Deering B

Ind

412

0.7

+0.7

Lees M

Dem

4506

7.1

+1.0

Hammond R

Ind

1142

1.8

+1.8

Auer J

Ind

743

1.2

+1.2

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Fuller J

LP

28276

44.8

+11.1

Sawford R *

ALP

34885

55.2

-11.1

Exhausted

 

56

   
         

Formal

 

63217

95.7

+4.9

Informal

 

2865

4.3

-4.9

Total

 

66082

91.1

-2.6

         
         

Groom (Qld)

9.4.88

 

Enrolled 71402

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Carew MJ

Dem

3474

5.6

+0.2

Dwyer LA

ALP

14973

24.2

-8.2

Taylor B

LP

20651

33.3

+20.0

Russell DG *

NP

17814

28.8

-20.1

Consandine P

Ind

369

0.6

+0.6

Burke VJ

Ind

4661

7.5

+7.5

         

Final Count

       

Taylor B

LP

38651

62.4

 

Russell DG *

NP

23271

37.6

 

Exhausted

 

20

   
         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Dwyer LA

ALP

19797

32.0

-5.2

Taylor B

LP

42129

68.0

+5.2

Exhausted

 

16

   
         

Formal

 

61942

98.6

+1.5

Informal

 

889

1.4

-1.5

Total

 

62831

88.0

-5.4

         
         

Oxley (Qld)

8.10.88

 

Enrolled 67125

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Darby M

Ind

3345

5.8

+5.8

Kuhne OE

Ind

353

0.6

+0.6

Hoffenstz B

NP

9876

17.1

-3.1

Cooke D

LP

15853

27.4

+12.6

Scott L *

ALP

28427

49.1

-10.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Cooke D

LP

27134

46.9

+11.8

Scott L *

ALP

30705

53.1

-11.8

Exhausted

 

15

   
         

Formal

 

57854

97.4

+0.6

Informal

 

1563

2.6

-0.6

Total

 

59417

88.5

-3.5

         
         

Gwydir (NSW)

15.4.89

 

Enrolled 69709

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Anderson J *

NP

31209

56.0

-1.2

O'Regan B

Ind

9881

17.7

+17.7

Uebergang J

Ind

14660

26.3

+26.3

         

Formal

 

55750

95.3

-1.2

Informal

 

2768

4.7

+1.2

Total

 

58518

83.9

-10.9

         
         

Menzies (Vic)

11.5.91

 

Enrolled 72518

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Andrews KJ *

LP

40164

67.7

+9.3

McCormack D

AFI

4055

6.8

+6.8

Barnard J

Ind

2035

3.4

+3.4

Peak K

Dem

13070

20.0

+8.4

         

Final Count

       

Andrews KJ *

LP

42719

72.0

 

Peak K

Dem

16578

28.0

 

Exhausted

 

17

   
         

Formal

 

59314

95.0

-1.9

Informal

 

3103

5.0

+1.9

Total

 

62417

86.1

-10.5

         
         

Wills (Vic)

11.4.92

 

Enrolled 76217

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Savage K

Ind

1660

2.6

+2.6

Kardimitsis B *

ALP

18784

29.4

-19.3

Kuhn OE

Ind

35

0.1

+0.1

Phillips R

Ind

136

0.2

+0.2

Kapphan W

Ind

34

0.1

+0.1

Rawson G

Ind

453

0.7

+0.7

Delacretaz J

LP

17582

27.6

-6.9

Poulos P

Ind

61

0.1

+0.1

Droulers JP

Ind

68

0.1

+0.1

French B

Ind

90

0.1

+0.1

Potter FC

Ind

30

0.1

+0.1

Murray J

Ind

54

0.1

+0.1

Vassis C

Ind

43

0.1

+0.1

Cleary P

Ind

21391

33.5

+33.5

Ferraro S

Ind

221

0.3

+0.3

Germaine S

FPA

280

0.4

+0.4

Walker A

AFI

577

0.9

+0.9

Markay D

Dem

1383

2.2

-7.4

Lewis B

Ind

216

0.3

+0.3

Sykes IG

Ind

364

0.6

-0.9

Kyrou K

Ind

81

0.1

+0.1

Murgatroyd

Ind

258

0.4

-0.1

         

Final Count

       

Kardimitsis B *

ALP

21772

34.3

 

Cleary P

Ind

41708

65.7

 

Exhausted

 

321

   
         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Kardimitsis B *

ALP

40416

63.8

+5.9

Delacretaz J

LP

22942

36.2

-5.9

Exhausted

       
         

Formal

 

63801

93.6

. .

Informal

 

4348

6.4

. .

