Australia wins seat on United Nations Security Council: what next?

Parliament house flag post

Australia wins seat on United Nations Security Council: what next?

Posted 19/10/2012 by Nina Markovic

In the early hours of this morning (local time), Australia received 140 votes from United Nations General Assembly members to secure a seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for its 2013–14 term. The result has been welcomed by both the Government and the Opposition. Australia’s Foreign Minister, Senator Bob Carr, has described the win as a tribute to Australia’s global standing: ‘it’s the world saying, we see Australia as a good country, a fine global citizen’, he said, thanking Pacific, African and Caribbean nations in particular for their support.

The 15-member UNSC is the principal organ under the UN Charter responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It is the primary mediation body during major international crises and is responsible for overseeing UN peacekeeping operations. Its powers also include authorising the use of force and binding sanctions, proscribing terrorist organisations, and appointing special investigators to examine critical issues that affect global security. Australia, a founding member of the UN, has served on the UNSC for four terms (1946–1947, 1956–1957, 1973–1974 and 1985–1986). In 1996, Australia failed in its bid for the 1997–98 term.

In March 2008, Australia’s then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced, in New York, the Government’s intention to seek a non-permanent seat on the UNSC for the 2013–14 term. The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) moved quickly to establish a Security Council Campaign Taskforce and to provide more resources to Australia’s UN diplomatic mission in New York. In October 2010, Mr Rudd, then Foreign Minister, announced the appointment of Bob McMullan (for Africa) and Bill Fisher (for Francophone countries) as Special Envoys for Australia’s UNSC candidacy. A former Liberal Senator and Special Envoy for Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Caucasus, Dr Russell Trood, also assisted the campaign. A brochure outlining the rationale behind Australia’s entry into the race (six and seven years later than Finland and Luxembourg respectively) is available here.

The Australian Institute for International Affairs (AIIA) has published a useful set of background documents on Australia and the UN, which contains key speeches and reflections by other countries that have served on the UNSC.

The vote

In order to win a non-permanent seat on the UNSC alongside the five permanent representatives which have the veto power (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), each contender needed to secure at least two-thirds of votes cast by members present and voting in the General Assembly session (or a minimum of 129 votes if all 193 members are voting). A more detailed overview of the UNSC elections is available here.

In accordance with its established procedures, the UN General Assembly voted on 18 October 2012 in a secret ballot for the five available positions from the UN’s four geographical groups– Africa, Asia-Pacific, the Group of Latin American and Caribbean States (GRULAC) and the West European and Others (WEOG). Australia belongs to the WEOG group, where its rivals for the two available seats were Finland and Luxembourg, both European Union members. Luxembourg, which has never held a seat on the UNSC, won the other WEOG seat in a second round of voting, beating Finland. Rwanda (Africa) and Argentina (GRULAC) won unopposed in their respective groups. In the Asia-Pacific group, the competition was fiercer: Bhutan, Cambodia and the Republic of Korea competed for one seat, with the Republic of Korea winning the vote.

Commentary during the campaign

The Federal Opposition has hailed this ‘expensive victory’ for Australia. During the bid, however, the Coalition criticised the campaign. Its major criticism concerned the way money from foreign affairs and aid budgets was being allocated in the lead-up to the vote.

Senator Helen Kroger, speaking one day before the vote, said the Australian diplomatic campaign, which is estimated to have cost around A$25 million over five years, was often ‘patchy, unfocused’ and lacking a clear strategic direction, including from within DFAT as the coordinating agency.

The Leader of the Opposition, Tony Abbott, whilst endorsing the campaign in the final stage, was reported as saying that losing the bid would be ‘disastrous’ for Australia.

The Deputy Leader of the Opposition and Shadow Foreign Minister, Julie Bishop, criticised the Government for entering the race much later than its rivals and at a time when DFAT was severely under-funded. She said that ‘there can be benefits from gaining a temporary seat on the UNSC, although for these to be realised a nation must have a clear vision of why it is seeking membership and what it hopes to achieve’.

