From 7th to 18th December 2009, the United Nations Climate
Change Conference was held in Copenhagen. The Conference included
the fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP15) under
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
and the fifth Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of
the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP5). In general terms, the
purpose of the meeting was to establish a framework for climate
change mitigation beyond 2012.
The outcome of the meetings was the
Copenhagen Accord, which is not a legally binding treaty and
does not contain specific legally binding commitments for reducing
CO2 emissions. However, the UN Secretary
General Banki Moon described the accord as an “essential
beginning” which, he was reported as saying, must be
transformed into a legally binding agreement in 2010.
Key points of note in the Copenhagen Accord are:
- Recognition of the scientific view that there is a need to
limit global temperatures rising to no more than 2°C above
pre-industrial levels, though this is not a formal target.
- By 31 January 2010, Annex I Parties (developed countries) are
asked to submit to the secretariat, their quantified economy-wide
emissions targets for 2020. The accord does not specify penalties
for Parties that fail to meet their pledges.
- Delivery of emissions reductions and financing by developed
countries will be measured, reported and verified in accordance
with existing and any further guidelines, which will ensure that
accounting of such targets and finance is rigorous, robust and
- By 31 January 2010, non-Annex I parties (developing countries)
shall submit to the secretariat, planned nationally appropriate
- Developing countries shall submit national reports on their
emissions pledges under clear guidelines "that will ensure that
national sovereignty is respected".
- Scaled up, new and additional funding for developing countries
to enable and support enhanced action on mitigation, adaptation,
technology development and transfer and capacity building to assist
developing countries in responding to the challenges of climate
change. For the period 2010-2012, this will involve a collective
commitment by developed countries of around USD 30 billion.
- Developed countries will mobilise jointly USD 100 billion
dollars a year by 2020 to assist developing countries in addressing
the challenges of climate change. It is envisaged that this funding
will come from a variety of sources, public and private, bilateral
- The Copenhagen Green Climate Fund shall be established to
support projects, programme, policies and other activities in
developing countries related to mitigation.
The next annual Climate Change Conference is due to be held late
2010 in Mexico and it will be preceded by a two week negotiation
session in Bonn, 31 May – 11 June 2010.
Conferences of the Parties
COP-1, The Berlin Mandate (1995)
|COP-2, Geneva, Switzerland (1996)
|COP-3, The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change (1997)
|COP-4, Buenos Aires (1998)
|COP-5, Bonn, Germany (1999)
|COP-6, The Hague, Netherlands (2000)
|COP-6bis, Bonn, Germany (2001)
|COP-7, Marrakech, Morocco (2002)
|COP-8, New Delhi, India (2003)
|COP-9, Milan, Italy (2004)
|COP-10, Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005)
|COP-11, Montreal, Canada (2005)
|COP-12, Nairobi, Kenya (2006)
|COP-13, Bali, Indonesia (2007)
Poland (2008). See also the archive from all
days including summaries of the daily press briefings; and
Linkages, which has news on COP-14.