Total

 

68149

89.4

-4.9

         
         

Werriwa (NSW)

29.1.94

 

Enrolled 74512

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

MacAllister GM

Ind

1111

1.8

+1.8

Latham M *

ALP

30337

50.1

-11.3

Kammoun A

Ind

378

0.6

+0.6

Lynn C

LP

20466

33.8

+3.3

Spencer RM

AFI

4384

7.2

+7.2

Moon J

Ind

3199

5.3

+5.3

Keegel EL

Ind

188

0.3

+0.3

Corbett MR

Ind

458

0.8

+0.8

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Latham M *

ALP

35972

59.5

-6.3

Lynne C

LP

24500

40.5

+6.3

Exhausted

 

49

   
         

Formal

 

60521

94.8

-1.2

Informal

 

3318

5.2

+1.2

Total

 

63839

85.6

-9.6

         
         

Fremantle (WA)

12.3.94

 

Enrolled 74721

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Conder RN

Ind

1506

2.4

+2.4

Hourn G

LP

23047

36.9

-1.8

Walker S

GWA

5215

8.3

+1.5

Lawrence C *

ALP

32707

52.4

+2.2

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Hourn G

LP

25715

41.2

-1.0

Lawrence C *

ALP

36745

58.8

+1.0

Exhausted

 

15

   
         

Formal

 

62475

97.4

+0.4

Informal

 

1669

2.6

-0.4

Total

 

64144

85.8

-10.3

         
         

Bonython (SA)

19.3.94

 

Enrolled 77469

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

McCormack D

AFI

4323

6.8

+6.8

Bell G

Gry

4659

7.4

+7.4

Evans M *

ALP

29097

45.9

-9.7

Markwell A

LP

20398

32.2

+3.5

Webb J

Ind

923

1.5

+1.5

Newey P

Dem

3960

6.2

-3.2

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Evans M *

ALP

36013

56.9

-7.8

Markwell A

LP

27284

43.1

+7.8

Exhausted

 

63

   
         

Formal

 

63360

94.5

-0.2

Informal

 

3722

5.5

+0.2

Total

 

67082

86.6

-8.0

         
         

Warringah (NSW)

26.3.94

 

Enrolled 78174

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

         

First Preference Votes

       

Spencer RM

AFI

8446

13.5

+13.5

Abbott T *

LP

34440

55.2

-0.9

Halnan J

Ind

9564

15.3

+15.3

Anderson T

Dem

9932

15.9

+11.6

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Abbott T *

LP

41063

65.8

 

Anderson T

Dem

21311

34.2

 

Exhausted

 

8

   
         

Formal

 

62382

96.4

-1.2

Informal

 

2339

3.6

+1.2

Total

 

64721

82.8

-12.7

         
         

Mackellar (NSW)

26.3.94

 

Enrolled 78932

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

McLeod FE

Grn

3940

5.9

+5.9

Consandine P

RPA

586

0.9

+0.9

Wells SR

Ind

2063

3.1

+3.1

Ellis B

Ind

15501

23.1

+23.1

Phillips J

AFI

5464

8.2

+8.2

Bigot G

 

582

0.9

+0.9

Johnson B

Dem

3851

5.7

-1.4

Bishop B *

LP

34999

52.2

-4.4

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Ellis B

Ind

26587

39.7

 

Bishop B *

LP

40328

60.3

 

Exhausted

 

71

   
         

Formal

 

66986

96.8

-0.2

Informal

 

2181

3.2

+0.2

Total

 

69167

87.6

-8.2

         
         

Kooyong (Vic)

19.11.94

 

Enrolled 72441

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Cotton Y

Ind

2004

3.5

+3.5

Tobias PF

Ind

518

0.9

+0.9

Boffa G

Ind

955

1.7

+1.7

Greagg DLJ

 

686

1.2

-0.2

Georgiou P *

LP

32872

56.9

-4.2

Walker A

AFI

4573

7.9

+7.9

Singer P

Grn

16202

28.0

+28.0

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Georgiou P *

LP

36964

64.0

 

Singer P

Grn

20766

36.0

 

Exhausted

 

80

   
         

Formal

 

57810

96.4

-1.1

Informal

 

2166

3.6

+1.1

Total

 

59976

82.8

-1.3

         
         

Canberra (ACT)

25.3.95

 

Enrolled 99295

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Clarke J

Ind

2274

2.7

+2.7

Robinson S *

ALP

25689

30.5

-21.8

Cotta J

RPA

1003

1.2

+1.2

Spencer R

AFI

3515

4.2

+4.2

Warden J

Grn

10835

12.9

+12.9

Smyth B

LP

39021

46.3

+10.1

Gray-Grzeszkiewicz J

Ind

1956

2.3

+2.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Robinson S *

ALP

36577

43.4

-16.1

Smyth B

LP

47672

56.6

+16.1

Exhausted

 

44

   
         

Formal

 

84293

96.5

-0.7

Informal

 

3095

3.5

+0.7

Total

 

87388

88.0

-9.0

         
         

Wentworth (NSW)

8.4.95

 

Enrolled 78880

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Matson A

Grn

15120

26.0

+26.0

Hooper J

 

1317

2.3

+2.3

Thomson A *

LP

30677

52.8

+0.1

Wentworth WC

Ind

10945

18.9

+18.9

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Matson M

Grn

19793

34.1

 

Thomson A *

LP

38252

65.9

 

Exhausted

 

14

   
         

Formal

 

58059

96.0

-1.1

Informal

 

2392

4.0

+1.1

Total

 

60451

76.6

-17.9

         
         

Blaxland (NSW)

15.6.96

 