Former Minister for Foreign Affairs Alexander Downer predicted that Australia would most likely win.

In 2009, a survey conducted by the Lowy Institute for International Policy found that 71 per cent of surveyed Australians ‘partly’ or ‘strongly’ supported the UNSC campaign.

What next?

Prior to the vote, in her speech to the UN General Assembly on 26 September 2012, Australia’s Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, outlined some of Australia’s key priorities should we secure a non-permanent UNSC seat – the situation in Syria, the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), the Korean peninsula, Iran’s ongoing uranium enrichment activities, and the Middle East peace process. The Opposition has highlighted the need to identify clear priorities and said that it will be important for Australia ‘not to squander the opportunity at this political top table’. The Australian Greens have stated that Australia should 'use this opportunity to put addressing global warming, caring for people and controlling weapons at the top of the global security agenda'.

As noted, one of the criticisms raised during the campaign was that Australia lacked a clear plan of action should our bid succeed. Peter Jennings and Anthony Bergin from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) have suggested five areas of focus for Australia – strengthening the UN’s capacity to deal with failing states; keeping East Timor on the international agenda; building international support to help ban Improvised Explosive Devices; strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Rim; and strengthening global collaboration on cyber security.

Non-governmental organisations, such as United Nations Association of Australia (UNAA) and Oxfam, have also offered suggestions about the priorities Australia should pursue within the UNSC.

Questions have also been raised about how Australia would vote in the UNSC if the position of our key ally, the United States, was at odds with that our biggest trade partner, China.

Another question is whether DFAT will be adequately resourced to pursue Australia’s diplomatic objectives in the UNSC. Dr Jeremy Farrall, a former Political Affairs Officer with the UNSC who now works at the Australian National University, said today that ‘Australia will need to expand its diplomatic resources both in New York and in Canberra in order to play a meaningful role on the Security Council’. The Age has recently reported that DFAT is likely to seek additional funding of up to A$34 million to support its new UNSC workload.

The Australian Financial Review reported today that Prime Minister Julia Gillard has listed the war in Afghanistan, nuclear proliferation and the fight against global terror as issues Australia will pursue after it takes up its seat on 1 January 2013.

Australia will also preside over UNSC for one month in 2014.


Thank you for your comment. If it does not require moderation, it will appear shortly.

Add your comment

[Click to expand]




Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Add | Email Print

FlagPost

Flagpost is a blog on current issues of interest to members of the Australian Parliament