Enrolled 79714

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Hutchinson J

RARI

5771

9.0

+9.0

Baird N

Ind

1499

2.3

+2.3

Spencer A

 

499

0.8

+0.8

Pahme M

CTA

2782

4.3

+3.0

Reid B

Ind

750

1.2

+1.2

Kennedy M

 

388

0.6

+0.6

Kearney V

Grn

3148

4.9

+4.9

Aussie-Stone M

Ind

298

0.5

+0.1

Cogger L

NLP

224

0.3

+0.1

Sayegh P

Ind

2334

3.6

+2.6

Hatton M *

ALP

37804

58.8

+0.1

Krumins P

AFI

8759

13.6

+10.9

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Hutchinson J

RARI

19800

30.9

 

Hatton M *

ALP

44188

69.1

 

Exhausted

 

268

   
         

Formal

 

64256

92.7

-0.7

Informal

 

5092

7.3

+0.7

Total

 

69348

87.0

-9.1

         
         

Lindsay (NSW)

19.10.96

 

Enrolled 81659

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Grigg B

CTA

1254

1.8

-0.4

Kelly J *

LP

34840

49.2

+6.7

Franich R

ASP

2042

2.9

+2.9

Free R

ALP

23758

33.6

-6.8

Townsend V

Ind

4224

6.0

+3.2

Grim-Reaper S

Ind

270

0.4

+0.4

Peacey R

Ind

156

0.2

+0.2

Vella K

Ind

933

1.3

+1.3

Archibald D

FLR

150

0.2

+0.2

Aird V

Ind

488

0.7

+0.7

Lear S

Dem

1182

1.7

-4.9

Edwards L

Grn

1502

2.1

-1.3

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Kelly J *

LP

39941

56.6

+5.0

Free R

ALP

30684

43.4

-5.0

Exhausted

 

174

   
         

Formal

 

70799

96.4

-0.1

Informal

 

2678

3.6

+0.1

Total

 

73477

90.0

-6.1

         
         

Fraser (ACT)

1.2.97

 

Enrolled 65687

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Chu A

Ind

4135

7.8

+7.8

von Behrens D

Grn

5584

10.6

+0.7

Walker A

AFI

1870

3.5

+3.5

Dargavel S *

ALP

25867

49.1

-1.4

Hill C

Ind

9642

18.3

+18.3

Bernard J

Ind

189

0.4

+0.4

Miller J

CTA

1766

3.4

+3.4

Hutchinson J

RARI

1228

2.3

+2.3

Connor K

AAP

490

0.9

+0.9

Clarke J

Ind

455

0.9

+0.9

Thompson D

Ind

1456

2.8

+2.8

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Dargavel S *

ALP

34279

65.2

 

Hill C

Ind

18261

34.8

 

Exhausted

 

142

   
         

Formal

 

52682

94.1

-2.7

Informal

 

3313

5.9

+2.7

Total

 

55995

85.2

-11.6

         
         

Holt (Vic)

6.11.99

 

Enrolled 84725

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Mulholland J

DLP

5404

7.3

+7.3

Scoullar D

Grn

4701

6.4

+6.4

Dickson L

CTA

4399

6.0

+4.2

Morgan P

Dem

10896

14.7

+8.7

Byrne A *

ALP

48499

65.6

+5.8

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Morgan

Dem

20650

27.9

 

Byrne A *

ALP

53249

72.1

 
         

Formal

 

73899

92.8

-2.7

Informal

 

5727

7.2

+2.7

Total

 

79626

94.0

-1.2

         
         

Isaacs (Vic)

12.8.00

 

Enrolled 81329

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Brook P

FST

3270

5.4

+4.9

Fletcher H

Dem

10540

17.3

+11.4

Hutchison M

Grn

5539

9.1

+7.0

King G

DLP

1832

3.0

+3.0

Wesley C

IND

5329

8.7

+8.7

Corcoran A *

ALP

34483

56.5

+8.1

         

Two Candidate Preferred Votes

       

Fletcher H

Dem

20715

34.0

 

Corcoran A *

ALP

40278

66.0

 
         

Formal

 

60993

91.8

-4.6

Informal

 

5420

8.2

+4.6

Total

 

66413

81.7

-14.5

         
         

Ryan (Qld)

17.3.01

 

Enrolled 87634

Candidate

Party

Votes

%

Swing

First Preference Votes

       

Short L

ALP

29173

38.7

+8.3

Stagg W

Ind

440

0.6

+0.6

Hyland T

Ind

822

1.1

+1.1

Moore J

Ind

1351

1.8

+1.8

Hassall A

CTA

955

1.3

+1.3

Stasse M

Grn

4608

6.1

+2.3

Tucker B *

LP

32571

43.2

-7.2

Freemarijuana N

HMP

1685

2.2

+2.2

Dengate L

Dem

3808

5.0

-2.9

         

Two Party Preferred Votes

       

Short L

ALP

37834

50.2

+9.7

Tucker B *

LP

37579

49.8

-9.7

         

Formal

 

75413

97.0

-0.7

Informal

 

2304

3.0

+0.7

Total

 

77717

88.7

-5.7

 

 

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