Parliamentary Library Logo showing Information Analysis & Advice

Archive

Syndication

Tagcloud

refugees asylum immigration Australian foreign policy Parliament climate change elections women social security Australian Bureau of Statistics Employment indigenous Australians Sport illicit drugs gambling people trafficking taxation Medicare welfare reform Australian Defence Force higher education welfare policy United Nations health financing Asia Middle East criminal law disability Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency World Anti-Doping Agency United States federal budget school education forced labour statistics Australian Electoral Commission WADA income management Industrial Relations emissions trading dental health Australia in the Asian Century steroids detention 43rd Parliament Private health insurance OECD ASADA labour force transport Law Enforcement Australian Federal Police aid people smuggling poker machines National Disability Insurance Scheme Australian Crime Commission slavery Australian Public Service constitution International Women's Day corruption Afghanistan Fair Work Act child protection Aviation debt federal election 2013 parliamentary procedure ALP New Zealand Newstart Parenting Payment Census politics High Court skilled migration election results voting mental health Federal Court terrorist groups Higher Education Loan Program HECS governance Papua New Guinea youth paid parental leave environment foreign debt gross debt net debt defence capability customs Senate doping health crime health risks multiculturalism aged care Gonski Review of Funding for Schooling sex slavery sea farers Special Rapporteur Electoral reform political parties banking firearms public policy Population violence against women domestic violence China ADRV terrorism science research and development social media pensions welfare ASIO intelligence community Australian Security Intelligence Organisation accountability public service reform Carbon Pricing Mechanism carbon tax mining military history employer employee fishing by-election European Union same sex relationships international relations coal seam gas family assistance planning Senators and Members United Nations Security Council Australian economy food vocational education and training Drugs health reform Indonesia children codes of conduct terrorist financing pharmaceutical benefits scheme Parliamentary remuneration health system money laundering early childhood education Canada Financial sector UK Parliament national security fuel disability employment Tasmania integrity transparency Australian Secret Intelligence Service sexual abuse federal state relations World Trade Organization Australia housing affordability bulk billing water renewable energy children's health health policy Governor-General US economy export liquefied natural gas foreign bribery question time speaker superannuation expertise climate Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change leadership Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry food labelling Pacific Islands reserved seats new psychoactive substances synthetic drugs UNODC carbon markets Indigenous constitutional recognition of local government local government consumer laws PISA royal commission US politics language education baby bonus Leaders of the Opposition Australia Greens federal election 2010 servitude Trafficking Protocol energy forced marriage rural and regional Northern Territory Emergency Response ministries Hung Parliament social citizenship human rights child care funding refugees immigration asylum procurement Indigenous health e-voting internet voting nsw state elections 44th Parliament 2015 ABS Age Pension Death penalty capital punishment execution Bali nine Bali bombings Trade EU China soft power education Fiji India Disability Support Pension Antarctica Diplomacy by-elections state and territories workers Bills anti-corruption fraud bribery corporate ownership whistleblower G20 economic reform innovation standards NATO Members of Parliament Scottish referendum Middle East; national security; terrorism social services Criminal Code Amendment (Misrepresentation of Age to a Minor) Bill 2013 online grooming sexual assault of minors ACT Assembly public health smoking plain packaging tobacco cigarettes Asia; Japan; international relations Work Health and Safety Migration; asylum seekers; regional processing China; United States; international relations fiscal policy Racial Discrimination Act; social policy; human rights; indigenous Australians Foreign policy Southeast Asia Israel Palestine regional unemployment asylum refugees immigration political finance donations foreign aid Economics efficiency productivity human rights; Racial Discrimination Act employment law bullying asylum seekers Animal law; food copyright Australian Law Reform Commission industry peace keeping contracts workplace policies trade unions same-sex marriage disorderly conduct retirement Parliament House standing orders public housing prime ministers election timetable sitting days First speech defence budget submarines Somalia United Kingdom GDP forestry world heritage political engagement leave loading Trade; tariffs; safeguards; Anti-dumping public interest disclosure whistleblowing Productivity Commission regulation limitation period universities Ireland cancer gene patents genetic testing suspension of standing and sessional orders animal health live exports welfare systems infant mortality middle class welfare honorary citizen railways disciplinary tribunals standard of proof World Health Organisation arts international students skilled graduate visas temporary employment visas apologies roads Italy national heritage NHMRC nutrition anti-dumping Constitutional reform referendum Rent Assistance competition policy obesity evidence law sacrament of confession US presidential election international days DFAT UN General Assembly deregulation Regulation Impact Statements administrative law small business Breaker Morant homelessness regional engagement social determinants of health abortion Youth Allowance Members suspension citizen engagement policymaking workplace health and safety Trafficking in Persons Report marine reserves hearing TAFE Victoria astronomy resources sector YMCA youth parliament alcohol Korea rebate Australian Greens presidential nomination Racial Discrimination Act entitlements political parties preselection solar hot water Financial Action Taskforce Horn of Africa peacekeeping piracy Great Barrier Reef Stronger futures political financing political education social inclusion Social Inclusion Board maritime early childhood National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care Murray-Darling Basin Iran sanctions Norway hospitals republic President Barack Obama Presidential visits ANZUS qantas counselling Korean peninsula

Show all
Show less
Back to top